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Neurons in Medical News

Famous Names Get Single Neurons Fired Up

... team of researchers has found that single neurons in the brain's hippocampus activate when people ... fascinating questions in neuroscience: How do neurons in the brain manage to abstract and disregard ... single neuron, the researchers found. Single neurons even fired when the subjects heard or saw the ...

St. Jude Scientists Discover a New Mechanism Controlling Neuronal Migration

... Understanding how neurons migrate to their proper place during brain ... up the brain's wiring. During brain development, neurons are born in germinal zones at some distance from ... "Glial cells produce very thin fibers, and neurons in essence walk a tightrope along these fibers in ...

Greater Language Skills in 20s May Guard Against Alzheimer's

... edition of Neurology . "We noticed that the neurons in this group of people are larger and we also ... in Baltimore. It's possible that the larger neurons compensated for the brain plaques and tangles ... study, this one in men, also found larger neurons in individuals who had plaques and tangles but no ...

CU-Boulder study shows brain's immune system may cause chronic seizures

... For decades researchers have focused on neurons as the culprits in seizures, which can be ... also profoundly increase the excitability of the neurons that they are near. "In our new study, we ... moving in and secreting these cytokines cause the neurons in the area to become excitable enough to cause ...

Odd Behaviors on Ambien Linked to Brain Circuitry

... they're deprived of activity. "Brain cells or neurons are highly reactive to incoming activity ... "When brain activity is silenced, many neurons automatically react to this change. We see this in our study, which suggests that inhibitory neurons responsible for stopping neural activity are ...

Popular Alzheimer's theory may be false trail

... population of brain cells known as glial cells. neurons are the workhorse cells of the brain, enabling ... support. Glial cells, which outnumber neurons 10-to-1, are at the heart of a popular ... When researchers examined these cells alongside neurons under a high-resolution microscope, they found ...

Making Obese Mice Slim, Without Diet or Exercise

... clues about ways to develop drugs to target neurons or other pathways in which leptin plays a key ... is there will be new drugs that would target the neurons or the downstream pathways of the neurons to help control blood glucose in people who ...

Study further expands understanding of leptin's role in brain neurocircuitry

... sensitivity is restored to a tiny area of POMC neurons in the brain's hypothalamus, a group of mice ... "We hypothesized that, in both cases, the POMC neurons were involved." To test their hypothesis, the ... the mechanisms at play, it may be that the POMC neurons reduce blood glucose by regulating key organs ...

Ceregene Presents Additional Clinical Data from Phase 2 Trial of CERE-120 for Parkinson's Disease

... axonal transport in degenerating nigrostriatal neurons in advanced Parkinson's disease impaired ... biological effect on the degenerating dopamine neurons in moderately advanced Parkinson's disease patients but that the inability of these neurons to efficiently transport neurturin back to their ...

Gray matter under attack in multiple sclerosis

... is produced both in the myelin sheathing and by neurons in the gray matter and is attacked by ... cells that wrap around the long extensions of the neurons to insulate them and to allow signals to ... myelin, and then ultimately to the demise of the neurons thus exposed. "It is the irreversible ...

Jet Lag Upsets Brain's Internal Clocks

... lag upsets two separate, but linked, groups of neurons in a brain structure called the suprachiasmatic ... at the base of the brain. One group of neurons (ventral) is synchronized with deep sleep that ... from physical fatigue, and the other group of neurons (dorsal) controls the dream state of rapid eye ...

Worms Control Lifespan at High Temperatures, UCSF Study Finds

... the same fast rate, whether their thermosensory neurons perceived the heat or not. The researchers found that when they either killed the heat-sensing neurons or deactivated the worm’s genes that ... The authors conclude that these heat-sensing neurons actually help the worm regulate its response to ...

Team Regrows Neurons Controlling Movement in Rats

... have shown it's possible to re-grow some neurons responsible for movement. But the new research ... Voluntary movement occurs when upper motor neurons in the frontal lobe of the brain send signals to ... tract are severed so that the lower motor neurons below the site of injury can't receive those ...

Scientists show how a neuron gets its shape

... technique to watch the growth of individual neurons in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis ... its head. They asked, "How long should a worm's neurons be?" And the worms fired back, "Long enough to ... branches of a tree extending outward certain neurons work backward from their destination, dropping ...

CSHL neuroscientists propose project to comprehensively map mammalian brain circuits

... to examine and measure the output of individual neurons in the brains of living animals, such studies ... synapses the myriad gaps across which individual neurons communicate, with the help of neurotransmitters ... of these techniques is in tracing projection neurons either from axon terminals to potentially distant ...

Treatment Target for Herpes Pinpointed

... this latent phase. "About one-quarter of neurons contain latent virus," Sawtell explained. ... From animal models, we know that the number of neurons that exit latency are very few, about one or two out of 6,000, and these neurons go back to the surface and replicate, potentially ...

Astrocytes help separate man from mouse

... simply to support flashier brain cells known as neurons that send electrical signals, are bigger, faster, ... moving on to their flashy counterparts, the neurons that fire the electrical signals crucial to ... everything we do. It's the electrical activity of neurons that constitutes what most scientists have ...

Lab-grown nerves promote nerve regeneration after injury

... colleagues have "stretch-grown" axons by placing neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (clusters of nerves ... plastic plates. Axons sprouted from the neurons on each plate and connected with neurons on the other plate. The plates were then slowly ...

Study finds how brain remembers single events

... brief experience was as effective at activating neurons and genes associated with memory as more ... In his study, Guzowski set out to learn how neurons in the hippocampus react to single events ... took one lap, they found that 10-15 percent of neurons in the CA3 region activated. The same percentage ...

Experts examine causes, treatment and prevention of glaucoma

... glial cells, which play many roles in support of neurons throughout the body, including those in the ... glial cells may not be able to adequately support neurons or perform their other functions, especially in ... related to mitochondria, which provide energy to neurons and may prove to be a pathway to prevent neural ...

Brain Adapts to Age-Related Eye Disease

... neurons seek input from undamaged areas to compensate, ... to start losing his or her sight, the affected neurons simply start seeking visual input from other, ... that the brain changes when its inputs change. neurons seem to want to receive input: When their usual ...

How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease

... Parkinson's disease involves the degeneration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. ... disease they examined some of the surviving neurons from patients who had 'sporadic' Parkinson's, as ... the disease. "Its possible that the surviving neurons remained functional, unlike the ...

Researchers identify ALS gene mutation

... Siddique and Cortelli. ALS affects the motor neurons in the central nervous system. As motor neurons die, the brain's ability to send signals to the ... is to understand what triggers the death of motor neurons in order to find new cellular models of ALS, with ...

Human stem cells provide a new model for Lou Gehrig's disease

... (DMM), dmm.biologists.org describes how neurons can be derived from human stem cells, and ... developed an optimized protocol to generate motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells (ES cells), which ... characteristics of motor nerve cells, and neurons expressing mutant SOD-1 display abnormalities ...

Growth factor protects key brain cells in Alzheimer's models

... cell signaling, and activation of function in neurons that would otherwise have degenerated, compared ... and restorative effects of BDNF on damaged neurons and neuronal signaling may offer a new approach ... will be countered by the widespread death of neurons in the cerebral cortex as a result of advancing ...

Team led by Scripps Scientists increases understanding of two types of blindness

... environment because oxidants are produced as neurons fire all day in response to light stimuli, and as ... researchers were able to deliver directly to the neurons in question a protein that protects neurons, ... problems associated with such injections. Eye neurons are supported and nourished by glial cells, which ...

Insulin May Protect Against Alzheimer's

... that bolstering insulin signaling can protect neurons from harm." The findings also add to recent ... to treat type 2 diabetes -- offered protection to neurons taken from the hippocampus, one of the brain's crucial memory centers. It protected the neurons from amyloid beta-derived diffusible ligands, or ...

Penn study finds link between Parkinson's disease genes and manganese poisoning

... in animal models and some were able to protect neurons from the toxic effects of alpha-synuclein. "One ... to show that the PARK9 gene could also protect neurons from alpha-synuclein's toxic effects. Next, ... manganese poisoning," says Chesi. "The specific neurons that are lost in the miners are from the globus ...

Weizmann Institute scientists create working artificial nerve networks

... made of live nerves grown in the lab. When neurons brain nerve cells are grown in culture, they ... network in one dimension only by getting the neurons to grow along a groove etched in a glass plate. ... field (as opposed to other systems of lab-grown neurons that only react to electricity). Experimenting ...

Canada-US scientists discover gene responsible for brain's aging

... controls the normal and pathological aging of neurons in the central nervous system: Bmi1. The ... the brain and the eye. The new study reveals that neurons in the retina and cerebral cortex require a gene ... regulator of cell aging in brain and retinal neurons of mammals through its action on the defense ...

Collagen VI may help protect the brain against Alzheimer's disease

... study it was unknown that collagen VI is made by neurons in the brain and that it can fulfill important ... experiments revealed found that Aβ added to neurons grown in culture increased the expression of ... VI in the cultures effectively protected the neurons against Aβ toxicity. "This striking ...

Scientists ID Enzyme Causing Brain Cell Death

... An enzyme believed to play a role in the death of neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's and ... in mice found that when HDAC1 is blocked, some neurons start to replicate their DNA as if they were about to divide. This isn't a natural cycle for neurons and causes them to die. But increased levels of ...

Unlocking the mysteries of memory

... what scientists have always suspected that the neurons excited during an experience are the same as ... their memories. "Taking a look at individual neurons can only be obtained under special ... We Lose Our Minds Prof. Fried located these neurons in the hippocampus of the brain, an important ...

Route to obesity passes through tongue

... rats, the OLETF rats had about 50 percent fewer neurons firing when their tongues were exposed to ... us that there is a difference in activation of neurons between lean and obese rats when they are exposed ... he says, stimulates our taste and food reward neurons on a chronic basis, making them less sensitive ...

A good ear: Rats identify specific sounds in noisy environments

... up of one frequency). He found that auditory neurons respond to a pure sound even if there is background noise. Indeed, 71 percent of neurons don't change their response rate while 16 percent ... increased sensitivity. Only 13 percent of neurons decreased their sensitivity in presence of ...

Researchers identify toehold for HIV's assault on brain

... Other changes occur throughout the brain as well. neurons that normally reach throughout the brain by ... dendrites projections that resemble tiny trees neurons in the brain of an HIV patient have had parts of ... works through the ryanodine receptor to sicken neurons in two ways. Scientists have known that Tat makes ...

High-Fat Diet While Pregnant May Produce Obese Kids

... to a high-fat diet in utero produces permanent neurons in the fetal brain that later increase the ... the Journal of Neuroscience . The creation of neurons that increase the appetite for fat may also occur ... identified the site of this action where new neurons are being born. We now need to understand how the ...

New Technique Activates Brain Neurons to Move Paralyzed Limb

... researchers have found a way to activate single neurons in the brain and use them to move a paralyzed ... found they could use biofeedback to retrain most neurons to stimulate muscles. The report was published ... path that sent electrical signals from single neurons to the paralyzed muscles. "We recorded ...

Time Teaches Brain to Recognize Objects

... this, the researchers recorded the activity of neurons in the monkey's inferior temporal (IT) cortex, a high-level visual brain area. IT neurons "prefer" certain objects and respond to them ... unchanged." After a while, the monkeys' IT neurons became confused. The sailboat neuron still ...

Surgical technique halts cell loss, Parkinson's researchers find

... why the technique works. The act of stimulating neurons with electrodes boosted the amount of an ... about 50 percent of his or her dopamine-producing neurons when symptoms first appear and a diagnosis is ... Measurements of surviving, functioning dopamine neurons in rats implanted with active stimulators were ...
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