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Myelin in Medical News

Gray matter under attack in multiple sclerosis

... nervous system. It has long been assumed that myelin is the most important target for the misdirected ... The protein Contactin-2 is produced both in the myelin sheathing and by neurons in the gray matter and ... "It could even be that proteins existing both in myelin and in the gray matter are in fact the critical ...

Tysabri May Treat Myelin Sheath Damage From MS

... to regenerate and stabilize damage done to the myelin sheath in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), a ... by MS patients are caused by damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects nerve cells. ... repair and possibly restore some of the damaged myelin sheath that protects nerve fibers. Results from ...

Cat Food-Linked Illness Yields Clues to MS

... that the felines' nerve fibers had lost the fatty myelin insulation that helps signals pass along these ... though, the cats' bodies reestablished thinner myelin sheaths that allowed the cats to recover fully, ... with MS and similar nerve disorders in which myelin has degraded -- but the nerves are still ...

Study gives more proof that intelligence is largely inherited

... determining how well nerve axons are encased in myelin the fatty sheath of "insulation" that coats our ... were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many ... identifying the genes that promote high-integrity myelin is critical to forestalling brain diseases like ...

Heavy marijuana use may damage developing brain in teens, young adults

... suggest damage or an arrest in development of the myelin sheath that surrounds brain cells," said Ashtari. myelin provides a coating around brain cells similar to insulation covering an electrical wire. If myelin does not function properly, signaling within the ...

Turning down gene expression promotes nerve cell maintenance

... transmission. Normal nerve cells have a myelin sheath, which, much like the insulation on a ... are studying the pathways that control myelin formation and maintenance. A new study by ... while lamin is necessary in the initial stages of myelin formation, too much lamin ...

New Pathways Studied to Repair Nerves

... about extrapolating from mice." The Genentech myelin approach is not new, Snider noted. "People have known in general that myelin down-regulates nerve cell growth capacity, ... that is true," he said. One belief is that the myelin mechanism is designed to prevent errors at times ...

Breakthroughs Offer Hope to MS Patients

... the fibers conduct electrical impulses. With MS, myelin is lost in multiple areas, leaving scar tissue ... Sometimes, the fiber itself is harmed. When myelin or the nerve fiber is destroyed or damaged, the ... has successfully used stem cells to help replace myelin in the brains of mice. "This discovery has shed ...

Brain Stem Cells Reverse Myelin Deficiency in Mice

... in the June issue of Cell Stem Cell . myelin is a structure, comprised of protein and fat, ... insulated to prevent signal loss over distance, myelin ensures that nerve impulses can traverse long ... the central nervous system without degrading. myelin is formed by neural support cells called ...

Human Stem Cell Transplant Helps Brain-Impaired Mice

... of electrical signals between nerve cells. When myelin is missing or damaged, electrical signals aren't ... cell transplantation for restoring absent or lost myelin to diseased nerve fibers. But, until now, no ... in a wide range of hereditary and ischemic myelin disorders in both children and adults." The ...

Collaborative Drug Discovery and Myelin Repair Foundation Announce Partnership

... new drug candidates, has been selected by the myelin Repair Foundation (MRF) to enable the ... Focused exclusively at this time on identifying myelin repair drug targets that will lead to treatments ... "While MRF is specifically focused on speeding myelin repair discoveries that will lead to treatments ...

Chemotherapy causes delayed severe neural damage

... is transferred from the ear to the brain. myelin sheaths are necessary for normal neuronal ... also for the cells that produce the insulating myelin sheaths (non-dividing oligodendrocytes). The ... tracts of the CNS and associated with extensive myelin pathology. The findings regarding the speed of ...

Minnesota partnership advances potential MS therapy

... The importance of the antibody as a promoter of myelin repair (remyelination) was recognized in studies ... is a progressive disease, caused by damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerves. It can affect the ... initiates the re-growth or repair of the damaged myelin sheath but has yet to be tested in patients. ...

Imaging shows structural changes in mild traumatic brain injury

... in white matter versus abnormalities in the myelin (the protective sheath that, if damaged, can ... "We found that the milder injuries had less myelin damage, and the more severe injuries had both axonal and myelin damage," said Kraus. "This research helps us ...

Antibody Helps Repair MS Nerve Damage

... D.C. In healthy individuals, damage to myelin repairs itself naturally. But in people with MS and other disorders of the central nervous system, myelin repair occurs either slowly or not at all. As a ... in trying to get a cure is, how do we repair myelin and restore function?" O'Looney said. There ...

Antibody leads to repair of myelin sheath in lab study of multiple sclerosis and related disorders

... a Mayo Clinic scientist and study author. myelin repair normally occurs spontaneously, but in ... disorders of the central nervous system, the myelin repair process occurs very slowly or fails ... are trying to determine how to speed up the myelin healing process, which they hope will eventually ...

DNA vaccine against multiple sclerosis appears safe, potentially beneficial

... sclerosis (MS), the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells in the brain and ... attack specific substances in the myelin, such as myelin basic protein. Certain cytokines, small proteins ... BHT-3009, that encodes a full-length human myelin basic protein. Between 2004 and 2006, the ...

UCI behind world's first embryonic stem cell study in humans

... for maintaining electrical conduction in the central nervous system. When myelin is stripped away, through injury or disease, paralysis can occur. In ... area of the spinal cord. As the cells wrapped around damaged neurons, new myelin tissue formed, allowing electrical conduction to resume and the rats to ...

Evolution and epilepsy

... with a central fiber contributed by a neuron and a jelly-roll like myelin wrapping made by other cells called glia," says Cooper. It was previously unknown which came first, the channel clustering on the neuron, or the myelin wrapping. "Our studies show that the sodium channel clustering ...

Neurons Can Re-Grow in Some MS Lesions

... group of four healthy people. In MS, the immune system destroys the myelin sheaths that surround and protect nerves. When the myelin is destroyed, the nerves misfire, and nerve impulses can be slowed or ...

NWO/Spinoza Prize for literature, microbiology, physics and medicine

... cerebral cortex to the rest of the body. These fibres are surrounded by myelin sheaths for insulation. The nerve fibres and the myelin together form the white matter. White matter disorders affect one in every ...

Multiple Sclerosis Affects Children's Cognitive Skills

... of the central nervous system. The disease leads to the destruction of myelin -- a protective coating found on nerve cells. Without their myelin coating, the nerve cells can't efficiently send signals between the brain ...

Jefferson neuroscientists show anti-inflammation molecule helps fight MS-like disease

... one of the most common neurological diseases affecting young adults, the myelin coating of nerve fibers becomes inflamed and scarred. As a result, ... was trying to understand the mechanisms of how immune responses damage the myelin sheath and axons in the brain. They had previously observed that IL-27, ...

Fat-Derived Stem Cells Might Treat MS

... of neurosurgery at the University of California, San Diego, said in a news release. In people with MS, the immune system attacks and destroys the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects nerves cells. It's believed that SVF cells, and other stem cells, may limit this immune reaction and promote the ...

Stem Cell Breakthrough May Lead to MS Treatments

... grow into critical nervous system support cells called oligodendrocytes, according to a report released Thursday. Oligodendrocytes produce the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers like wire insulation. The findings represent an important step toward embryonic stem cell-based therapies in ...

Mayo researchers discover mechanism of cell type-specific signaling in tumor development

... tumor suppressor gene Merlin. When Merlin is absent or mutated, the result is schwannoma, a form of tumor involving Schwann cells which make up the myelin sheath that covers nerves. Merlin has also been shown to play a part in causing melanoma, mesothelioma and possibly colorectal cancers. The ...

Avastin effective at delaying brain tumor progression in recurrent disease

... standard therapy. Oligodendrogliomas begin in brain cells called oligodendrocytes, which provide support around nerves by building a sheath of myelin and facilitating electrical nerve impulses. The relatively uncommon tumor affects about 2,000 persons annually in the U.S. Most are under age 50. ...

Hard to Treat Diseases (HTDS) Releases experimental results in the treatment of (MS) Multiple Sclerosis

... effects of the therapy: - The severity of clinical signs of disease was significantly reduced - The pathological changes in the myelin sheath (demyelination) were not detected - The reduction of mononuclear cell infiltrates, composed of T cells and ...

Schizophrenia linked to signaling problems in new brain study

... nerve cells, which is made of myelin, is damaged in people with schizophrenia. However, the new study found that the genes for dopamine and for myelin were not acting any differently in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. Professor Jackie de Belleroche, the corresponding author of the ...

Merck Serono and Apitope Announce Licensing Agreement on Novel Peptide Therapeutics for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

... platform in MS, we look forward to progressing ATX-MS-1467 with Merck Serono." ATX-MS-1467 consists of four short peptides that are derived from myelin basic protein, a key autoantigen in MS. It is specifically designed to target up to 70% of MS patients who have a specific genetic profile. ...

Only Half of MS Patients Respond to Interferon Therapy

... Many researchers suspect that MS is an autoimmune disease, meaning the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of MS, it is myelin -- the insulating layer around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord -- that comes under assault. More information For more on ...

Collaborative Drug Discovery 2nd Annual Community Meeting - Oct. 7, 2008, Speakers Confirmed & Call for Posters

... from academia to the market: From FluMist(TM) to Priority Review Vouchers and other stories -- Russell "Rusty" Bromley, Chief Operating Officer, myelin Repair Foundation Timely panel topics: -- Panel #1: What Foundations are looking for from Academic researchers? -- Panel #2: What makes ...

Low-Fat Milk OK for Some Toddlers

... but not low either. One likely reason that nature provides a reasonable amount of fat in breast milk is that fat is vital to the development of the myelin sheath in the brain, said Condon-Meyers. "That's why we worry about children not receiving enough whole fat," she said. Whole milk contains ...

MS drug development agreement based on WEHI's medicinal chemistry

... could block a potassium channel called Kv1.3. This potassium channel selectively inhibits autoreactive T cells, such as those that attack the myelin sheath in people with MS. Dr Baell says, "Our research in this area had a rocky start, but when our first patents were published in 2003, ...

Best treatment for MS may depend on disease subtype

... measured the activity of specific inflammatory agents that are induced by each type of T cell as the immune system mounts its misguided attack on the myelin sheaths of nerve cells. Both groups of mice developed similarly severe and rapid paralysis. But the researchers found clear differences in the ...

Food as Medicine?

... "If the lymphocytes cannot get in, you cannot get the inflammation characteristic of MS. The inflammatory response is what causes the damage to the myelin covering the nerve cells." Bynoe believes her team is the first to demonstrate this mechanism. In the animals given caffeine, the equivalent of ...

Transplanted Bone Marrow Cells Aid Nerve Regeneration

... After 24 weeks, the BMCs differentiated into cells with characteristics of Schwann cells -- a type of neural cell that provides the insulating myelin around the axons of peripheral nerve cells. "The differentiated cells ... contributed significantly to the promotion of axon regeneration through ...

Bone marrow cell transplants help nerve regeneration

... the BMCs after 24 weeks differentiated into cells with characteristics of Schwann cells a variety of neural cell that provides the insulating myelin around the axons of peripheral nerve cells. The new cells successfully regenerated axons and extended their growth farther across nerve cell gaps ...

News Tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... week, Sinha et al. constructed a new one, RTL551, from the outer domains of the I-A b class II molecule and an encephalitogenic peptide derived from myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG-35-55). RTL551 reduced the severity of active and passive MOG-induced EAE in mice. For passively transferred EAE, the ...

Eye Scan May Help Diagnose, Treat MS

... (OCT), are published in the October issue of the journal Neurology . Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system in which myelin -- the protective covering of nerves -- is damaged. Much research into the disease has focused on the damage to the myelin. But it is becoming ...
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