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Cells in Medical Definition

Central tolerance

... is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non-reactive to self. [1] The ... cell differentiation, whereby a proportion of the cells generated are self-reactive (recognise the ...

Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition

... Vincent et al, 1992), one working with pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and another working with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum . These groups were studying ... neurons of the hippocampus or the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Activation of GABA receptors ...

Cryostasis (clathrate hydrates)

... of water are damaged by the dehydration of the cells as ice is formed between the cells. The mechanism ... pressure of the solute water in the surrounding cells and as heat is removed at the freezing point of ... As the ice crystals grow, the volume of the cells shrinks, and ...

Fat transfer

... muscle to provide a better chance for the fat cells to find a nearby blood supply. Because some fat ... in each gluteal cheek, the surgeon places fat cells at dozens of levels through the patient’s rear. ... (Roberts) reports that a placement of fat cells the size of teaspoon will perish because that ...

Hematopathology

... which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells ( see below ). A hematopathologist looks at ... diagnosis . Diseases of Hematopoietic cells The major disease of hematopoietic cells fall into several categories, which include ...

Pathology

... through examination of organs , tissues , cells and bodily fluids . The term encompasses both ... seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues , as well as the body's means of ... human diseases. Adaptation to injury cells and tissues may respond to injury and stress by ...

Personalized medicine

... all cancers require a dysfunction in the DNA of cells that regulate growth, it would be foolhardy not ... test helps identify those patients whose cancer cells express the protein HER2 making them eligible. ... with this drug. It works by killing specific cells whereas chemotherapy can kill both deranged and ...

Thymocyte

... shape thymocytes into a peripheral pool of T cells that are able to respond to foreign pathogens and ... specificity. [1] Positive selection selects cells with a T cell receptor able to bind MHC class ... (by a process called "death by neglect") those T cells which would be non-functional due to an inability ...

Biotextile

... their performance depends on biocompatibility and biostability with cells and biological fluids . Biotextiles include implantible devices such as ... Jessica Gluck, has demonstrated that viable and functioning liver cells can be grown on textile scaffolds. External links website ...

Ramón Carrillo

... and 1945 he contributed valuable original research about the brain cells which are not neurons—named glial cells —and the method for staining and observing them under the microscope , as ...

Atransferrinemia

... heart and liver . The iron damage to the heart can lead to heart failure . The anemia is typically microcytic and hypochromic (the red blood cells are abnormally small and pale). Atransferrinemia is extremely rare, with eight cases documented worldwide. [1] Contents 1 ...

Autoinoculation

... Autoinoculation is the process in which cells are removed from a person's body, medically altered , then reinserted into the same person again. [1] It is also the process of spreading ...

Autoimmune regulator

... of a wide selection of organ-specific genes. This reduces the threat of autoimmunity occurring by allowing the elimination of autoreactive T cells by the process of negative selection if they are too reactive to self. It is mutated in the rare autoimmune syndrome Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy ...

Medicine

... first of these was arsphenamine / Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by French chemists originally from azo dyes. Throughout the twentieth ...

Muscle atrophy

... is called " sarcopenia ". The exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, but it may be due to a combination of the gradual failure in the " satellite cells " which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which ...

Nuclear medicine

... or, rarely, injection of a radionuclide that has undergone micro-encapsulation . Some specialist studies require the labeling of a patient's own cells with a radionuclide ( leukocyte scintigraphy and red cell scintigraphy). Most diagnostic radionuclides emit gamma rays , while the ...

Surrogate markers

... disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker. Examples of other surrogate markers include: fragmented blood cells are a surrogate marker for organ failure or stroke in TTP ; the S-phase duration, may be used as a surrogate marker for breast cancer ...
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