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Histones in Medical News

Dad's Genes May Play Greater Role Than Thought

... hypothesis has been that this 4 percent of DNA in histones is randomly distributed," Cairns said. "We ... the hypothesis and found that the DNA that is in histones is not randomly distributed but is located at ... clinic. "We isolated the DNA attached to histones and sequenced it," Cairns said. "We found genes ...

Brain DNA 'remodeled' in alcoholism

... author of the study. Chemical modification of histones can change the way DNA and histones are wound up together. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that add acetyl groups to histones and loosen the packing, promoting gene ....

Common molecule notifies immune system of prostate cancer

... wrapper that sheaths the DNA inside all cells, histones are abundant in the nucleus. The finding ... when chopped up, had activated the T cells their histones were being exposed. The team had identified ... also landed on another big question how do the histones rise to the surface of the tumor cells. Every ...

Cell pathway, disease linked to histone action

... biochemical agents or drugs that can target histones and influence cell production. Earlier research has looked at whether targeting histones during certain times of biological development ... goes along way toward helping us understand how histones like H2A are modified in the cell cycle and what ...

Work with fungus uncovering keys to DNA methylation

... turns out to be critical for DNA methylation. "It was long thought that histones were simply structural proteins, but we are learning that these proteins ... extensive "crosstalk" involved in the chemical modifications that occur on histones to influence other enzymes that interact with chromatin "Adhvaryu and ...

Sullivan wins NSF Career Award for research on therapeutic drug carriers

... delivery materials that mimic elements of the architecture and function of histones in chromosomal DNA packaging. histones are positively charged protein complexes that function as "spools" around ...

Chromatin remodeling complex connected to DNA damage control

... itself, Shen explains. DNA is tightly intertwined with proteins known as histones and assembled in histone/DNA units called nucleosomes along the connecting ... its connections to a specific phosphorylated histone. "Modification of histones has been studied for some time, now we are moving to understand the ...

BRIT1 allows DNA repair teams access to damaged sites

... that the protein plays a key role in early detection of DNA damage. Chromosomes are made of DNA that is tightly intertwined with proteins called histones to form chromatin. Chromatin is a very condensed structure that forms a natural barrier inhibiting access to genes, said first author Guang Peng, ...

Cocaine Spurs Long-Term Change in Brain Chemistry

... analysis technique to watch changes in the gene activity of mice that were injected with cocaine. The changes involve a shift in proteins called histones and transcription factors, which bind to DNA and regulate how the genetic information in a DNA strand is read to make a complementary sequence of ....

Mouse model highlights histone methylation as distinguishing feature for leukemia subtypes

... some MLL fusion proteins enhance gene expression by recruiting the histone H3 lysine79 (H3K79) methytransferase, DOT1L. Addition of a methyl group to histones plays an important regulatory role in the control of gene expression and is an example of an epigenetic change, a chemical alteration that does not ...

Tackling a hard-to-treat childhood cancer by targeting epigenetic changes

... in initiating leukemia. Studying samples from children with MLL-AF4 leukemias, the team made the same observations. "The fusion protein modifies histones and turns on genes that are not supposed to be turned on, and that initiate the development of the cancer," says Armstrong. "If you could inhibit ...

Tackling Hard-to-treat Childhood Cancer by Targeting Epigenetic Changes

... leukemia. Studying samples from children with MLL-AF4 leukemias, the team made the same observations. "The fusion protein modifies histones and turns on genes that are not supposed to be turned on, and that initiate the development of the cancer," says Armstrong. "If you could ...

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation awards prestigious fellowships to 14 top young investigators

... Fellow] with her sponsor C. David Allis, PhD, at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, is studying how modifications of proteins called histones regulate gene expression and maintain genome stability. Understanding the misregulation of these modifications will lead to a greater understanding ...

Traditional herbal medicine kills pancreatic cancer cells, Jefferson researchers report

... into proteins. In this case, it could involve the genes that are key to initiating programmed cell death. We looked at the status of the histones and found surprisingly that thymoquinone increased the acetylation process, Dr. Arafat says. We never anticipated that. At the same time, adding ...

A protein that triggers aggressive breast cancer

... and regulation. SATB1 also globally regulates histone status in the chromatin by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to the target-gene loci. histones are the proteins around which DNA in chromatin is wound like thread on a spool; histone status renders DNA sequences accessible or inaccessible for ...

Scientists solve structure of gene regulator that plays key role in cancer

... Cole laboratory at the time and coauthor of the current study, discovered why the protein performed so poorly: p300/CBP not only works to acetylate histones but also acetylates itself. Thompson found a way to prevent this self-acetylation using a chemical trick to produce the protein in a form that ...

Cancer stem cell marker also drives transcription in normal cells

... For example, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes are thought to activate gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins called histones which function like spools for DNA to wind around. The yeast SAGA complex and the homologue metazoan TFTC/STAGA, also called hSAGA, are ...

Plant pathogen yields substance to fight neuroblastoma

... enzymes known as histone deacetylases (HDACs), which structure the packaging of the genetic material, or DNA. HDAC enzymes change, among others, the histones proteins around which the DNA is wrapped. Alterations in the packaging of the genetic material are suspected to cause cancer or promote its spread. ...

Research suggests targeted treatment strategies for lupus

... In the current study, Mishra and colleagues explored whether it is a specific histone deacetylase, number 9 (HDAC9), that causes the problem. histones are considered the master regulators in gene expression, and Mishra was the first to establish an association between abnormal histone codes and the ...

Novel method conceived, to achieve genome-wide gene silencing.

... showed that a protein called SUMO holds on to the histones and acts to repress transcription of genes, and ... "In our experiments, we saw SUMO binding to histones across the genome, suggesting that if this ... a dramatic effect. We know, for example, that histones are important in a number of cancers, and SUMO ...

RNA Play a Vital Role in Gene Activity

... Inactive chromosomal regions are tightly wound around proteins called histones and cannot be copied into RNA. Loss of HOTAIR in skin cells specifically ... a group of enzymes called the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 that modifies histones and helps them wind up the DNA. The researchers' interest is more ...

Researchers Purify Protein That Could Regulate Male Hormones

... unwound and stretched, it would be a line of about two meters in length. histones are necessary to package the DNA so that it fits inside a cell's nucleus," ... is a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. Because histones are so intimately associated with DNA, even slight chemical alterations of ...

Recurrent Gliomas: Vorinostat Shows Anti-cancer Activity

... oral anti-cancer agent that inhibits an enzyme, histone deacetylase, that is closely associated with DNA in cells. By inhibiting the deacetylation of histones -- proteins that help organize the structure of DNA -- vorinostat alters the expression of several important genes and proteins resulting in tumor ...

Regulatory Mechanism for Tumor Suppressor Protein Identified

... this is one of only a small number of studies to identify methylation as playing a role in regulating the activity of proteins that are not histones. histones are relatively small proteins around which DNA is coiled to create structures called nucleosomes. Compact strings of nucleosomes, then, form into ...

Mouse Gene With Gene Stutter Will Help Leukemia Research

... overactive. For example, they found that proteins called histones, which help control a gene’s activity, were being altered. “We show that the histones are being modified in ways that can increase the activity of the HoxA9 gene,” says first author Adrienne M. Dorrance, a graduate student in ...

Cell Survival Depends on Chromosome Integrity

... structure made of proteins called histones. Each time a cell divides into two, all of this DNA must be copied exactly and repackaged properly with histones to form chromosomes in the new cell. During the copying process, new chromosomes often have breaks in them that need to be sealed before the ...
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