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Codon in Medical News

Quest Diagnostics Introduces First Comprehensive Laboratory Test To Analyze KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF Gene Mutations in Reflex Testing Service

... and recommended RAS mutation testing include KRAS and NRAS encompassing codon 61 in addition to codons 12 and 13. The Quest Diagnostics EGFR ... that other mutations in the EGFR signaling pathway, including those at codon 61 of KRAS and NRAS , also impede treatment response in patients with ...

Amgen's Second Quarter 2009 Adjusted Earnings Per Share Increased 13 Percent To $1.29

... treated with anti-EGFr antibody was discussed. Use of Vectibix is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer with KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. Motesanib: The Company indicated that enrollment has resumed for the Phase 3 MONET1 trial evaluating motesanib in combination ...

Amgen Announces KRAS Safety Update to U.S. Prescribing Information for Vectibix(R) (Panitumumab)

... analyses of metastatic colorectal cancer trials have not shown a treatment benefit for Vectibix in patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. Use of Vectibix is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer with these mutations. The CLINICAL STUDIES section of ...

Increase in P53 mutation linked to advanced colorectal cancer in blacks

... patients and 236 colorectal adenocarcinomas from non-Hispanic whites. Researchers assessed these carcinomas for p53 mutations and genotyped for codon 72 polymorphisms. Overall, whites and African-Americans had a similar rate of p53 mutations. However, the frequency of the Pro72 allele was ...

DNA2.0 Expands European Presence By Opening UK Office: Experienced Life Sciences Executive, Dr. Michael Dyson, to Lead European Operations

... particular experience growing and managing life science businesses across Europe, and prior to joining DNA2.0 he was European Managing Director for codon Devices. He has also held chief management positions at such life science companies as Sequenom, MicroCal and PerSeptive Biosystems. About ...

H-ras gene mutation linked to Costello Syndrome

... of the affected patients. The researchers have published the results of their study in Wiley Interscience. The researchers identified mutations in codon 12 or 13 in the H-ras gene in 85% patients. The authors feel that the identification of these mutations in combination with the knowledge from cancer ...
Codon in Medical Technology

Vectibix(R) in Combination With Chemotherapy Significantly Improved Progression-Free Survival in First-Line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

... symptoms or increased survival with Vectibix. Vectibix has not shown a treatment benefit for patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. In December 2007, the EMEA granted a conditional marketing authorization for Vectibix as monotherapy for the treatment of patients ...

ARUP Laboratories Applauds FDA's Decision on the Value of KRAS-Mutation Testing in Colorectal Cancer

... of metastatic colorectal cancer trials have not shown a treatment benefit for Erbitux/Vectibix in patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13," and that the use of the drugs is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with these mutations. ARUP ...
Codon in Biological News

Penn biologists discover how 'silent' mutations influence protein production

... without changing the properties of the protein. codon bias, the probability that one codon of three adjacent nucleotides will code for one ... expression levels of individual genes, whereas codon bias influences global translation efficiency and ...

Researchers discover critical detail of cellular defense against genetic mistakes

... complex (EJC), the cell concludes that the stop codon has mistakenly fallen in the middle of a set of ... following new model for NMD: When a nonsense stop codon is detected, UPF1 together with the enzyme that ... mRNA can be prevented. In cases where a nonsense codon occurs in a gene supplying an essential protein, ...

Viruses evolve to play by host rules, according to University of Pennsylvania researchers

... found that many of these viral genomes exhibit codon bias, the tendency to preferentially encode a ... Researchers analyzed patterns of codon usage across 74 bacteriophages using the concept ... Their findings extend the translational theory of codon bias to the viral kingdom, demonstrating that the ...

New insights into the diversity of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agents

... CJD occurs following human-to-human sCJD transmission. In contrast to the sCJD cases, however, there was no particular correlation with the PRNP codon in the iCJD cases, indicating that observed biochemical properties could be specific to the prion agent. Further studies are required to confirm ...

MIT model could improve some drugs' effectiveness

... Lippow conducted the research as part of his thesis work in chemical engineering at MIT, and is now a member of the protein engineering group at codon Devices in Cambridge, Mass. Making drugs out of huge, complicated molecules like antibodies is incredibly hard, said Janna Wehrle, who oversees ...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

... complex (EJC), the cell concludes that the stop codon has mistakenly fallen in the middle of a set of ... Medical Center researchers now believe a stop codon is labeled premature when it occurs more than 55 ... together to trigger decay once an early nonsense codon is detected, most likely by recruiting enzymes ...
Codon in Biological Technology

DNA2.0 Awarded US Patents for Breakthrough Gene Optimization Technology -- Company's Unique Algorithm Enables Expression Yields up to 50 Times Greater than Competing Approaches

... The use of codon optimization in gene synthesis has long been ... the technology. DNA2.0's approach goes beyond codon arrangement, so the company is introducing a new, ... technology is far more effective than traditional codon optimization techniques that simply ...

Detection of Variation in Highly Polymorphic Mhc Genes by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Using the DCode System

... between them of 116 nt plus a 2 codon indel. By creating a unique network of control ... from one another by 712 nt and a 2 codon indel on a perpendicular gradient gel ... coincided with the location of the 2 codon insert, present in allele 10, but absent ...

Detection of K-ras Point Mutations in the Pancreas by Constant Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis Using the DCode System

... these tumors bear a point mutation in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene. 3, 4 We ... run with samples from all mutations of codon 12 leading to an amino acid exchange ... Yoshida, S., Detection of K-ras gen mutations at codon 12 in the pancreatic juice of patients ...

New BL21-CodonPlus Cells Correct Codon Bias in GC-Rich Genomes

... Anna Waesche Ronda Allen Stratagene codon bias is a significant obstacle for efficient ... arginine codons (AGG or AGA) and the proline codon (CCC) most frequently affect bacterial gene ... degradation of the mRNA. 4 When the problem of codon bias causes ...

Codon Bias-Adjusted BL21 Derivatives for Protein Expression

... in conventional E. coli hosts due to the codon bias of the gene of interest. The ... coli) Preferred by Selected Organisms codon frequencies are expressed as codons used per ... codon frequencies of more than 15 codons/1000 codons ...

Detection of Mutant K-ras in a Kindred With Hereditary Pancreatic Cancer by DGGE

... sequencing. Three of these individuals had K-ras mutations in codon 13 present in pancreatic cancer or precancerous tissue and three had mutations in codon 12. There was no evidence of K-ras mutation in the metastatic ...

Mutation detection for the K- rasand P16 genes

... Mutations in the K-ras gene codon 12 region can lead to cancer, for example of the colon, pancreas, liver, ... data. First, we compared mutant versus wild type samples for K-ras codon 12. The sizing differences, as well as the intensity of heterozygous ...

HotStarTaq PCR Handbook

... optimizing PCR using degenerate primers. Table 9 shows the codon redundancy of each amino acid. Table 8. ... Table 9. codon redundancy ...

New Yeast Cloning System for Producing Proteins with Native Amino Acid Sequences

... in a seamless junction between the EK cleavage site and the initiation codon (ATG) of the gene to be expressed. After expression in S. pombe, the GST ... a seamless junction of the enterokinase site and the initiation codon of the gene to be expressed. The pESP-2 vector is supplied in a ...

High-Level Expression of Peanut Allergens Affected by Rare Codon Usage

... to attain high-level expression of difficult proteins affected by poor codon usage: IPTG-induced expression of several recombinant peanut ... in this sequence indicated that Ara h 2 contains 12% of the least used codon AGG/AGA in E. coli and, additionally, 2% of other rare codons read by ...

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Codon in Biological Products

LIC Duet™ GST•Tag™ Ek Adaptor from Novagen

Description:... The LIC Duet™ GST•Tag™ Ek Adaptor encodes a T7 promoter, lac operator, ribosome binding site (rbs), ATG translation initation codon and an N-terminal GST•Tag coding sequence. The GST•Tag sequence has been reported to enhance the production and in some cases the ...
Company:Novagen

BL21 Competent Cell Set* from Novagen

Description:... stringent control over basal expression levels, the ability to form disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm for proper folding and activity, and alleviating codon usage incompatibilities. Every strain of Novagen’s competent cells is verified for phenotype and purity, and transformation efficiency is ...
Company:Novagen
Codon in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... 1 Genome expression 2 Table 1: RNA codon table 3 Table 2: Reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 Stop ... ribose . Overall, there are 4 3 = 64 different codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence ...

Genetic code

... 1 Genome expression 2 Table 1: RNA codon table 3 Table 2: Reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 Stop ... ribose . Overall, there are 4 3 = 64 different codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence ...

Protein biosynthesis

... occur when the ribosome recognizes the starting codon on the mRNA strand and binds to it. The ribosome ... there is an anticodon that is used to match the codon on the mRNA. tRNA also has a single unit of ... it. As the ribosome travels down the mRNA one codon at a time, another tRNA is attached to the mRNA ...

Ribosome

... chain (3). The mRNA begins with a start codon ( AUG ) and ends with a stop codon ( UAG ). In Figure 3, both ribosomal subunits ( small and large ) assemble at the start codon (the 5' end of the mRNA). The ribosome uses tRNA ...

Amino acid

... Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally a stop codon. Pyrrolysine is used by some ... methane . It is coded for similarly to selenocysteine but with the codon UAG instead. Although only 20 amino acids are genetically coded, over ...

DNA

... code . The genetic code is made up of three-letter 'words' (termed a codon ) formed from a sequence of three nucleotides (e.g. ACT, CAG, TTT). These ... can then be translated with messenger RNA and then transfer RNA, with a codon corresponding to a particular amino acid. Since there are 64 possible ...

Alternative splicing

... mRNA transcript. However, the intron must be properly encoding for amino acids . The intron's code must be properly expressible, otherwise a stop codon or a shift in the reading frame will cause the protein to be non-functional. Exon cassette mode : in this case, certain exons are spliced out ...

Gene

... molecule or strand (more at DNA ). These four nucleotides constitute the genetic alphabet. A sequence of three consecutive nucleotides, called a codon , is the protein-coding vocabulary. The sequence of codons in a gene specifies the amino-acid sequence of the protein it encodes. In most ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , ...

Primer

... when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , ...

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Codon in Biological Dictionary

Termination codon

... In the genetic code, a stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA ... amino acid chain. ... Termination codon , in molecular biology. Termination factor, ... in some depth of the ... Termination codon a UAG (amber), UAA ... The misreading of ...

Stop codon

... In the genetic code, a stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA ... chain. ... Unlike stop codons , the codon alone is not sufficient to begin the process. ... in order to keep the " ... stop codon n. Any of three codons , UAA, UAG, or UGA, that ...

Start codon

... of DNA and RNA respectively that are the start codon or initiation codon encoding the amino acid methionine (Met) in ... in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG which is read as methionine or, in ...

Nonsense Mutation

... in a premature stop codon, or a nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, ... ... The nonsense mutation converts a codon (a triplet of bases) that encodes an ... ...... of point mutation resulting in a nonsense codon that ... Nonsense mutation summary with 4 ...

Missense Mutation

... a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. This can ... mutation , the new nucleotide alters the codon so as to produce ... Measuring Mutation Rate ... biology ) A mutation that converts a codon coding for one amino acid to a ...

Initiation Codon

... of DNA and RNA respectively that are the start codon or initiation codon encoding the amino acid methionine (Met) in ... via base pairing with the mRNA initiation codon (AUG) ... initiation ...

Codon Bias

... codon usage bias refers to differences among ... in protein-coding DNA sequences (genes). A codon is a series of three nucleotides (triplets) that ... in a polypeptide chain. GenScript's codon optimization technology can increase the ...

Codon

... called codons, and amino acids. ... codon usage bias refers to differences among organisms ... in protein-coding DNA sequences (genes). A codon is a series of three nucleotides (triplets) that ... a polypeptide chain. Aspects of the topic codon are discussed in the following places at ...

Anticodon

... anticodon pairs complementarily with a specific codon ... The European Bioinformatics Institute ... ... Card Required. Genetics: anticodon and codon ... anticodon . The anticodon region of a ... from Biology-Online.org dictionary. ... codon has its complementary anticodon and ... I ...

Mutation

... sequence that contributes ... A neutral mutation either results in a codon that is translated into the same ... In biology, a mutation is any ... ) ... With a nonsense mutation , the new nucleotide changes a codon that specified an ... If a mutation alters one of these signals, then .....

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