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Effector in Medical News

NIH scientists find a novel mechanism that controls the development of autoimmunity

... of two types of T cells, regulatory and effector T cells. The former cells, also called Tregs, ... tolerance. However, the researchers noted that effector T cells also produce TGF-1. They found that furin is also needed for TGF-1 production by effector T cells and that the absence of furin in ...

Huge virulence gene superfamily responsible for devastating plant diseases

... Phytophthora sojae. The pathogen genes produce effector proteins that manipulate how plant cells work in ... genes that encode for these highly damaging effector proteins. P. sojae causes severe devastation ... and P. ramorum genomes encode large numbers of effector proteins (374 from P. ramorum and 396 from P. ...

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 10 2008

... of pathogen-aggressive immune cell known as an effector T cell that accumulates. In the study, it was ... (known as chemokines) that attracted Th2 effector cells were detectable, whereas chemokines that attracted Th1 effector cells were not detectable. Consistent with this, ...

St. Jude finds molecule that could improve cancer vaccines and therapy for other diseases

... activity of the aggressive immune cells called effector T lymphocytes. A report on this discovery appears ... are active in regulatory T cells but not in effector T cells and are critical to regulatory T cell ... genes lose much of their ability to suppress effector T cells. In addition, these regulatory T cells ...

Penn study demonstrates new way to boost immune memory

... response, meaning they are able to proliferate into an army of so-called effector cells that can clear infection. However, TRAF6-deficient CD8 T cells do ... acids when given metformin. T cells proliferating to form an army of effector cells burn glucose for their energy. Non-proliferating T cells, such as ...

OHSU vaccine research targets HIV in the slower, early stage of infection

... resistance by programming a portion of the body's immune system effector memory T-cells to look out for HIV at the site of infection. "HIV ... (CMV) programmed to express SIV proteins and trigger specialized effector memory T-cells to look for and attack SIV in its early stages. In ...

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Effector in Medical Technology

Tolerx Presents Data at 69th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association

... type 1 diabetes who have residual beta cells by blocking the function of effector T cells that mistakenly attack and destroy insulin-producing beta cells, while stimulating regulatory T cells that are understood to protect against effector T cell damage, thus preserving the beta cells' ability to make insulin. ...

Medarex Announces Preclinical Data from Multiple Research Programs Demonstrating Anti-Tumor Activity in Cancer

... anti-fucosyl-GM1 antibody, MDX-1110, demonstrated robust cytotoxic effector function (both antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and ... lead candidate, MDX-1414, was selected for its high affinity, specificity, effector function and internalization properties. MDX-1414 demonstrated ...

Tolerx Initiates Dosing of Otelixizumab, a Novel Type 1 Diabetes Agent, in DEFEND, a Phase 3 Clinical Trial

... signaling. Otelixizumab is thought to work by blocking the function of effector T cells that attack the body's tissues and cause autoimmune disease while ... T cells. It is thought that the regulatory T cells may protect against effector T cell damage well after the antibody has been eliminated from the body. ...

Tolerx Advancing Novel Type 1 Diabetes Agent into Phase III Clinical Trial Program Following End of Phase II FDA Meeting

... signaling. Otelixizumab is thought to work by blocking the function of T effector cells that attack the body's tissues and cause autoimmune disease while ... cells. It is thought that the T regulatory cells may protect against T effector cell damage well after the drug has been eliminated from the body. Tolerx ...

Tolerx Achieves Milestone with Completion of Phase Ib Clinical Study of TRX1 in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

... monoclonal antibody (MAb) that binds to the CD4 receptor found on both T effector cells and T regulatory cells. TRX1 is expected to block the activation and function of T effector cells and to favor dominance of T regulatory cells. This process, referred ...

MacroGenics and Lilly Achieve Targeted Patient Enrollment in PROTEGE, a Global Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Teplizumab in Type 1 Diabetes

... which allows the company to incorporate multiple specificities within a single molecule; and (3) Fc optimization, which enhances antibody-dependent effector functions. These powerful sets of capabilities and technology platforms have enabled MacroGenics to build a proprietary pipeline of innovative ...

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Effector in Medical Dictionary

Allergy

... s Categories. Autoimmune Diseases - Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissue s or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous ... Allergy Medications (April 28, 1999) [TREAT SPRING ALLERGIES WITH OVER-THE-COUNTER ME DIC ATIONS ...

Immunology

... s Categories. Autoimmune Diseases - Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissue s or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous ... Asthma , Allergy and Immunology Online Allergic Conjunctivitis The BBC is not responsible for ...

Lymph

... elements (e.g., ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRA VASCULAR) and chemical components (e.g. index; effect modifier; effect modifiers; effector; effector cell ; effectual; effeminacy; effeminate; effeminately; effemination; efferent; efferent duct ; efferent ductules of testis ; efferent fibres; ...
Effector in Biological News

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

... disease. They include descriptions of bacterial effector proteins, virulence factors, effector protein delivery systems, and infection by ... have developed many ingenious ways to deliver effector molecules into their hosts to facilitate ...

When acute hepatitis develops into chronic hepatitis

... between immunological defence and tolerance: effector T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg). Whilst the effector T cells fight a virus infection and kill off the ... shut down an immune reaction and cut off the effector T cells. They counteract any destruction of the ...

Special issue of BMC Microbiology spotlights standardized language for describing microbes

... effort to develop this resource. Another paper looks at how effector molecules from diverse microbes get into cells, where they reside, what ... terms to reveal similarities and differences for a specific type of effector protein in very different bacterial organisms is shown by taking a ...

Understanding plants' overactive immune system will help MU researchers build better crops

... damage than good." One way that plants fight pathogens is through effector-triggered immunity (ETI), which relies on the detection of pathogen effector proteins (proteins that are deployed by pathogens to interfere with the plant immune system). After the detection of a pathogen, specific proteins in ...

TB -- hiding in plain sight

... can evade the immune response. The related report by Rahman et al, "Compartmentalization of immune responses in human tuberculosis: few CD8+ effector T cells but elevated levels of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the granulomatous lesions," appears in the June 2009 issue of The American Journal of ...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

... a group of molecules called Src family kinases (SFKs) that, until now, were not known to be linked to Shh function. Remarkably, these novel Shh effector molecules are absolutely required for the ability of Shh to guide axons. Connecting axons with an appropriate set of targets is very complex. ...

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Effector in Biological Technology

Trubion Presents Preclinical Data on Its SCORPION(TM) Multispecific Therapeutics at the 2009 American Association of Cancer Research Annual Meeting

... of Trubion's SCORPION molecules to retain key effector functions that are known to be related to ... one binding domain, one hinge domain and one effector domain -- SCORPION therapeutics are also novel, ... long in vivo half-lives, can have other intact effector functions if appropriate, and have manufacturing ...

Micromet to Present Six Posters on Progress of BiTE Antibodies at the Annual Meeting of American Association for Cancer Research

... 8:00 AM in Hall B-F, poster section 12. Kischel, R. et al. (2009). effector memory T cells make a major contribution to redirected target cell lysis ... activity of a T cell-engaging MCSP-specific BiTE antibody at very low effector to target ratios: A new approach to treat metastatic melanoma. AACR Annual ...

Tolerx Expands Phase 3 'DEFEND' Trial of Otelixizumab in Europe

... type 1 diabetes who have residual beta cells by blocking the function of effector T cells that mistakenly attack and destroy insulin-producing beta cells, while stimulating regulatory T cells that are understood to protect against effector T cell damage, thus preserving the beta cells' normal ability to make ...

DOR BioPharma Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designation for orBec(R) for the Treatment of Chronic Gastrointestinal GVHD

... initiated by T cells in the donor graft that recognize histocompatibility and other tissue antigens of the host, and is mediated by a variety of effector cells and inflammatory cytokines. GVHD presents in both acute and chronic forms. The symptoms of cGVHD typically present at between 100 days and ...

MacroGenics Announces the Initiation of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Monoclonal Antibody MGAWN1 in Subjects with Suspected Central Nervous System Infection Due to West Nile Virus

... which allows the company to incorporate multiple specificities within a single molecule; and (3) Fc optimization, which enhances antibody-dependent effector functions. These powerful sets of capabilities and technology platforms have enabled MacroGenics to build a proprietary pipeline of innovative ...

CEL-SCI Files Patent Application to Support Company's Treatment for More Virulent Strain of H1N1 Swine and Other Influenza Viruses

... construct and I/TCBL used, CEL-SCI is able to direct the outcome of the immune response towards the development of T-cell function with primarily effector T-cell functions (T Lymphocyte; helper/effector T lymphocyte, type 1 or 2 [Th1 or Th2], cytotoxic [Tc] or suppressor [Ts]). The L.E.A.P.S. vaccine ...

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Effector in Biological Definition

Signal transduction

... through a shift in conformation. The activated effector proteins usually stay close to the membrane, or ... by a hormone can activate many downstream effector proteins. For example, a rhodopsin molecule in ... activated by a photon can activate up to 2000 effector molecules (in this case, transducin ) per ....

Apoptosis

... VDAC2, interacts with BAK to keep this potentially lethal apoptotic effector under control. When the death signal is received, products of the ... rendering the active form of caspase-9, which in turn activates effector caspase-3. ( See also the articles on caspases and the Bcl-2 protein ...

Allostery

... In biochemistry , an enzyme or other protein is allosteric if its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called ...

Allostery

... In biochemistry , an enzyme or other protein is allosteric if its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called ...

Antibody

... two primary functions: they bind antigens -- see below they combine with different immunoglobulin receptors specific for them and exert effector functions. These receptors are isotype specific, which gives a great flexibility to the immune system, because this enables that in different ...

Insulin

... in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas ) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism . Apart from being the primary effector in carbohydrate homeostasis, it also takes part in the metabolism of fat ( triglycerides ) and proteins – it has anabolic properties. It ...

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Effector in Biological Dictionary

Effector cell

... (Redirected from effector cell ) Jump to: navigation, search ... effector B cells , are white blood cells that produce ... of antibodies. ... 2 Determination of the effector T cell response. 2.1 Th1/Th2 Model for ...

Thermoregulation

... in any way, by drugs or other ... Thermoregulation refers to the mechanisms and control systems used by the body ... There are three main effector mechanisms involved in thermoregulation . ... thermoregulation n. Maintenance of a constant internal body temperature independent from the ...

Second messenger

... system is a method of cellular signaling whereby a diffusable signaling molecule is rapidly produced/secreted, which can then go on to activate effector proteins within the cell ... The Boeing Delta II rocket carrying MESSENGER lifted off from Cape Canaveral Air ... On December 12, 2005, ...

Plasma cells

... Plasma cells , also called plasma B cells , plasmocytes, and effector B cells , are white blood cells that produce large volumes of antibodies. They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. ...

Humoral immunity

... proteins in blood Humoral immunity refers to antibody production, and all the accessory processes ... Each antibody isotype has specific effector functions in humoral immunity . ... Chapter title: Humoral Immunity ... Humoral immunity is that mediated by antibodies. ... For ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... cytotoxic T cells detect fragments of the virus on ... Microscopic movie of cytotoxic . T cells killing a tumor cell (1257 kb) ... effector PROTEINS OF CD8+ T CYTOTOXIC CELL (Tc) ... Cytotoxic T cell granules contain Perforin & Granzyme, in addition to other factors. ... ...

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