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Cytoplasm in Biological Technology

Genetic pathway critical to disease, aging found

... molecules that carry genetic information from the nucleus of a cell to the cytoplasm where proteins are made. Star-PAP is responsible for adding a critical ... that enables messenger RNA to exit the nucleus of the cell and enter the cytoplasm where the genetic message is translated into protein." The Star-PAP ...

Tigris Pharmaceuticals Presents Results of Breast Cancer Research at AACR Annual Meeting

... believed to be that treatment with AF results in translocation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR; a transcriptional regulator of CYP1A1) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and its subsequent interaction with the xenobiotic-response element (XRE) sequence on the CYP1A1 promoter region, causing induction ...

Researchers develop new way to see single RNA molecules inside living cells

... inside a cell, but the current study demonstrated that individual probes without cellular targets could be observed homogenously distributed in the cytoplasm with no localization or aggregation. With single-molecule sensitivity accomplished, the researchers investigated whether they could visualize ...

Researchers outline structure of largest nonvirus particle ever crystallized

... Institute and the UCLAU.S. Department of Energy Institute for Genomics and Proteomics. Vaults are large, barrel-shaped particles found in the cytoplasm of all mammalian cells; they may function in innate immunity. As naturally occurring nanoscale capsules, vaults may be useful to engineer as ...

Sigma-Aldrich Introduces N-TER Nanoparticle siRNA Transfection System for Delivery of siRNA Into Difficult-to-Transfect Cell Types

... transfection reagents by relying on a stable nanoparticle, formed by the blending of siRNA and the N-TER peptide, to quickly enter into the cell's cytoplasm to deliver its siRNA cargo. In addition, due to the reagent's stability, stocks of N-TER/siRNA Nanoparticles can be stored for long periods of time ...

Team demos safety of RNA therapy

... precursor to siRNA. Once the gene is incorporated into the cell's DNA, short hairpin RNA is synthesized and transported from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm for further processing. The earlier study showed that large amounts of short hairpin RNA blocked the cell's ability to export microRNA, which uses ...

Performance of Ad-A-Gene EGFP-MAPKAP-k2: an adenoviral vector gene delivery system

... of p38 MAPK , resides in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in non-stimulated cells. Stimulation initiates a ... distribution of MAPKAP-k2 within the nucleus and cytoplasm in response to stimuli can be examined. The ... ratio of signal intensity between the nucleus and cytoplasm shows that EGFP-MAPKAP-k2 translocation occurs in ...

Performance of Ad-A-Gene EGFP-Glucocorticoid Receptor (EGFP-GCCR): an adenoviral vector gene delivery system

... superfamily. GCCR resides predominantly in the cytoplasm and when glucocorticoids bind to a defined ... measure the fluorescence intensity in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of each cell. The ... EGFP-GCCR resides in both the nucleus and cytoplasm (at the “snapshot” time of this ...

Visualizing siRNA in Mammalian Cells: Fluorescence Analysis of the RNAi Effect

... from the transfection agent in the cytoplasm of transfected cells and the occurrence of strand ... that the dsRNA accumulated in the cytoplasm near the nucleus. Four hours ... lipid carrier and appears to be localized in the cytoplasm in close proximity to the nuclear ...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

... them to exhibit signs of disease. cytoplasm The protoplasm of a cell outside the nucleus ... (surrounded by membranes) found in the cytoplasm of most animal and plant cells. The rough ... circular and self-replicating and found in the cytoplasm of cells (naturally in bacteria and ...

siRNA screening of the cell cycle with two dynamic GFP sensors (from Discovery Matters Issue 1, July 2005)

... at the end of mitosis, and in the intervening period translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.

The second cell line reports on G1 phase to S ... predominates over the NLS leading to export of the fusion protein into the cytoplasm in S phase cells.

Imaging of GFP intensity and distribution ...

Using Validated siRNAs in Functional Genomic Assays

... a translocation from its normal localization in the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Cellomics ArrayScan HCS Reader can be ... translocation was readily quantitated using Cellomics ' cytoplasm to Nucleus Translocation BioApplication for the ArrayScan HCS ...

Gq-coupled receptor assays using FLEXstation: M1 muscarinic receptor

... domains of the protein. This interaction leads to downstream events such as mobilization of calcium from intracellular storage vesicles into the cytoplasm of the cell. Improper G q -coupled receptor function is implicated in cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is ...

Gq-coupled Receptor Assays Using FLEXstation

... is labor intensive and requires radioactive waste storage and removal. In comparison, the release of calcium from intracellular stores into the cytoplasm was traditionally monitored in single cells by using fluorescence microscopy image analysis and a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye. This procedure, ...

Caspase-3 Activation - An Indicator of Apoptosis in Image-Based Assays

... also has sophisticated analysis software built in to acquire and analyze images with minimal manual adjustment. Caspase-3 is primarily located in the cytoplasm and the algorithm was set to sample an area around the nucleus as representative of the cytoplasm. Results Images acquired by ...

Neurite outgrowth cell-by-cell analysis using the IN Cell Developer Toolbox

... fluorophores that emit light at different wavelengths. One fluorophore is used to mark the cell nuclei and the other is used to identify the entire cytoplasm of each cell. The analysis procedure identifies nuclei, cell bodies, and neurites, discriminates between cellular components, and quantitates spatial ...

Fluorescently Labeling Long dsRNA with the Silencer siRNA Labeling Kit

... hrp48 and U2AF 50 labeled dsRNA were taken up equivalently into L2 cells and localized to discrete perinuclear foci in the cytoplasm (Figure 1B). This localization is very similar to what was previously reported for siRNA in mammalian cells (Byron et al., ...

RNA Interference and Gene Silencing: History and Overview

... Nuclear run-on experiments in the latter case show that the homologous transcript is made, but that it is rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm and does not accumulate (1 , 3 , 6 ). ...

RNAi: Get the Whole Story

... from either total cell lysates, or from the nuclear or cytoplasmic cell fraction. The cellular localization of GAPDH in the cytoplasm is reflected in this data, which shows detection of GAPDH mRNA and protein only in the cytoplasmic cell fraction. ...

RNAi in Non-Mammalian Cultured Cells

... and U2AF 50 labeled dsRNA were taken up equivalently into L2 cells and localized to discrete perinuclear foci in the cytoplasm (Figure 3B). This localization is very similar to what was previously reported for siRNA in mammalian cells (Byron et ...

Precursor miRNAs for Successful miRNA Functional Studies

... ribonuclease, Drosha [1]. The resulting precursor miRNA, or "pre-miRNA," is transported to the cytoplasm via a process that involves Exportin-5 [2-4]. The pre-miRNA is further cleaved by Dicer [5] to generate a short, ...

MicroRNA Profiling by Array Analysis Reveals Critical BioMarkers

... into hairpin RNAs of 70-100 nucleotides by the dsRNA-specific ribonuclease Drosha [8] (Figure 1). The hairpin RNAs are transported to the cytoplasm and digested by a second, double-strand specific ribonuclease, Dicer. The resulting 19-23mer miRNA is bound by a complex that ...

pSilencer 4.1-CMV: Versatile Vectors for Expression of siRNA, miRNA, and mRNA

... in the nucleus by the Drosha protein to release 60-70 nt pre-miRNA hairpins. Pre-miRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm by an Exportin 5-dependent mechanism where they are processed by Dicer to generate mature 21-24 nt miRNAs ...

Isolation to Functional Analyses

... digestion of pri-miRNA by the double-strand-specific ribonuclease, Drosha [6]. The resulting pre-miRNA is transported to the cytoplasm via a process that involves Exportin-5 [7,8]. The pre-miRNA is further digested by Dicer [6,8] to generate a short, partially ...

Housekeeping Genes: Universal Positive Controls in siRNA Knockdown Experiments

... the transfection conditions for plasmids and siRNA are quite different, as the plasmids must enter the nucleus, whereas siRNAs act in the cytoplasm therefore, these optimizations may lead to poor results. In addition, the use of fluorescently labeled siRNAs can give unpredictable results due ...

RNAi Gene Silencing System

... cell systems, double-stranded siRNA oligos can be used to induce gene silencing. After siRNAs are delivered to the cytoplasm of a cell, they bind to a multi-protein complex to form an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The siRNA-protein ...

Custom and library siRNA for efficient gene silencing

... highpurity, 21-nucleotide sense and antisense RNA oligonucleotides. In mammalian cells, siRNA must be delivered to the cytoplasm using an RNA transfection reagent. TransMessenger Transfection Reagent from QIAGEN efficiently delivers siRNA to cells for ...

BioRobot MDx standardize your automated protocols in clinical laboratories

... highpurity, 21-nucleotide sense and antisense RNA oligonucleotides. In mammalian cells, siRNA must be delivered to the cytoplasm using an RNA transfection reagent. TransMessenger Transfection Reagent from QIAGEN efficiently delivers siRNA to cells ...
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