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Cytoplasm in Medical News

Protein compels ovarian cancer cells to cannibalize themselves

... Autophagy kills when a cell entraps parts of its cytoplasm in membranes and digests the contents, leaving a ... cell essentially eats itself until it dies, its cytoplasm riddled with cavities. Location, location, ... effects. Now they've found that PEA-15 in the cytoplasm induces autophagy in cancer cells, a second ...

Protein Branded As Culprit in Mad Cow Disease

... done by the researchers had found that brain deterioration follows when cytoplasm contains too much PrP. To further solidify this finding, a subsequent ... Syndrome -- a rare neurodegenerative disease in which PrP is found in cell cytoplasm -- found that some brain cells lacked Mahogunin in these mice. A similar ...

Scientists at CSHL uncover new RNA processing mechanism and a new class of small RNAs

... not likely perform this function. Yet mascRNA's location in the cell's cytoplasm and its pathway of biogenesis does hint at a possible function. Spector ... molecule within the nucleus while expelling the mascRNA fragment into the cytoplasm is still elusive. "The answer will come when we identify more and more ...

New nano device detects immune system cell signaling

... primed for an immune response, the concentration of calcium ion in their cytoplasm jumps up. So when the cytoplasm contains a dye that fluoresces when it comes into contact with calcium, it ...

Food additive may one day help control blood lipids and reduce disease risk

... "The neighborhoods where PPAR-alpha and fatty acid synthase live aren't very close together," says Semenkovich. "The synthase is way out in the cytoplasm that's like being in the suburbs whereas the PPAR-alpha lives right in the middle of the 'city.' These are all microscopic distances, but to the ...

Neuronal survival and axonal regrowth obtained in vitro

... order to do so, they used gene therapy based on use of interfering RNA. The short RNA sequences, which were made to measure, were inserted into the cytoplasm of cultured astrocytes using a viral therapeutic vector. Once in the cell, the RNA activates mechanisms which block the synthesis of the two proteins ...

Jefferson researchers identify critical marker of response to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer

... , published by researchers at Thomas Jefferson University. The protein, called Hu antigen R (HuR), is a stress response protein found in the cytoplasm of pancreatic tumor cells. In certain experimental settings, pancreatic cancer cells that overexpressed HuR were up to 30-fold more sensitive to ...

The future of personalized cancer treatment: An entirely new direction for RNAi delivery

... termed PTD-DRBD, which masks the siRNA's negative charge. This allows the resultant fusion protein to enter the cell and deliver the siRNA into the cytoplasm where it specifically targets mRNAs from cancer-promoting genes and silences them. To determine the ability of this PTD-DRBD fusion protein to ...

Extreme makeover: Stanford scientists explore new way to change cell's identity

... fate." Although the precise molecular regulators of such a switch have not yet been identified, Blau speculates that proteins or small RNAs in the cytoplasm of the predominant cell modify the gene expression program of the minority nuclei. In addition to homing in on these regulators, the researchers ...

Researchers design unique method to induce immunity to certain STDs

... able to uncover a surprising connection between vault nanoparticles and mucosal immunity. Vaults are barrel-shaped nanoscale capsules found in the cytoplasm of all mammalian cells that can be engineered to serve as potential therapeutic delivery devices. "The primary goal of vaccines is to generate ...

Naturally fluorescent molecules may serve as cancer biomarker

... not only depends upon the concentration of NADH but also on its structure -- free or enzyme-bound -- as well as its place inside the cell -- in the cytoplasm (non-nucleus part of the cell) or in mitochondria," explained Heikal. "Since a free NADH molecule would rotate -- tumble -- faster than enzyme-bound ...

Important new model shows how proteins find the right DNA sequences

... by the established theoretical model for how DNA-binding proteins find their way to the proper place by alternating between diffusing in the cell cytoplasm and along DNA strands. "By also taking into consideration the fact that there are many obstacles in the way when proteins are to diffuse along DNA ...

How to enhance non-thermal effects of ultrasound

... a clear boundary between tumor tissue and normal tissue. For PHIFU + UCA group, light microscopy displayed abundant vacuoles of various sizes in the cytoplasm and in some cells, chromatin margination and karyopyknosis were present. Electron microscopic examination revealed presence of karyopyknosis and ...

An effective strategy for inhibition of cirrhosis

... IV collagen levels in serum than those in the controls, ALT and AST are indexes to describe liver functions. Most part of ALT is presented in the cytoplasm of liver cell, discharged in blood when degeneration, hyper permeability and necrosis of liver cells occur. So the increase of ALT level in serum ...

Lou Gehrig's protein found throughout brain, suggesting effects beyond motor neurons

... cells. The ALS-associated TDP-43 includes fragments of normal TDP-43 as well as other abnormally modified forms of TDP-43, and it is located in the cytoplasm of neurons; whereas, normal TDP-43 is found almost exclusively in the cell nucleus. In ALS, the pathological TDP-43 accumulates in large "globs," ...

NYP/Weill Cornell physician-scientists present latest cancer findings at ASCO meeting

... rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, is beneficial in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. The drug blocks the activity of the mTOR protein within the cytoplasm of cancer cells, responsible for cancer cell proliferation and growth. The physician-scientists found that the drug slowed cancer progression in 44 ...

'Intrabody' can mop up mutant protein in Huntington's disease model

... the harmful effects of these protein aggregates in other diseases." The clumps of mutant huntingtin are also seen in the neuronal nucleus and cytoplasm in a recently established transgenic monkey model of Huntington's, which was reported by Emory University researchers at ...

A potential route for human tumor gene therapy

... The type 1 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) is a transmembrane protein found in all eukaryotic cells. One of its functions is to evacuate excessive H+ in the cytoplasm by means of Na+-H+ exchange, resulting in stable intracellular pH value. Inhibition of the upregulation of NHE-1 gene expression in human gastric ...

Unexpected role: EGFR protects cancer cells from starving

... Rather, these cells died of autophagy - a self-cannibalization response in which a cell under stress or lacking nutrients devours part of its cytoplasm and other organelles to survive. When this response goes on long enough, the cell essentially eats itself until it dies. In cancer research, ...

St. Jude researchers find key step in programmed cell death

... pair up in the inner membrane of the mitochondriatiny chemical packets that serve as the main energy source for cells. HtrA2 is made in the cells cytoplasm and is transported into the mitochondria, where the enzyme must have a region removed for it to be active. This requires snipping away 133 amino ...

RNA-associated introns guide nerve-cell channel production

... found in the middle of gene sequences, which after being made in RNA are simply excised in the nucleus before the messenger RNA is transported to the cytoplasm and translated into a protein. In 2005, the Penn group first found that dendrites have the capacity to splice messenger RNA, a process once believed ...

Deafness and seizures result when mysterious protein deleted in mice

... vesicular neurotransmitter transporter, a machine within nerve cells that ferries chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters, from the fluid-filled cytoplasm into vesicles that are positioned at the tips of nerve cells and serve to release neurotransmitters onto neighboring cells. Transporters and ...

Customized virus kills brain tumor stem cells that drive lethal cancer

... tumor cells to devour themselves until they die. This self-cannibalization, called autophagy, occurs when a cell forms a membrane around part of its cytoplasm or an organelle and then digests the contents, leaving a cavity. A cell that dies from autophagy is riddled with cavities. Cells normally employ ...

Carbon Nanoneedles For Drug Delivery

... as nanoneedles that pierce plasma membranes and translocate directly into cytoplasm without causing cell damage or death is significant for a variety of ... for example) usually exploit endocytosis, but stop before reaching the cytoplasm leaving other barriers for the drug to fight through. By piercing plasma ...

New Findings in Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

... expression of its target, the messenger RNA that encodes NXF1, which is an essential protein needed to transport most mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of cells, said Huang. Our findings explain why the NXF1 protein level is much lower in the hippocampal neurons involved in learning and memory than ...

Nobel Prize for Gene ‘Silencing

... called ‘transcription’, which is regulated by several factors. The information coded in the DNA is carried via the messenger or mRNA to the cytoplasm to be transformed into proteins. This basic information, ‘DNA to RNA to Protein’, called the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology , forms the very ...

Two Chemical Compounds Restore Healthy Glucose Levels In Obese Mice

... that the key to the obesity-diabetes connection might be found in the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER - a system of folded membranes and tubules in the cytoplasm of cells where proteins and lipids are manufactured, processed, and shipped around the cell. When unusual demands - such as excess fat - are put on ...

Penn Researchers Throw Light on the Structure Of Smallpox Virus Protein

... of whole viral proteins exist. Poxviruses are large viruses that contain two strands of DNA and replicate themselves entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Poxviruses do not take over the genetic machinery inside the nucleus of the host cell, as many viruses do. Because of this ...

Structure of DNA-modifying enzyme In Small Pox Determined

... structures of whole viral proteins exist. Poxviruses are large viruses that contain two strands of DNA and replicate themselves entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Poxviruses do not take over the genetic machinery inside the nucleus of the host cell, as many viruses do. Because of this ...

Platelets May Be The Source Of Gene Regulations

... cell that forms platelets and platelets isolated from the blood of study subjects, the Utah researchers found that splicing also takes place in the cytoplasm of circulating platelets. The U researchers, who report their findings in the August edition of the journal Cell, also identified the pre-mRNA ...
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