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Microtubules in Medical News

Molecule tracking reveals mechanism of chromosome separation in dividing cells

... like a tiny wool-spinner with thin strands of microtubules or spindle fibers sticking out. The lengthening and shortening of microtubules is thought to help push and pull apart chromosome ... attachment. They emit a "wait" signal until the microtubules properly attach." Careful control over ...

Mitosis gets harder thanks to new gene discovery

... that the protein is essential for building the microtubules that allow the two halves of the cell to slide ... DNA are pulled apart in two halves by an array of microtubules centred on the centrosomes, said Dr Chalmers. Without the RASSF7 protein, the microtubules do not develop properly and cell division is ...

Key factor in brain development revealed, offers insight into disorder

... orientation of the cells mitotic spindles -- the microtubules that draw the two sets of chromosomes into ... position and, like a molecular hook, pulls the microtubules that emanate from the middle of the cell toward it. Just like a pulley, dynein draws the microtubules through it and that, in turn, rotates the ...

Extracellular protein sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy

... (Taxol), interfere with the dynamic growth of microtubules by directly binding to them and making them more ... resistance is associated with a loss of stable microtubules and that microtubule stability can be influenced ... To explore the connection between regulation of microtubules and taxane resistance, Dr. James D. Brenton from ...

Tau protein expression predicts breast cancer survival -- though not as expected

... Other studies suggested that high levels of Tau partially protect microtubules from paclitaxel binding and that low levels of the protein leave microtubules more accessible and vulnerable to the drug. "If you treat patients who ...

Appealing the death sentence for brain cells

... to a derailed train, says Prof. Gozes. The nerve cell skeleton the microtubules are like the rails, and a protein called "tau" functions like the ties ... AL-108, which could be ready in as early as 5 years, targets the microtubules and protects against amyloid plaques a characteristic of Alzheimer's ...

Motor proteins may be vehicles for drug delivery

... train at the molecular level," said William Hancock, associate professor of bioengineering, Penn State. "And it runs on cylindrical tracks -- or microtubules -- made of many protein subunits meshed together into a long polymer that is one ten thousandth the diameter of hair." Hancock and his colleagues ...

Alzheimer's molecule is a smart speed bump on the nerve-cell transport highway

... for moving other proteins from the nerve-cell synapse back to the cell body, which is also required to maintain healthy neurons. In neurons, microtubules are abundantly decorated with tau. Dynein and kinesin encounter the tau molecules on their travels along the microtubules. The Penn group found that ...

Protein-dependent 'switch' regulates intracellular trafficking in epithelial cells

... Dr. Kreitzer's team focused on four different cell membrane proteins. They knew these proteins were destined to be packed up and transported via microtubules to key spots on the surface of the epithelial cell. "We knew kinesins played a role in all that -- but did it matter which kinesin"" Dr. Kreitzer ...

UVA researchers find important clue to immune infertility

... gene family. It can be found in all men, residing in the sperm tail at the center of a structure known as the axoneme. There, it clusters around microtubules involved in sperm movement. Both men and women have RSP44 in hair-like strands, called cilia, in the bronchioles of their lungs, the ventricles of ...
Microtubules in Medical Technology

Kosan Initiates Phase 2 Trial of Epothilone KOS-1584 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

... is a member of a class of cytotoxic macrolides (epothilones) capable of causing mitotic arrest by polymerization of cellular microtubules. Since microtubules are essential for mitosis, motility, secretion and proliferation, the observed antitumor effects of epothilones have been attributed to their ability ...

ZIOPHARM Presents Unique Mechanism Data for Indibulin at AACR

... bind to neuronal specific tubulin and does not disrupt normal axonal microtubules in vitro, likely accounting for the difference with regard to ... like the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, interferes with the function of microtubules by binding to their building blocks, tubulin. However, the specific ...

EntreMed Presents Multi-Mechanism Antitumor Data for ENMD-1420 in Preclinical Models

... are necessary for cell division (mitosis), cell structure, transport, signaling and motility. Given their primary role in cell division, microtubules have been an important target for anticancer drugs -- often referred to as tubulin inhibitors or microtubule targeting agents. These compounds bind ...

Myriad Genetics Presents Azixa's Mode of Action at AACR

... to inhibit tumor growth. It is believed that Azixa selectively disrupts tumor vasculature by inhibiting the formation of microtubules. Tumors rely on microtubules to maintain the cytoskeletal structure of their new vasculature, whereas mature vascular endothelium of healthy tissue uses actin filaments ...
Microtubules in Medical Products

TAXUS Express2 Monorail Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System

Features:... Drug The unique properties of paclitaxel may contribute to the efficacy of the TAXUS Stent. Paclitaxel's multi-functional effects, stabilize microtubules and inhibit activities that contribute to restenosis. Paclitaxel is highly lipophilic, which may contribute to more uniform drug distribution. ...
Company:Boston Scientific Corporation

TAXUS Express2 Over-the-wire Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System

Features:... Drug The unique properties of paclitaxel may contribute to the efficacy of the TAXUS Stent. Paclitaxel's multi-functional effects, stabilize microtubules and inhibit activities that contribute to restenosis. Paclitaxel is highly lipophilic, which may contribute to more uniform drug distribution. ...
Company:Boston Scientific Corporation
Microtubules in Medical Dictionary

Organ

... value of life; economy; eco- organ ; ... The spindle pole body is the microtubule- organ izing center in this cell , organ izing all of the microtubules of the mitotic and meiotic spindles, and is therefore the yeast equivalent of the centrosome found in vertebrate cells. Carcinoma A type of ...
Microtubules in Biological News

The downside of microtubule stability

... Stalled microtubules might be responsible for some cases of the ... ( www.jcb.org ). A mutant protein makes the microtubules too stable to perform their jobs, the researchers ... how defective dynamin 2 hampers cells. Normal microtubules are continually extending and shrinking. ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... version of tubulin, the protein from which microtubules are built. Using advanced imaging techniques, ... between the cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules begins. The scientists were able to watch ... but is inside the cell wall and found that the microtubules not only guide where the complexes go as they ...

Scientists deconstruct cell division

... the assembly of a 'skeleton' from tube-like microtubules and the construction of a poorly defined scaffold ... matrix. Nudel binds to lamin-B and brings it to microtubules where both Nudel and dynein then help the lamin-B ... spindle matrix, in turn, works with microtubules to orchestrate spindle assembly and cell ....

Scientists identify a molecule that coordinates the movement of cells

... edge," Fuchs explains. "We found that ACF7 guides microtubules along a roadway of actin cables and leads them ... periphery. Among the cargo transported along microtubules are factors that disassemble focal adhesions. ... at Rockefeller, found that without ACF7, microtubules were no longer guided toward the focal adhesions ...

A unique arrangement for egg cell division

... spindle consisting of protein filaments, called microtubules that are part of the cells skeleton. Spindle microtubules attach themselves to the chromosomes, separate ... cells contain two centrosomes from where the microtubules originate. They predetermine the bipolar ...

Cell 'anchors' required to prevent muscular dystrophy

... site where they are made to their specific destination. Ankyrin B helps microtubules align so dystrophin molecules can travel to the membrane and then ankyrin ... Bennett explained. "I'm excited because ankyrin-B's ability to anchor microtubules could have broad implications in many cell types," Bennett said. ...

Dartmouth researchers find new protein function

... study. "Rather than moving on its own, it hitches a ride on the ends of microtubules which results in a dynamic cross-linking between the arms of chromosomes ... motors either walked along their microtubule tracks or functioned to break microtubules apart," says Jon Kull, the senior author on the paper, associate professor ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

... actin filaments, the cell membrane, and two protein complexes. microtubules are hollow protein pipes that arrange themselves in bundles down the long ... Terenna, found was that if normal yeast cells are forced to bend, their microtubules can no longer reach the old tip of the cell and so form new growth tips. ...

MIT IDs proteins key to brain function

... the growth of filopodia by regulating actin filaments interactions with microtubules in the cell (which form part of the cell skeleton). One theory is that the microtubules might be delivering materials or sending signals to the filopodia through ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... ejection forces are thought to arise out of the interaction between protein motors on the arms of chromosomes that push against cells' microtubules. microtubules are long, thin tubes that form a central component of the cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle. They serve as intracellular structural supports and ...

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Microtubules in Biological Technology

Taxol bristle ball: a wrench in the works for cancer

... of chemotherapy," Zubarev said. "In addition, we'd like to improve the effectiveness of the drug, perhaps by increasing its ability to stay bound to microtubules within the cell." Zubarev's new delivery system centers on a tiny ball of gold that's barely wider than a strand of DNA. Finding a chemical ...

A Screen of shRNAs Targeting Tumor Suppressor Genes to Identify Factors Involved in Paclitaxel Sensitivity

... potential treatment for lung carcinoma is paclitaxel. This anti-cancer agent (produced by Bristol-Meyers Oncology) functions by stabilization of microtubules so they cannot depolymerize. It effectively shifts the equilibrium in cells towards microtubule assembly, disrupting the normal operation of the ...

Assessing Gene Function with siRNA Libraries

... well-studied spindle assembly checkpoint, which monitors the correct, functional interactions between spindle microtubules and kinetochores in preparation for metaphase and subsequent anaphase onset. A second kinase siRNA that ...
Microtubules in Biological Products

Mouse Anti-MAP1 Light Chain Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone E12 from GeneTex

Description:... Mouse monoclonal [E12] to MAP1 Light Chain MAP1A and MAP1B are microtubule-associated proteins which mediate the physical interactions between microtubules and components of the cytoskeleton. MAP1A and MAP1B each consist of a heavy chain subunit and multiple light chain subunits. The protein encoded by ...
Company:GeneTex
Microtubules in Biological Definition

Anaphase

... fibres are sometimes referred to as spindle microtubules . Other spindle fibres do not contact the ... or with the cell cortex; these are astral microtubules . Anaphase begins abruptly with the ... anaphase B begins. This involves the overlap microtubules elongating and sliding relative to each other to ...

Chromosome

... where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm. (4) Long arm. A ... a chromosome, linked at the centromere . Long microtubules are attached at the centromere and two opposite ends of the cell. During mitosis, the microtubules pull the chromatids apart, so that each daughter ...

Cytoskeleton

... Filaments 1.2 Intermediate Filaments 1.3 microtubules 2 The prokaryotic cytoskeleton 2.1 ... structural support to the nuclear envelope. microtubules Main article: microtubules They are hollow cylinders of about 25 nm., ...

Flagellum

... flagellum is a bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubules doublets surrounding two central single ... the microtubule organizing center for flagellar microtubules and is about 500 nanometers long. Basal bodies ... is driven by the protein dynein bridging the microtubules all along its length and forcing them to slide ...

Mitosis

... of the cell serve as organizing centers for microtubules . During prophase, the two centrosomes — ... independently of mitosis — begin recruiting microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or ... When the spindle grows to sufficient length, the microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to. ...

Mitosis

... of the cell serve as organizing centers for microtubules . During prophase, the two centrosomes — ... independently of mitosis — begin recruiting microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or ... When the spindle grows to sufficient length, the microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to. ...

Tubulin

... Tubulin is the protein which makes up microtubules . microtubules are assembled from dimers of α- and ... binds GTP and assembles onto the (+) ends of microtubules in the GTP-bound state. Once assembled into ...

Centrosome

... point of a centriole , an organelle , is the portion of a cell where microtubules are manufactured. Its structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell ... poles of the cell. Between them is formed the spindle , a bundle of microtubules that will function later as the foundation for cell division. ...

Morphogenesis

... segments of the Drosophila embryo. Cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules are polarized within the oocyte and can be used to allow the localization ... parts of the cell. Maternally synthesized bicoid mRNAs attach to microtubules and are concentrated at the anterior ends of forming Drosophila eggs. ...

Eukaryote

... and structures, called organelles , and a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules and microfilaments , which plays an important role in defining the ... distinct from prokaryotic flagella. They are supported by a bundle of microtubules arising from a basal body, also called a kinetosome or centriole, ...

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Microtubules in Biological Dictionary

Microtubules

... microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... varying from 200 nanometers to 25 micrometers. microtubules serve as structural components within cells ... cells and perform a number of functions. microtubules are filamentous intracellular structsure that ...

Cytoskeleton

... daily ... Virtual Biology : Cytoskeleton . Are microtubules the 'nerves' of ... The eukaryotic ... page. Actin Filaments. Intermediate Filaments. microtubules ... The cytoskeleton is made up of three kinds ... microfilament cytoskeleton , the dynamics of microtubules can be ... ...

Centrioles

... are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules . ... Centrioles are ... structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis ... contains the centrioles and serves to organize microtubules ... Flies without centrioles " ... Structure ...

Centriole

... are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules . ... centriole ( ) n. One of two ... structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis ... & centrosome. Dynamic instability of microtubules ... The wall of each centriole cylinder is ...

Tubulin

... of globular proteins. ... tubulin The constituent protein of microtubules of cells which provide a skeleton for maintaining cell shape and is ... extent of polymerisation into microtubules, tubulin requires GTP. ... microtubules are polymers of tubulin , a dimer of two 55-kDa subunits, designated ......

Spindle Fibers

... out, the spindle is given another twirl, the ... These clusters of microtubules are called spindle fibers . ... The overlapping spindle fibers ... or spindles, the cell cannot divide and will eventually die. ... microtubules that makeup spindle fibers are formed by long ... In this way ...

Telophase

... II, ... Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase . Interphase ... During telophase , vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules to ... ...

Prometaphase

... of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears. microtubules emerging from the centrosomes at the poles (ends) of the spindle reach the ... ... stages are prophase, prometaphase , metaphase, ...

Mitotic spindle

... of proteins that segregates ... to which mitotic spindle protein functions and regulation are integrated with ... ... Subito localized to microtubules at the center of the mitotic spindle , probably ... with a function in mitotic spindle assembly, possibly involving the ... ... of a ...

Kinetochore

... of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears. microtubules emerging from the centrosomes at the poles (ends) of the spindle reach the ... Keywords - chromatin component, assembles the ...

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