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Cytosine in Medical News

'Personalized' genome sequencing reveals coding error in gene for inherited pancreatic cancer

... professor of pathology and oncology. The search yielded one gene variant, PALB2, resulting from a substitution of a single DNA letter coding for cytosine with a different one that codes for thymidine. The research team then scanned for the PALB2 gene in 96 other individuals with pancreatic cancer ...

DNA editing tool flips its target

... embryonic stem-like cells from differentiated cells." In mammalian cells, methylation usually appears on double stranded DNA where the nucleotide cytosine (C) is followed by Guanine (G). The complementary sequence on the opposite strand is also C then G, and the methylation appears on both Cs. When a ...

UD researchers discover technique for repairing gene defect that causes spinal muscular atrophy

... gene is made up of a length of DNA, a code composed of the four chemical units that make up the genetic alphabet: A for adenine, G for guanine, C for cytosine and T for thymine. In spinal muscular atrophy, a defect occurs in the SMN1 gene. There's a letter out of place--a T (thymine) occurs where there ...

UD researchers discover promising technique for repairing gene that causes spinal muscular atrophy

... gene is made up of a length of DNA, a code composed of the four chemical units that make up the genetic alphabet: A for adenine, G for guanine, C for cytosine and T for thymine. In spinal muscular atrophy, a defect occurs in the SMN1 gene. There's a letter out of place--a T (thymine) occurs where there ...

Kidney cancer drug attacks a major type of acute myeloid leukemia

... clinical trial for AML is open at M. D. Anderson that combines sorafenib with the standard of care chemotherapy combination for AML, idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Presently, the trial is open for relapsed patients and those newly diagnosed with high-risk disease, says study co-author Jorge Cortes, ...

Genetic differences point to ethnic and racial disparities in colorectal cancer risk

... in the population as a whole and the CT or TT alleles carry a variant T, a point mutation in which a thymine nucleic acid is substituted for a cytosine in the genes DNA. Compared to CC, enzymatic activity of the CT mutation is reduced to 65 percent; TT has 30 percent the enzymatic activity of CC. ...

Cell Structure Helps Direct Cancer Gene 'Switch'

... in some cancer cells involves distinct changes in nucleosomal occupancy -- or the density of nucleosomes -- in the cell." A process called "DNA cytosine methylation -- the addition of a group of specific chemicals to a stretch of DNA that can lock or silence a gene -- may ultimately lead to [gene] ...

Study reveals how stem cells decide to become either skeletal or smooth muscle

... the CArG box. The nucleotide building blocks of DNA chains may contain any one of four nucleobases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). Any sequence of code starting with 2 Cs, followed by any combination of 6 As or Ts, and ending in 2 Gs is a CArG box. According to Miano, there ...

Stem Cells from Human Fat Tissue to Hunt for and Kill Cancerous Tumours

... extracted the mesenchymal stem cells from human fat tissue, and after expanding their number in the lab, used a retrovirus vector to insert the gene cytosine deaminase into the cell. The gene can convert a less toxic drug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), used in chemotherapy, to 5-FU inside the stem ...
Cytosine in Medical Technology

Fat Kills Cancer: Turning Stem Cells from Fat Tissue into Personalized, Cancer-Targeted Therapeutics

... effects in normal cells. They expanded the number of mesenchymal stem cells in the laboratory and then used a retrovirus vector to insert the gene cytosine deaminase into the cell. This gene can convert a less toxic drug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to 5-FU inside the stem cells, and the chemotherapy can ...
Cytosine in Medical Dictionary

Liver

... ... CYP 3A4: A liver enzyme that is part of the cytochrome P450 system and metabolize s many drugs. CYTIDINE: A nucleoside combining the base cytosine with D-ribose. One of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Abdomen (e.g., liver , kidney s, spleen ) Chest (e.g., heart , lungs , major ...

Pulmonary edema

... fatigue - Increased susceptibility to infection ... Haupt HM, Hutchins GM, Moore GW: Ara-C lung: noncardiogenic pulmonary edema complicating cytosine arabinoside therapy of leukemia . Am J Med 70 (2): 256-61, 1981. [PUBMED Abstract] ... Freshwater aspiration tends to shift electrolyte balance ...
Cytosine in Biological News

New nucleotide could revolutionize epigenetics

... school has heard of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine the A,T,G and C that make up the DNA code. But ... 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), that sometimes replaces cytosine in the famous DNA double helix to regulate which ... is DNA methylation, which targets sites where cytosine precedes guanine in the DNA code. An enzyme ...

Covering the bases: Quantum effect may hold promise for low-cost DNA sequencing, sensor applications

... to determine the identities of the four nucleotide basesadenine, thymine, cytosine and guaninewhich make up the ladder rungs of the DNA's double helical ... up appropriate nucleotide pairs like jigsaw piecesadenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine. The scanning tunneling microscope used in the present ...

Einstein researcher receives NIH grant to explore epigenetic regulation of the human genome

... and map the two principal epigenetic control mechanisms: methylation of cytosine (one of four nucleic acids found in DNA) and modifications of histones ... into chromosomes). The methylation (addition of a methyl group, CH3) of cytosine switches genes off, which can be associated with certain diseases such as ...

A new way to assemble cells into 3-D microtissues

... is the complexity of the synthetic DNA sequence. The researchers can specify the complexity for example, from a simple repeat of two bases such as cytosine and adenine ... on one strand, which binds to a complementary repeating sequence of thymine and guanine ... on the other, up to ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... using a reduced, two-letter alphabet - R for the purine nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, and Y for the pyrimidine nucleic acids, thymine and cytosine - to reduce the complexity of calculation. Using an optimal feature length of 18 base pairs, this test created a family tree identical to the ...

Gene switch sites found mainly on 'shores,' not just 'islands' of the human genome

... that cancer cells show. The long-time focus in methylation has been CpG islands, regions of the genome rich in the DNA building-block molecules cytosine and guanine. The reason is that these islands tend to occur near the "start" signal of a protein-coding gene, a place with the potential to affect ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... 3 (DCL3), an enzyme that chops up RNA transcripts into smaller segments. These smaller fragments of RNA become siRNAs, which then guide the de novo cytosine methyltransferase , DRM2, to the targeted genes. DRM2 is required to put a methyl group, a chemical flag that signals for silencing, on ribosomal ...

Copy number variation may stem from replication misstep

... complementary strands that remain together because of the attraction between nucleotides. A or adenosine is always attracted to T (thymidine). C or cytosine is always attracted to G or guanine. When a cell divides, it must reproduce its DNA so that each cell that results from the division has the same ...

Researchers identify how to switch off cancer cell genes

... promoter, suggesting that epigenetic silencing may be accomplished by the stable placement of nucleosomes into previously vacant positions. DNA cytosine methylation'the addition of a group of specific chemicals to a stretch of DNA that can lock or silence a gene'may ultimately lead to silencing by ...

How did chemical constituents essential to life arise on primitive Earth?

... and Crick in 1953. DNA is shaped somewhat like a twisted ladder with the rungs anchored by matching pairs of only four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The UGA chemists focused on adenine because of its relative prevalence on Earth and its formation in the dark in from simple ...

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Cytosine in Biological Technology

J. Craig Venter Institute Researchers Publish Significant Advance in Genome Assembly Technology

... synthesized in the laboratory the 582,970 base pair M. genitalium genome using the chemical building blocks of DNA -- adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). While this was a big advance, it took several years to come to fruition and in the end was a tedious, multi-stage ...

Venter Institute Scientists Create First Synthetic Bacterial Genome

... that we believe will become widely used to advance the field of synthetic genomics." The building blocks of DNA--adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thiamine (T) are not easy chemicals to artificially synthesize into chromosomes. As the strands of DNA get longer they get ...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

... strands of nucleic acid that join together. In DNA, cytosine (C) always pairs with guanine (G) and adenine (A) always ... phosphoric acid, and a sugar. The bases can be adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), or uracil (U). nucleus ...

Use of the DCode System to Detect the Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

... THEORY OF DGGE DGGE is a technique that separates DNA fragments of the same length but with different guanine + cytosine (G+C) base content. Separation is based on the concentration of a denaturant such as urea or formamide needed to effect ...

Effectene Transfection Reagent provides efficient gene delivery to primary neuronal cell cultures

... to dishes containing a confluent layer of collicular glial cells and were cultured for up to 3 weeks. On the second day in vitro, cytosine arabinoside (4 M) was added to inhibit glial cell proliferation. Transfection was performed on day 9 in vitro using various ratios ...
Cytosine in Biological Products

EZ-96 DNA Methylation Kit - Deep Well from Zymo Research

Description:... The kit is based on the three step reaction that takes place between cytosine and sodium bisulfite where cytosine is converted into uracil. The EZ DNA Methylation Kits innovative in-column ...
Company:Zymo Research

EZ DNA Methylation Kit from Zymo Research

Description:... The kit is based on the three step reaction that takes place between cytosine and sodium bisulfite where cytosine is converted into uracil. The EZ DNA Methylation Kits innovative in-column ...
Company:Zymo Research

EZ-96 DNA Methylation Kit from Zymo Research

Description:... The kit is based on the three step reaction that takes place between cytosine and sodium bisulfite where cytosine is converted into uracil. The EZ DNA Methylation Kits innovative in-column ...
Company:Zymo Research

CpGenome™ Fast DNA Modification Kit from CHEMICON

Description:... on whether the DNA is originally methylated or unmethylated. Also, the initially complementary DNA strands will no longer be complementary after cytosine conversion. Primers for use in MSP can be designed to specifically amplify either a bisulfite-sensitive, unmethylated strand or a ...
Company:CHEMICON
Cytosine in Biological Definition

DNA

... by the identity of their bases. These are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In a DNA double helix, two polynucleotide ... for particular pairs of nucleotides -- adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine -- the two nucleotides are always present in equal proportions. ...

Anticodon

... protein synthesis . The first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide such as inosine which allows that base to pair with cytosine , adenine , and uracil on the codon. The first base on the anticodon can also have a uracil which can base pair with guanine as well as ....

Genetic code

... and pyrimidine . The purine bases adenine ( A ) and guanine ( G ) are larger and consist of two aromatic rings . The pyrimidine bases cytosine ( C ) and thymine ( T ) are smaller and only consist of one aromatic ring. In RNA however, thymine ( T ) is substituted by uracil ( U ) and the ...

DNA sequence

... DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A , C , G , and T , representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand ( adenine , cytosine , guanine , thymine ), and typically these are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC. This coded sequence is ...

Double helix

... Crick in 1953. They showed that DNA is made up of two complementary, antiparallel strands of the bases Guanine , Adenine , Thymine , and cytosine , covalently linked through phosphodiester bonds . Each strand forms a helix, and the two helices are held together through hydrogen bonds , ...

Genetic code

... and pyrimidine . The purine bases adenine ( A ) and guanine ( G ) are larger and consist of two aromatic rings . The pyrimidine bases cytosine ( C ) and thymine ( T ) are smaller and only consist of one aromatic ring. In RNA however, thymine ( T ) is substituted by uracil ( U ) and the ...

Nucleoside

... Deoxyguanosine dG Thymine Thymidine T Deoxythymidine dT Uracil Uridine U Deoxyuridine dU cytosine Cytidine C Deoxycytidine dC Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring. Examples of ...

Nucleotide

... a ribonucleotide (r) or deoxyribonucleotide (d). The second letter indicates the nucleobase: G: Guanine A: Adenine T: Thymine C: cytosine U: Uracil not present in DNA, but takes the place of Thymine in RNA The third and fourth letters indicate the length of the attached ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , T for thymine , and H for adenine , thymine , or cytosine . (See genetic code for further details about codons ) Use of degenerate primers can greatly reduce the specificity of the PCR amplification. The ...

Primer

... corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , T for thymine , and H for adenine , thymine , or cytosine . (See genetic code for further details about codons ) Use of degenerate primers can greatly reduce the spesificity of the PCR amplification. The ...

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Cytosine in Biological Dictionary

Guanine

... DNA model A. adenine T. thymine C. cytosine G. guanine D. deoxyribose P ... adenine, ... Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine ... Compare Cheap Prices ... and encyclopedia. ... A substitution of cytosine for guanine , also located in VD 1, resulted in ...

Cytosine

... cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and ... two substituents attached . The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds ... cytosine ( ) n. ( Abbr. C ) A pyrimidine base, C 4 H 5 ...

Uracil

... in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. ... Uracil (U), thymine (T), and cytosine (C) are pyrimidine derivatives, and ... Uracil is a planar, ... ... adenosine through ... Substituted uracil in DNA ... of the oxidized cytosine derivative, 5-hydroxy uracil ". Biophys. ... Retrieved from ...

Thymine

... of the five main ... Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine ... Encyclopedia article about thymine . ... uracil in most ... Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - cytosine ... Easy-to-use, talking glossary of genetic terms, produced by the ...

Nitrogenous base

... guanine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil. Adenine and Thymine/Guanine and cytosine are complementary to ... The system of a base covalently bound ... ... The four nitrogenous bases of DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine, ... What Are the Four Nitrogenous Bases of DNA? Where Is ...

Deamination

... in DNA creates uracil and, if unrepaired, ... It decreases the rate of cytosine deamination to uracil by 7-fold. ... Enzymes mediating tRNA ... ... Lindahl,T. and Nyberg,B. (1974) Heat-induced deamination of cytosine residues in DNA. ... The initial step is an oxidative deamination by ...

CpG island

... recognized as a CpG island , a sequence must sat ... CpG site cytosine Phosphate Guanine CpG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next ... CpG island . Allele specific ...

Ribonucleotides

... is a nucleotide in which a purine or pyrimidine base is linked to a ribose molecule. The base may be adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or uracil (U). Note that thymine (T), which is found in deoxyribonucleotides, is not found as a ribonucleotide in living beings. ...

Pyrimidine

... for ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and ... Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine ... pyrimidines , purine pyrimidine ... pyrimidine ... The simplest member, pyrimidine itself (C4H4N2), is not ...

Purine

... and dried ... Purine is a heterocyclic, aromatic, organic compound, consisting of a ... Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine ... Online Medical Dictionary and glossary with medical definitions ... The purine bases are guanine (G) and ...

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