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Cytoskeleton in Medical News

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 10 2008

... HEMATOLOGY: PIP5KI-gamma ensures the cytoskeleton makes a firm attachment to the cell membrane ... to move, rely on the normal functioning of the cytoskeleton that is attached to the membrane of the cell. The ... unique role in anchoring the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton of mouse megakaryocytes. Indeed, in the study, ...

Scripps research scientists find new genetic mutation that halts the development of lupus

... show that blocking CoroLmb3 has specific effects, this work suggests other cytoskeleton proteins might prove to be good targets. This opens up an area that hasnt ... more impetus to study these genes for autoimmunity. Because the actin cytoskeleton is essential for many crucial cellular functions and involves complex ...

New technique boosts protein NMR imaging speeds

... types of molecules using this new approach, including the amyloid fibrils often associated with Alzheimer's disease, larger globular proteins and cytoskeleton proteins. The new approach worked well with each type. The doping solution they added to enhance the sensitivity of samples did not change the ...

Study helps clarify role of vitamin D in cancer therapy

... one that encodes E-cadherin, a component of the adherens junctions that anchor cells in epithelial layers. The vitamin also induces effects on the cytoskeleton that are required for gene regulation and short-circuiting the Wnt/b-catenin pathway, which is overactive in most colon tumors. The net result is to ...

Cell skeleton may hold key to overcoming drug resistance in cancer

... Institute Australia for Medical Research (CCIA), led by Associate Professor Maria Kavallaris, discovered that the bIII-tubulin component of the cells cytoskeleton could play an important role in resistance to a wide range of drugs used to treat lung, ovarian and breast cancers. Advanced non-small cell lung ...

Team Discovers a Gene That Causes Familial Pancreatic Cancer

... the mutated Palladin causes cancer by causing the cytoskeleton to malfunction, which allowed the cells to move ... more quickly than normal cells. “A normal cytoskeleton holds up the cell wall, and gives it direction to ... behave,” said Brentnall. “In cancerous cells, the cytoskeleton doesn't work correctly, and instead of sitting, ...

Research in the Origin of Microtubules

... are the largest of the three main types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton -- a web of microscopic fibers inside the cell. Microtubules are the largest of the three main types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton -- a web of microscopic fibers inside the cell. They form when two ...

Study of Bacterial Pathogen may Give Insight to Cancer Development

... on Listeria monocytogenes, a cause of food poisoning. 'When Listeria contacts an epithelial cell, the bacterium causes changes in the cells cytoskeleton that allow the cell to swallow up the bacterium. We discovered that a human protein called CrkII plays a critical role in stimulating internalisation ...

Emotional Stress Could Be a Factor in Causing Alzheimers: Study

... simulated chronic stress by repeating the procedure every day for two weeks, the modification lasted long enough to let tau molecules tumble off the cytoskeleton and pile up in insoluble heaps of protein. During the study, the researchers genetically engineered mice to lack either CRFR1 or CRFR2. ...

Erroneous Laboratory Operation May Lead To a Cancer Drug

... with no side effects. According to Schaefer, mode of action of PPAR-gamma is different from the current drugs. It attacks a section of cell cytoskeleton called tubulin. While tubulin is involved in building the cell arrangement, PPAR-gamma breaks it down. This indirectly indicates that the gamma ...

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Cytoskeleton in Medical Technology

Sports Legacy Institute Announces Findings of Forensic Examinations on Wrestler Chris Benoit's Brain

... as Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) and Neuropil Threads [NTs]. These represent aggregates of abnormal Tau protein, which are remnants of the cytoskeleton of the brain cells and their connections. Frequent NFTs and NTs were distributed in all regions of the brain including the neocortex, the limbic ...

Cytokinetics Announces Non-clinical Data to be Presented at the 2007 AACR Annual Meeting

... research activities and are directed towards the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a complex biological infrastructure that plays a fundamental role within every human cell. Cytokinetics' focus on the cytoskeleton enables it to develop novel and potentially safer and more effective ...

EntreMed Presents Multi-Mechanism Antitumor Data for ENMD-1420 in Preclinical Models

... . About Tubulin Inhibitors Tubulins are the proteins that form microtubules, which are key components of the cellular cytoskeleton (structural network). Microtubules are necessary for cell division (mitosis), cell structure, transport, signaling and motility. Given their ...
Cytoskeleton in Biological News

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

... are known to be key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect many aspects of neuronal development," Van Aelst notes. The actin cytoskeleton is the gossamer, filament-like scaffolding that ... spines, where it locally regulates the actin cytoskeleton -- as it turns out, in proximity to another ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

... findings point to a type of feedback loop. "The cytoskeleton changes the shape of the cell and the shape of ... or dendrite, or new shape, simply adjust the cytoskeleton accordingly, and the shape will follow suit. ... for making changes to the organization of the cytoskeleton and therefore the shape of a cell: microtubules, ...

New chemical tool kit manipulates mitochondria, reveals insights into drug toxicity

... Our data shows that when we disrupt the cytoskeleton of the cell, that sends a message to boost the ... says Mootha. The connection between the cytoskeleton and mitochondrial gene expression has never been ... foremost being the relationship between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria. They also plan on using this ...

Mayo Clinic researchers discover and manipulate molecular interplay that moves cancer cells

... of these migrating tumor cells. "The events that reorganize the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge are complex a multitude of molecules act in concert," ... off if cancer cells are to migrate." Actin filaments help make up the cytoskeleton of cells. For cancer cells to move, the actin-based cell structure has to ...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... the cellulose synthase complexes to their place of action. They also looked at the role in trafficking of a structural element called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that it appears to be required for the general distribution of the cellulose ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... motors on the arms of chromosomes that push against cells' microtubules. Microtubules are long, thin tubes that form a central component of the cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle. They serve as intracellular structural supports and as railways along which molecular motors move cargoes such as ...

MBL director and CEO and cell biology pioneer Gary Borisy elected to National Academy of Sciences

... Borisy first came to the MBL in 1965 as a student and returned in 1972 to establish a summer laboratory where he conducted research for five years on cytoskeleton formation. He also served as a consultant to the MBL's Physiology course in 1982 and 1983. As director and CEO, Dr. Borisy has played a key role ...

Locking parasites in host cell could be new way to fight malaria

... to survive. When parasites burst out of an infected cell, they leave a mess behind, shredding the dense meshwork of proteins comprising the host cell cytoskeleton and breaking the cell apart, causing cell death. But researchers were unsure what proteins the parasites were using as tools to help them break ...

Vanderbilt scientists invent world's smallest periscopes

... the specialized region of a cell next to the nucleus that is the assembly point where the microscopic polymer tubes that serve as part of the cell's cytoskeleton are assembled before cell division and broken down afterwards. The mirrored pyramidal wells provide a high resolution, multi-vantage-point form ...

Rong Li Lab probes mechanism of asymmetry in meiotic cell division

... of development stays with the daughter cell that retains the identy of the oocyte. "This work revealed the general mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton drives chromosome movement in mammalian meiotic oocytes," said Hongbin Li, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate and lead author on the publication. "Our ...

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Cytoskeleton in Biological Technology

Amgen Exercises Option for Exclusive License to Cytokinetics' Cardiac Contractility Program That Includes CK-1827452

... from research activities that are directed towards the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a complex biological infrastructure that plays a fundamental role within every human cell. Cytokinetics' focus on the cytoskeleton enables it to develop novel and potentially safer and more effective ...

Researchers decode viral process that prepares cells for HIV infection

... as cofilin. The protein is then used to cut through the cortical actin cytoskeleton (the circular layer that lies just beneath the cell's outer membrane). ... process that activates cofilin, which cuts and modifies the cortical actin cytoskeleton and permits the virus to cross it." Wu notes that the goal of his ...

Biomimetic-engineering design can replace spaghetti tangle of nanotubes in novel material

... principles to design human-made materials. "We show that a precise arrangement of carbon nanotubes similar to those found in the cytoskeleton of cells will create a thermal material that effectively dissipates heat, which could prevent a NEMS device from failing or melting." NEMS devices ...

Recommendations for Successful siRNA Library Screens

... siRNA screen analysis was repeated using nine different phenotypic assays including cell proliferation, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton formation assays. The pools consistently produced false positive rates of greater than 50% and false negative rates that exceed ...

Are siRNA Pools Smart?

... were carried out using nine different phenotypic assays including protein activation, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton formation. Our results demonstrated that experiments using pooled siRNAs consistently yielded false ...
Cytoskeleton in Biological Definition

Cytoskeleton

... The cytoskeleton is a cellular " scaffolding " or " skeleton " ... 1 The eukaryotic cytoskeleton 1.1 Actin Filaments 1.2 Intermediate ... 1.3 Microtubules 2 The prokaryotic cytoskeleton 2.1 FtsZ 2.2 MreB and ParM 2.3 ...

Protein

... or mechanical roles, such as those that form the struts and joints of the cytoskeleton . Still more functions filled by proteins include immune response and ... all are proteins as well. The filamentous material that makes up the cytoskeleton of cells and much of the structure of animals is also protein: ...

Actin

... a globular protein that polymerize helicaly forming actin filaments (or microfilaments ), which like the other two components of the cellular cytoskeleton form a three-dimensional network inside an eukariotic cell . Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the cell shape, ...

Apoptosis

... morphology that can be seen under a microscope : The cell becomes round (circular). This occurs because the protein structures that conform the cytoskeleton are digested by specialized peptidases (called caspases ) that have been activated inside the cell. Chromatin ( DNA and its packaging ...

Cell biology

... extracted from membranes by detergents and salts . See also Active transport Adhesion Chloroplast Cilia Cytoplasm cytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Flagella Glycolysis Golgi apparatus Lipid bilayer Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleus Organelle ...

Colchicine

... C 22 H 25 N O 6 . Name is N -[(7 S )-5,6,7,9-tetrahydro-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo[ a ]heptalen-7-yl)acetamide] . It inhibits the cytoskeleton by binding to tubulin , one of the main constituents of microtubules . Apart from inhibiting mitosis , a process heavily dependent on ...

Cytosol

... volume. The cytosol is not a "soup" with free-floating particles, but is highly organized on the molecular level. The cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton . This is made of fibrous proteins ( microfilaments , microtubules , and intermediate filaments ) and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of ...

Morphogenesis

... bicoid mRNAs attach to microtubules and are concentrated at the anterior ends of forming Drosophila eggs. Nanos mRNAs also attach to the egg cytoskeleton but they concentrate at the posterior ends of the eggs. Hunchback and caudal mRNAs lack special location control systems and are fairly evenly ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... polypeptide reaches its destination. Proteins that are destined for places outside the ER are packed into transport vesicles and moved along the cytoskeleton towards their destination. The ER is also part of a protein sorting pathway. Other functions Insertion of proteins into the ER membrane. ...

Eukaryote

... prokaryotes, typically a thousand times by volume. Usually, they have a variety of internal membranes and structures, called organelles , and a cytoskeleton composed of microtubules and microfilaments , which plays an important role in defining the cell's organization. However, some eukaryotes (e.g. ...

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Cytoskeleton in Biological Dictionary

Cytoskeleton

... The cytoskeleton (also CSK) is a cellular "scaffolding" ... contained within the cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton is present in all cells; it was once thought ...search... shape=RECT coords=0,0,0,0> ... cytoskeleton n. The internal framework of a cell, composed ...

Myosin

... to non-muscle Myosin IIA. ... Products: Signal Transduction >> cytoskeleton / ECM >> cytoskeleton >> Motor Proteins >> Myosin ... As you already learned, ...

Intermediate filament

... Inc. ... Intermediate filament Biochem Kits™ Vimentin Biochem Kit™ cytoskeleton isolation kit ... Intermediate Filament Proteins (IFPs) acquired ... ... Microtubules, microfilaments & intermediate filaments . The cytoskeleton ... Intermediate Filaments . Intermediate filaments are about 10 nm ...

Transport protein

...... Kinesin accomplishes transport by essentially "walking" along a ... Biology Proteins Vesicles Carrier Protein Transport cytoskeleton Microtubles Animation ... TransportDB is a relational database describing the predicted cytoplasmic membrane transport protein complement ...

Spindle Fibers

... the spindle apparatus is the structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell division. It is part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Depending on the type of cell ... Encyclopedia article about Spindle fibers . Information about Spindle ...

Protist cell

... protist cell : http://www.kent. ... protist cell has characteristic animal- or plant-like ... protist cell has subcellular structure cytoskeleton ... protist n. Any of a group of eukaryotic organisms belonging to the kingdom ... They extend their cell wall and cell membrane around ...

Prophase

... become organized and condenses into thick strands that eventually become ... Photos of the process of cell division. ... During prophase , the cytoskeleton (composed of cytoplasmic microtubules) begins ... Late Prophase ... In prophase the replicated, linked DNA strands slowly ... Genetics: ...

Mitotic spindle

... the spindle apparatus is the structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell division. It is part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Depending on the type of cell ... Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes ...

Microfilament

... interlaced strands of subunits. ... Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ Microfilament " ... Microfilament Actin cytoskeleton of mouse embryo fibroblasts , stained with Fluorescein isothiocyanate - phalloidin Microfilaments (or actin filaments microfilament n. ...

Eukaryotes

... postulated to have occurred through a symbiotic ... Unlike bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes have their DNA in linear pieces that are ... The cytoskeleton is another feature unique to the eukaryotes . ... Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes . Prokaryotes ... Eukaryote cells usually have a pair of ...

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