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Chromosomes in Medical News

PGD Technology Offers More Than Designer Babies

... (FISH), PGD can also be used to count the chromosomes in the cell removed from an embryo. A normal cell has a complement of 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs plus a pair of sex chromosomes: 2 X chromosomes for a female or an X and a Y for a male). ...

Lack of CHFR gene expression sets stage for breast cancer

... renew themselves, receive too few or too many chromosomes if expression of the CHFR gene is missing or low. ... cell divides into two. In normal cell division, chromosomes inside the nucleus copy themselves, then line up ... proteins that regulate how spindles form and how chromosomes divide and form along the spindle. The team found ...

Genome sequence of lancelet shows how genes quadrupled during vertebrate evolution

... of the Nature paper. "If you compare the 23 chromosomes of humans with the 19 chromosomes of amphioxus, you find that both genomes can be ... of Kyoto University shows that the creature's 19 chromosomes map onto the human genome in 17 segments, each of ...

Prenatal biochemical screening only detects half of chromosomal abnormalities

... syndrome), and triploids (conceptuses with 69 chromosomes instead of 46). "These are common vital ... the common abnormalities." At conception, 23 chromosomes from each parent combine to create a fetus with 46 chromosomes in all its cells. Trisomy occurs when the fetus ...

Research shines spotlight on a key player in the dance of chromosomes

... During cell division it is important for chromosomes to line up at the middle of the parent cell ... Motor proteins play a key role in the movement of chromosomes to and from the poles of the cell. Should any of ... it could result in disease or cell death. How chromosomes move during cell division is a question that is ...

Penn researchers identify first sex chromosome gene involved in meiosis and male infertility

... gametes in both sexes. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo pairing, synapsis, recombination and ... X-chromosome. Wang and his team found that sex chromosomes did play a role in meiosis. Although these ... found that TEX11 forms discrete foci on meiotic chromosomes and appears to be a novel constituent of the ...

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Chromosomes in Medical Technology

In Rare Disorder, a Familiar Protein Disrupts Gene Function

... with the long-established function of keeping chromosomes together also plays an important role in ... four proteins that form a ring that encircles chromosomes during cell division. Cohesin's long-established ... is to control chromatids -- the long strands that chromosomes form when they copy their DNA. However, ...

Three Studies Presented at the American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting Showed Response to Treatment with Campath(R) in Patients with High-Risk CLL

... cases of CLL, at least one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a cell is found to be either deleted or part ... cases of CLL, at least one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes on a cell is found to be either deleted or part ... The most commonly seen deletions involve parts of chromosomes 13, 11 and 17. The loss of part of chromosome 13 ...

Researchers Develop New Procedure to Screen All 46 Human Chromosomes to Identify Abnormalities in Embryos

... provide accurate, rapid analysis of all 46 human chromosomes from a single cell taken from a human embryo. The ... is commonly known, the addition or loss of other chromosomes also occurs frequently, but those embryos ... DNA to accurately analyze the number of chromosomes present in the cell. This step, termed whole ...

Newly Published Article Details How PGS Techniques Directly Effect Successful Pregnancy Outcomes

... abnormal. When done correctly, PGS screens the most important chromosomes in terms of preimplantation aneuploidy (22, 16, 21 and 15), improving ... opening the zona pellucida, removing the cell, cell fixation, how many chromosomes should be analyzed, and error rate criteria. As previous studies have ...

Creighton Medical Laboratories First to Offer New Cancer Test

... cells as chromosomes; a karyotype is a representation of all of the chromosomes in a cell. Normal human cells have two copies of each chromosome. Cancer ... tumor cells is applied to the arrays and scanned into a computer. The chromosomes are reconstructed by the computer to provide a genome-wide view of the ...

deCODE and SGENE Consortium Discover Deletions in the Human Genome Linked to Risk of Schizophrenia

... of sperm and eggs. The deletions reported in today's study are located on chromosomes 1q21, 15q11 and 15q13, and confer, respectively, 3, 15 and 12 times ... than 1,400 schizophrenics and 33,000 control subjects. The deletions on chromosomes 1q21, 15q11 and 15q13 were suggestively associated with schizophrenia in ...
Chromosomes in Medical Products

Vysis UroVysion Bladder Cancer Kit

Description:... Bladder Cancer Kit (UroVysion Kit) is designed to detect aneuploidy for chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and loss of the 9p21 locus via fluorescence in situ ... mixture of DNA probe sequences homologous to specific regions on chromosomes 3, 7, 9, and 17. The UroVysion probe mixture consists of Chromosome ...
Company:Abbott Diagnostics
Chromosomes in Medical Definition

Pathology

... programs to protect their vital proteins and organelles from heat shock or hypoxia , and may activate DNA repair pathways to fix damage to chromosomes from radiation or chemicals. Hyperplasia is a long-term adaptive response of cell division and multiplication , which can increase the ability ...
Chromosomes in Medical Dictionary

Autosomal recessive

... An abnormal gene on one of the autosomal chromosomes (one of the first 22 "non-sex" chromosomes ) from each parent is required to cause the ... in an autosomal recessive manner. Autosomal chromosomes are the non-sex ...

Chromosomes

... chromosomes in multi ple miscarriage s: Couples who have ... responsible for the miscarriage s. chromosomes are the units of genetic information that ... Twenty-three distinctive pairs, or 46 total chromosomes , are located within the nucleus (central ...

Gene

... of a normal protein . Since the autosomal chromosomes are paired, there are 2 copies of each gene . ... in an autosomal recessive manner. Autosomal chromosomes are the non-sex chromosomes . If both parents are carrier s of the mutated ...

Karyotyping

... Use of flow cytometry to analyze and/or separate chromosomes on the basis of their DNA content. Karyotyping is done to: Determine whether the chromosomes of an adult have an abnormality that can be ... Karyotyping A labor atory procedure in which chromosomes are separated from cells, stained and arranged ...

Sex-linked recessive

... disease s are inherited through one of the "sex chromosomes " -- the X or Y chromosomes . Autosomally inherited disease s are inherited through the non-sex chromosomes (autosomes), pairs 1 through 22. Sex-Linked ...

Translocation

... chromosome material. There are three # 21 chromosomes , just like there are in trisomy 21, but one of the 21 chromosomes is attached to another chromosome , instead of ... exchange of chromosome segments between two chromosomes that do not belong to the same pair of ...

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Chromosomes in Biological News

Double success for Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia scientists working on chromosome segregation

... of proteins that ensures accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division - a fundamental step to ... with reduced risk of cancer. When segregating, chromosomes attach and move along proteins tracks (the ... the centromere did not assemble correctly and chromosomes segregated abnormally, leading to situations ...

New, less invasive genetic test greatly improves pregnancy rates in older women with poor prognosis

... Amsterdam, The Netherlands: A new test examining chromosomes in human eggs a few hours after fertilisation can ... Hybridisation (CGH) technique to count the chromosomes in each egg. Unlike conventional screening ... (FISH) method, which allows less than half of the chromosomes of an embryonic cell to be examined, CGH enables ...

Is this the beginning of the end of plant breeding?

... cell's DNA. Once replication has occurred, the chromosomes condense into tightly bound structures, and in ... copy of the chromosome. The double-chromatid chromosomes line up along the centre of the cell. In mitosis, ... first lining up is of homologous chromosomesall chromosomes in an adult cell have a partner, members of the ...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

... ultrafast laser pulses to slice off pieces of chromosomes and observe how the chromosomes behave, biomedical engineers at the University of ... through mitosis, during which the DNA-containing chromosomes separate between the resulting daughter cells. ...

Yeast missing sex genes undergo unexpected sexual reproduction

... the process of sexual cell division that reduces chromosomes to half their number in the progeny? By ... two-thirds have the classic 50:50 division of chromosomes from the split parent cell, but a third of them ... eggs or fusion products may be aneuploid, with chromosomes from mother and father not paired exactly one to ...

The story of X -- evolution of a sex chromosome

... But in life forms that do set aside a pair of chromosomes to specify sex from fruit flies to mammals and some plants the two X chromosomes inherited by females look nearly identical to the ... melanogaster, a laboratory favorite, the sex chromosomes arose independently about 100 million years ago. ...

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Chromosomes in Biological Technology

Chromosome breakpoints contribute to genetic variation

... , is the first to show that different parts of chromosomes can have very different evolutionary histories, ... breakpoint regions and the more stable regions of chromosomes are evolving in distinctly different ways," he ... cells form in animals, maternal and paternal chromosomes first pair up and then recombine. ...

Empire Genomics and Reprogenetics Join Forces to Improve Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

... PGD: -- The test has the ability to screen all chromosomes - conventional techniques typically ... technology places DNA representing genes and chromosomes on a slide for comparison with a normal set, and ... of single cells. Trisomies were identified in chromosomes 13, 15, 16, 18 and 21, which are associated with ...

New cow genome sequence released

... software to assemble 35 million DNA sequence fragments into the 30 chromosomes that make up the Bos taurus genome. The algorithms use paired-end ... places some 150 million nucleotides (6%) more DNA sequence data onto chromosomes than the other draft assembly currently available, BosTau4.0 from the ...

International science consortium publishes analysis of domestic cattle genome sequence

... with humans. The researchers also report that the organization of human chromosomes is closer to that of domestic cattle than to those of rats or mice. ... although very rarely to humans. Like humans and other mammals, the chromosomes of domestic cattle contain segmental duplications, which are large, almost ...

deCODE genetics Announces First Quarter 2008 Financial Results

... that have been confirmed in many populations, as well as two SNPs on chromosomes X and 2 published by deCODE in February. Because of these variants, ... been elucidated. Common variants previously discovered by deCODE on chromosomes 2q35 and 16q12 are together involved in an estimated 25% of ER+ breast ...

BioNanomatrix Receives New NCI Grant to Support Development of Chip-Based Nanofluidics Systems for Cell Fractionation

... is to develop integrated systems that can separate out and sort whole chromosomes from a single cell or multiple cells. This type of cell fractionation is a ... project will enable sorting of sub-cellular components by size, such as chromosomes prior to their isolation in nanofluidic channels, so that a number of ...

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Chromosomes in Biological Products

* Quick & Easy Conditional Knock Out Kit - FRT from Gene Bridges GmbH

Description:... between 37C (optimal growth temperature for E.coli ) and 40C (mouse body temperature). This kit can also be used to work on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The generation of targeting constructs is achieved utilizing the high Red/ET efficiency plus the convenient removal of the Red/ET ...
Company:Gene Bridges GmbH

* Quick & Easy Conditional Knock Out Kit - loxP from Gene Bridges GmbH

Description:... cells. The included 706-Cre expression plasmid allows Cre recombination in E.coli . This kit can also be used to work on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The generation of targeting constructs is achieved utilizing the high Red/ET efficiency plus the convenient removal of the Red/ET ...
Company:Gene Bridges GmbH
Chromosomes in Biological Definition

Autosome

... there are 22 pairs of autosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are not autosomal. Non-autosomal chromosomes are usually referred to as sex chromosomes or, less frequently, as gonosomes. Uses ...

Barr body

... always deactivated. The inactivation state of chromosomes is passed on to daughter cells during mitosis. Since random chromosomes are selected for inactivation early in embryonic ... regions of the adult body having different chromosomes inactivated. This can be significant if different ...

Cell growth

... with RNA . Large cells often replicate their chromosomes to an abnormally high copy number or become ... of two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parental cell. Meiosis is used for a ... two daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes as the parental cell. After meiotic cell ...

Centromere

... the centromere in most organisms. The daughter chromosomes will assemble centromeres in the same place as ... the inactivation of the previous centromere since chromosomes with two functional centromeres (dicentric ... as Caenorhabditis elegans and in some plants, chromosomes are "holocentric" indicating that there is not a ...

Chromosome

... For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms , see Chromosome (genetic ... other intervening nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a ... chromatin . During mitosis (cell division), the chromosomes are condensed and called metaphasic ....

Chromosomal crossover

... crossover is the process by which two chromosomes , paired up during Prophase I of meiosis , ... of their DNA . Crossover occurs when two chromosomes , normally two homologous instances of the same ... create duplicate genes. Any pair of homologous chromosomes may be expected to cross over three or four times ...

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Chromosomes in Biological Dictionary

Translocation

... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... Translocation Down syndrome refers ... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... Detailed information on ... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... Chromosomal translocation summary ...

Telophase

... stage of mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes of daughter cells are grouped in new nuclei ...... telophase the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear ... ... By telophase there are two separate groups of chromosomes at each pole. ... In telophase II the ...

Synaptonemal complex

... structure that forms between two homologous chromosomes during meiosis and that is thought to mediate ... a synaptonemal complex would form to zip the chromosomes together (see ... Synaptonemal Complex ... two ... Synaptonemal complex – supernumerary chromosomes ... Zip3 Provides a Link between ...

Synapsis

... Synapsis is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It is a form of ... takes place during prophase I. When homologous chromosomes synapse, they come closer together until they ... association of homologous paternal and maternal chromosomes during the first prophase of meiosis ...

Spindle Fibers

... apparatus is the structure that separates the chromosomes into the daughter cells during cell ... fibers extend from the cell poles to align chromosomes at ... Spindle fibers synonyms, Spindle ... fibers contract, pulling the duplicate chromosomes ... ... spindle and Golgi tendon organ. ...

Sister chromatid

... cohesion essential for the bi-orientation of chromosomes on ... In addition to being required for sister ... ) Also found in: ... Mitotic metaphase chromosomes show sister chromatids ... The maintenance ... on each sister chromatid . ... cohesins on chromosomes are not sufficient for sister chromatid ...

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(Date:7/10/2014)... The benefits of medical imaging far outweigh the ... Right Way, with The Right Radiation Dose. However, overuse ... Mayo Clinic is leading a collaborative effort to ensure ... published online in the Journal of Patient Safety ... Joint Commission, the Intersociety Accreditation Commission, and the Centers ...
(Date:7/10/2014)... For decades, health-conscious people around the globe have ... figuring this was one of the paths to good ... clinical trials of antioxidant supplements have repeatedly dashed the ... their cancer risk. Virtually all such trials have ... In fact, in several trials antioxidant supplementation has been ...
(Date:7/10/2014)... Men who experience hot flashes are unlikely to ... from their silent suffering if they are willing ... a Baylor University case study., After seven weeks of ... hot flashes following prostate cancer surgery showed a drastic ... impressive improvement in sleep quality, according to the study., ...
(Date:7/9/2014)... MA -- Vasectomy was associated with a small increased ... advanced or lethal prostate cancer according to a new ... researchers found that the association remained even among men ... of lethal cancer cannot be explained by diagnostic bias. ... date to look at the link between vasectomy and ...
(Date:7/9/2014)... cancer, researchers have uncovered mutations in a cell-signaling pathway ... knowledge may expand treatments for patients because drugs targeting ... are in clinical trials. , Reporting July 9 in ... (TCGA), including researchers at Washington University School of Medicine ... studied tumors from 230 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. , ...
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(Date:7/10/2014)... Foundation, a nonprofit organization funding cutting-edge, innovative research ... glaucoma and macular degeneration, today announced the recipients ... scientists in 19 U.S. states, the District of ... . , With these latest grants, BrightFocus ... research funding in 2014. , The research projects ...
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(Date:7/10/2014)... University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have created a way ... pigmentosa (RP), a leading cause of vision loss. The ... induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology to transform skin ... a patient-specific model for disease study and preclinical testing. ... Tsang, MD, PhD, showed that a form of RP ...
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