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Mitochondria in Medical News

Transgenomic Obtains Exclusive License to Mitochondrial DNA Damage Detection Technology

... oxidative damage within mitochondria. mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required ... Mitochondrial DNA Tests from Transgenomic mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required ... to function normally. There are hundreds of mitochondria in each cell, and within each mitochondrion are ...

Mini heart attacks lessen damage from major ones

... but a consensus had emerged recently that mitochondria were involved. The cell's powerhouse, mitochondria use oxygen to convert nutrients into cellular ... the gradient becomes too large, it triggers the mitochondria to use oxygen to generate free radicals. The ...

Researchers identify toehold for HIV's assault on brain

... team discovered that Tat destroys the ability of mitochondria to protect themselves from changes in levels of ... a great deal of energy energy that cells whose mitochondria are petering out aren't likely to have. The ... effects on the brain, causing problems with mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum weeks later. Perhaps ...

2 UCSF scientists recognized for transformative research

... death and cell cycle and growth. Dysfunction of mitochondria is implicated in neurodegeneration, obesity, ... pharmacological interventions at the level of mitochondria could become an effective way to treat these ... in our understanding of the molecular workings of mitochondria and the subsequent development of therapeutic ...

Muscle Weakness Found in Some Autistic Children

... Genetic defect in mitochondria might explain other aspects of the disorder, ... of Neurology's annual meeting, in Chicago. mitochondria are found in every cell of the body, with the ... United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (UMDF). mitochondria are vital to survival, because they make oxygen ...

Mitochondria play role in pathogenesis of AD and estrogen-induced neuroprotection

... As the major source of free radicals in cells, mitochondria contribute to the high levels of oxidative stress ... reduces this oxidative stress caused by the mitochondria while increasing the ability of the mitochondria to generate energy important since there is ...

Investigational drug tested for preventing muscle fiber death in muscular dystrophy

... cyclophilin D, which regulates the swelling of mitochondria in response to cellular injury. Researches ... D is instructed to make the membranes of mitochondria more permeable. This causes mitochondria to be flooded by calcium and reorganize, swell ...

Protein deficiency leads to faster fat burning in mice, study shows

... cells. Mehta said the new hybrid mice have more mitochondria within their cells than do normal mice, and that ... deficiency to animals with a lower production of mitochondria to see if the level of mitochondria increases when the protein is not present. ...

Obesity chokes up the cellular power plant

... clear changes in the function of the cellular mitochondria can be observed. mitochondria are responsible for the energy production in ... the cells. Another sign of dysfunction in the mitochondria was also the much decreased breakdown of these ...

Single Mutation in Mitochondrial DNA Weakens Heart, Muscles

... (HealthDay News) -- A single change in the DNA of mitochondria -- the cellular power plants that generate energy ... . The study provides further proof that the mitochondria play a central role in human health, the ... altered female mouse embryonic stem cells. mitochondria exist in all human cells and have their own DNA. ...

Mitochondrial 'bottleneck' cracked

... involved in energy production within the body. mitochondria have their own genetic information, known as ... levels the mutations are distributed. Defective mitochondria cause most damage in muscles, nerves and the ... cell divides into a number of eggs, so the mitochondria from that cell are distributed randomly ...

Mitochondria send death signal to cardiac cells, study shows

... technique. In experiments, cardiac cell mitochondria were isolated and subjected to ischemia and ... surgery at Ohio State 's Medical Center. The mitochondria have been suspected in this process, but to date, ... technique allowing researchers to watch isolated mitochondria in real time during this process. Using chemical ...

Fighting obesity may be as easy as ATP, says UH researcher

... and fungi, ATP is produced by enzyme complexes in mitochondria that live and reproduce inside the cell. ATP ... Often considered the powerhouses of cells, mitochondria convert molecules extracted from the food we eat ... ATP, the fuel used by the rest of the cell. The mitochondria house enzymes that carry out these steps ...

Researchers Pinpoint Link Between Caloric Restriction and Longevity

... When under stress, two genes within mitochondria guard against cell death THURSDAY, ... might lengthen your life. It turns out that mitochondria guard against cell death, and two specific genes within the mitochondria actually carry out that task, the scientists ....

Study looks at mitochondrial variation in sperm traits and sperm competitive ability

... sexual selection, where maternal inheritance of mitochondria may well have its greatest impact, female-limited ... the importance of maternal inheritance of mitochondria for sexual selection and male adaptation. mitochondria are the principal energy source of a cell, and ...

Cell Protein Could Help Spur Malignancy

... in the cell nucleus regulating gene expression, is also present in the mitochondria of cells and regulates the electron transport chain in tumor cells, said ... and microbiology at New York University's Langone Medical Center. mitochondria -- the energy source in cells -- are known to be critical to tumor cell ...

Research points to a new way to protect kidneys threatened by insufficient blood or toxins

... by vascular obstruction, trauma, chemotherapy, even antibiotics cause mitochondria - the cell's powerhouse - to "go to pieces," says Dr. Zheng Dong, cell ... Dong and his colleagues used an inhibitor of the natural fission process mitochondria use to multiply. They will further examine the cell death pathway - and ...

Penn State professor investigates estrogen, heart disease connection in women

... These are the "gate keepers of cell survival," says Korzick. The mitochondria play a significant role in whether or not a cell lives or dies as we age, ... in 2008, Korzick has already identified nearly 600 proteins within the mitochondria of a rat heart cell. ...

JCI online early table of contents: April 6, 2009

... NEPHROLOGY: Fragmenting mitochondria underlie acute kidney failure Damage to kidney cells known as renal ... to conditions that induce acute kidney injury in vivo, revealed that mitochondria fragmented before the cells died. Furthermore, both knocking down ...

Brain Cells Give New Clues to Alzheimer's

... radical then reacts with the protein Drp1, causing the fragmentation of mitochondria -- the cell's energy storehouses -- in the brain, a violent process that causes the neurodegeneration linked to Alzheimer's disease. When mitochondria break apart, the reaction damages synapses leading to nerve cell death. As ...

Naturally fluorescent molecules may serve as cancer biomarker

... causing a buildup of unused NADH. "Dysfunctional enzymes in the mitochondria are known to be associated with serious health problems such as cancer and ... when exposed to potassium cyanide. The relative amounts of NADH in the mitochondria also rose significantly. Other researchers have previously measured the ...

White blood cell uses DNA 'catapult' to fight infection

... are found only in selected areas, including the digestive tract. mitochondria often referred to as the power plants of the cell are components within ... ancient bacteria. Although most cellular DNA is contained in the nucleus, mitochondria have their own DNA. Previous research has shown that eosinophils ...

Key step in the 'puncture' mechanism of cell death revealed

... driven by a protein called Bak that acts by puncturing the membrane of the mitochondria - the cells power plant. Once this power plant is wrecked, the cell is ... The Bak doublet then forms the larger complexes that can puncture the mitochondria and provoke the cells self-destruction. This insight into how ...

In silico modeling helps predict severity of mitochondrial disease

... heart failure and epilepsy are passed from mother to offspring. mitochondria are the engines present in each cell that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the key energy currency that drives metabolism. mitochondria also have their own DNA (mitochondrial or mtDNA) that encodes a small but ...

Cellular Disorder Might Influence Behavior

... Dec. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In laboratory mice, respiration deficiencies in mitochondria (the source of energy in cells) are associated with changes in social ... information The University of Texas Medical Branch has more about mitochondria . -- Robert Preidt ...

Fighting diseases of aging by wasting energy

... on the aging process itself, according to the researchers. The mitochondria powering the mouse muscles were made inefficient by increasing the ... molecule ATP. Instead, the energy is lost as heat. When you make the mitochondria inefficient, the muscles burn more calories, a metabolic increase that ...

Biotech Company Builder Papadopoulos Says Investment in Innovation Needed to Advance Drug Pipeline at Massachusetts Biotechnology Council's Ninth Annual MASS Opportunities Investment Conference

... Legislation Future of Biotechnology Featured: RNA, Nanomedicine, mitochondria Capital Financing for Biotech Sector Could Hit New Highs for 2007 ... Showcased: Nanotechnology, Mitochondria, RNA Nanotechnology, RNA, and mitochondria research were highlighted as opportunities on the horizon. Vamsi Mootha, ...

454 Sequencing(TM): Science Paper Describes a Novel, Highly Efficient Method of Sequencing Ancient DNA; Sequences the Mitochondria of 10 Individual Mammoths to Prove It

... woolly mammoths. The study, entitled "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts" appears online (ahead of print) today in the ... of this new method by employing 454 Sequencing to sequence the entire mitochondria from 10 individual Woolly mammoths. Several of the hair samples ...

Recent developments at Burnham Institute for Medical Research, May 2009

... for the integrity of mitochondria, the energy powerhouses of the cell. The free radicals cause excessive activity of Drp1 that, in turn, cause the mitochondria to fragment. Once this happens, the energy of the nerve cell is compromised and connections to other nerve cells are lost and eventually the nerve ...

Nicotine May Help Prevent Damage from Bioterrosim Toxin and Growth Factors in Heart Disease News from Molecular Medicine

... that appears in the May-June 2009 issue of Molecular Medicine, a team of scientists from Argentina report identifying genomic instability in the mitochondria of cells culled from breast cancer tissue. The scientists analyzed two markers along the mitochondrial DNA and found 38 of the 94 tissue samples ...

Key protein in cellular respiration discovered

... a specific gene (Tfb1m) in the cell's nucleus codes for a protein (TFB1M) that is essential to mitochondrial protein synthesis. If TFB1M is missing, mitochondria are unable to produce any proteins at all and cellular respiration cannot take place. "Mice completely lacking in TFB1M die early in the foetal ...

Long-term L-carnitine supplementation prevents development of liver cancer

... the occurrence of cancer can be entirely prevented, slowed or reversed. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound which is primarily located in mitochondria and possesses potential protective effects against many mitochondrial toxic agents. It is derived from two sources; endogenous synthesis, in the ...

Motor proteins may be vehicles for drug delivery

... could also help inhibit the growth of cancerous tumors. Each cell in the body contains motor proteins that ferry cargo such as chromosomes, mitochondria or bundles of proteins, either from the center of the cell to its outskirts or from the periphery toward the nucleus. Most motor proteins contain two ...

Study Links Internal Source of Aging and Skin Damage

... proteins that are located on external cell membranes. ECTO-NOX proteins become increasingly active to generate additional metabolic energy as cell mitochondria age and produce less energy. arNOX has been identified in all fluids and cells tested, including serum and saliva, as well as the dermis and ...

New study shows how spikes in nitrite can have

... in the heart in ways that afford protection," noted Perlman. "We are intrigued by the breadth and magnitude of the proteomic changes in heart mitochondria elicited by a single, short-lasting elevation in nitrite concentration and believe that our findings will have broad implications for mitochondrial ...

First Americans Arrived on 2 Separate Paths

... crossing an open land corridor between two ice sheets. These conclusions come from Italian researchers at Universit#224; di Pavia who studied mitochondria DNA from two rare haplogroups, which are subgroups that share a common maternal ancestor. The study found that people with the D4h3 haplogroup spread ...

Anti-Aging Miracle Physicians Have Been Waiting for is Finally Here : Free Book Available From Natural Health News Report Reveals the Secret to Staying Young

... have other health benefits including: Increased endurance Prevents major disease Prevents skin damage from UV radiation Support health of the mitochondria A Cardiologist's Guide to Anti-aging, Antioxidants and Resveratrol normally sells in stores and online, and retails for just under $50. About ...

Researchers & Department of Defense Question Multiple Vaccine Administration

... by investigators from the Cleveland Clinic, Johns Hopkins Kennedy Krieger Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital concluded that disturbance in mitochondria (energy production cells) is an underlying mechanism in a subset of individuals with autism. "There might be no difference between the inflammatory ...

National grants further WA Medical Research

... also making an impact, having scooped two grants Dr Aleksandra Filipovska and Dr Oliver Rackham will undertake important projects that look into the mitochondria including research that aims to improve chemotherapy treatments." Professor Leon Flicker and Professor Osvaldo Almeida's team at WAIMR's WA Centre ...

Seahorse Bioscience Enters into Agreement with Primetech Corporation to Bring XF Technology to Japanese Market

... dysfunction, and in particular its role in cancer, obesity and age-related diseases. Seahorse XF instruments offer the only practical way to study mitochondria in whole cells." Introduced in June of 2006, Seahorse extracellular flux (XF) analyzers provide the first and only method to non-invasively measure ...
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