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Virulence in Biological News

New insights into a leading poultry disease and its risks to human health

... tools that contribute in fully understanding the virulence of APEC, and provide new avenues of research," ... material. Plasmids are able to acquire more virulence genes or turn benign bacteria into harmful ... "The problem right now is understanding the virulence of APEC as well as Salmonella to find a way that ...

UT Public Health researchers find link to severe Staph infections

... of Public Health and colleagues also tested the virulence of PVL in CA MRSA by using clinical strains of ... of infections reinforcing the importance of this virulence factor in the disease process. LukS-PV given ... compared to antibody responses to other USA300 virulence factors. The study found patients who had Staph ...

The medium is the message: Manipulating salmonella in spaceflight curtails infectiousness

... Although the study of a broad range of microbial virulence factors is now well advanced, many pieces of the ... have shown that Salmonella gene expression and virulence are profoundly altered by microgravity, with the ... microbial growth medium to gene expression and virulence during spaceflight. "Pathogenic cells are smart," ...

Scripps research scientists identify blood component that turns bacteria virulent

... the signal for Bacillus anthracis to unleash virulence factors. Without the presence of the bicarbonate ... B. anthracis and thus are likely to have similar virulence triggering mechanisms. Gram-positive bacteria ... an essential component for the induction of virulence gene expression in response to host bicarbonate ...

Brucella abortus S19 genome sequenced; points toward virulence genes

... discovered a group of 24 genes that are linked to virulence by making comparisons of the newly available S19 ... S19 compared to virulent strains yields candidate virulence genes" was published recently in PLoS One (May ... genomics narrowed down the search for Brucella virulence factors to a small group of genes. Of particular ...

Pathogen virulence proteins suppress plant immunity

... identified a key function of a large family of virulence proteins that play an important role in the ... in The Netherlands, examined the function of the virulence (or effector) protein Avr1b in P. sojae and ... are also present in many other members of a huge virulence gene superfamily that Tylers group found recently ...

New drug targets may fight tuberculosis and other bacterial infections in novel way

... proof of principle for the inhibition of this virulence factor in bacteria cultured in the lab. Our next ... Stirrett, focused on particular small-molecule virulence factors called phenolic glycolipids (PGLs). ... he adds. "I believe that drugs targeting virulence factors are just one component of the paradigm ...

Developing kryptonite for Superbug

... profile of staph that will quickly reveal the virulence of infections. To accomplish that goal, ... available to quickly and accurately judge the virulence of staph bacteria, Bohach noted. Finding ... toxin profile and insights into the virulence of specific staph infections. Finding an RNA ...

Spaceflight shown to alter ability of bacteria to cause disease

... the genetic changes that show an increase in the virulence of Salmonella as a result of spaceflight. The ... media to keep the bacteria growing to perform the virulence studies. As a synchronous control experiment ... in on the key molecular players necessary for virulence from among thousands of potential candidates. ...

K-State researcher, collaborators study virulence of pandemic H1N1 virus

... Richt said. His work with outside collaborators is testing the virulence of pandemic H1N1 in animal models. In pigs, Richt and his fellow ... to validate our testing systems." The researchers also studied the virulence of two strains of the pandemic H1N1 virus in a nonhuman primate model as a ...

American Society for Microbiology honors Deborah T. Hung

... her findingsa new small molecule inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae virulence and intestinal colonization, virstatin, which directly inhibited dimerization of the virulence transcriptional activator ToxTin 2005 in Science. Currently, ...

Comparative genomics reveals molecular evolution of Q fever pathogen

... genomes. The scientists examined C. burnetii strains of differing virulence to unveil clues on the genetic features associated with pathogenicity. ... and made a four-way comparison of C. burnetii genomic sequences. Strain virulence was associated with a smaller genome. The loss of genes was due in part to ...

From sheet metal elements to host cells: DFG launches 10 new collaborative research centers

... and molecular principles and mechanisms of the interactions between virulence factors and host factors. By incorporating both plant and human systems, ... of interactions between the two fields as possible. In addition, new virulence factors such as protease shall be investigated. In a holistic view, this ...

Rattlesnake-type poisons used by superbug bacteria to beat our defenses

... evidence that the trigger for the bacteria to start producing these extra virulence factors is turned on very shortly after the biofilm begins to form. Once the scientists have fully identified the virulence factors created by the biofilm bacteria, the proteins and enzymes may be ...

Monarch butterflies help explain why parasites harm hosts

... but the researchers also wanted to know how natural selection influences virulence in the wild. They isolated parasite strains from monarch butterflies in ... how public health interventions can influence the evolution of disease virulence based on the trade-off hypothesis. Predictions require careful knowledge ...

Microbes and their hosts -- exploring the complexity of symbiosis in DNA and cell biology

... Functional Plasticity in Constrained Mutualisms." Adam Silver and Joerg Graf from the University of Connecticut, in Storrs, explore the role of virulence factors and specific toxins produced by members of the Aeromonas veronii bacterial group in the article "Prevalence of Genes Encoding the Type Three ...

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

... the complex interactions involved when pathogens invade their hosts and lead to disease. They include descriptions of bacterial effector proteins, virulence factors, effector protein delivery systems, and infection by filamentous pathogens. Joo Setubal, Associate Professor at the Virginia Bioinformatics ...

A matter of density, not quantity

... particular are often caused by bacteria called Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Once they reach a certain density, colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce virulence factors and can enter into a slimy state, a biofilm, which prevents antibiotics from penetrating. The process of quorum sensing, which cells use to ...

Structural biology scores with protein snapshot

... and a complementary structural approach, X-ray crystallography. DAGK may be a therapeutic target for certain types of bacterial infections. It is a virulence factor in the bacteria Streptococcus mutans, which causes tooth decay. Sanders selected DAGK as a model for studying membrane enzymes when he ...

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... suggests that their ability to evade innate immune responses within the host, such as the type 1 interferon (IFN-a/B) response, contributes to the virulence of these viruses in mammals. In the study researchers used a mouse model to analyze the role of type 1 interferons in IFN a/β ...

Plant microbe shares features with drug-resistant pathogen

... plant-growth promoting bacteria, Pseudomonas putida W619 and Enterobacter sp. 638, neither of which contain broad spectrum antibiotic resistance or virulence factors that would allow them to behave as opportunistic pathogens," he said. "We are certain about this after carefully analyzing the genome ...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

... extraintestinal manifestations of Gram negative infection." Babbin BA, Sasaki M, Gerner-Schmidt KW, Nusrat A, Klapproth J-M A: The bacterial virulence factor lymphostatin compromises intestinal epithelial barrier function by modulating Rho GTPases. Am J Pathol 2009, 174: 1347-1357 Mouse ...

Researchers find pathway and enzyme unique to tularemia organism

... dinucleotide, in all living organisms studied thus far, ranging from bacteria to humans," said Klose, whose lab studies the genetics behind the virulence of F. tularensis . "Our study uncovered that Francisella makes NAD in a very unique way, using the enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase, ...

ASM biodefense and emerging diseases research meeting

... followed by a keynote address by Stuart Levy of Tufts University School of Medicine, entitled, "Studying Bacterial Transcription Factors Involved in virulence and Antibiotic Resistance: Dual Use Research of Concern? " OF NOTE: A plenary session on the science behind the anthrax letter attack ...

UD research study to shed light on emerging seaborne pathogen

... study, which is funded by a $400,000 food biosafety grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is to home in on this emerging pathogen's virulence genes and determine how the organism overcomes its victim's immune system -- information that can then be used to combat, detect and prevent ...

Protein 'tubules' free avian flu virus from immune recognition

... that also come into play during influenza virus infection." The two researchers had already recognized the importance of the protein NS1 in the virulence of influenza viruses and particularly, H5N1, a form of avian flu associated with more than half the deaths in a 2004 "bird flu" outbreak that ...

Scripps Florida scientists awarded $1.5M to fight major water and food parasites

... The new inhibitor designed by Roush's laboratory attacks the EhCP1 ( Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase), which is believed to be a virulence factor of this parasite. "We have designed a compound that has very good properties as an inhibitor of this particular protease," Roush said. ...

Eastman Dental Center awarded $1.6 million to find ways to prevent cavities

... of bacteria to form plaque and cause cavities. Most recently, Koo and his team have identified a novel strategy to reduce the development and virulence of dental biofilms and caries by combining two naturally occurring anti-biofilm molecules with fluoride, which is already well known to prevent ...

Growing fuel and medicine: Advancing biofuels and plant-produced therapeutics

... might allow us to disrupt microbial communication thereby interrupting the infection process. In addition we use genomic approaches to identify novel virulence factor as targets for antifungal drug development. Potential drug targets are subjected to high throughput screens to identify small molecules that ...

NSF, NIH award Ecology of Infectious Disease grants

... and human infectious diseases in an estuary subjected to extreme climatic events (Rachel Noble, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); virulence trade-offs in a vertebrate virus--infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN)--a disease of salmon and trout (Benjamin Kerr, University of Washington); ...

American Society for Microbiology honors D. Scott Merrell

... at Tufts University School of Medicine. As a graduate student, his primary research interest was to identify genetic factors associated with the virulence of Vibrio cholerae, and notably demonstrated that V. cholerae excreted by humans are more infectious than those found in the environment. During his ...

The good, the bad and the smelly: USGS at the 2008 Coral Reef Symposium

... Likelihood of Diseases: Unusually high-water temperatures can increase the occurrence of coral disease by either influencing the concentration or virulence of disease-causing agents, or by increasing host susceptibility through bleaching. The 2005 Caribbean coral-bleaching event provided the opportunity ...

New pathogen from pigs' stomach ulcers

... from Belgium have succeeded. "We have developed a new method to cultivate these bacteria and can now study their main characteristics and virulence properties," said Professor Dr Freddy Haesebrouck from Gent University in Belgium. The researchers had to recreate aspects of the bacterium's natural ...

Veterinary college researchers explore function of biofilm in bovine respiratory disease

... The $374,000 grant will allow Inzana and his fellow investigators, Drs. Indra Sandal and William Scarratt to study the role of biofilm in the virulence of Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus), one of the bacteria responsible for BRDC. If we can understand the protective or disease-enhancing ...

Netting mosquitoes to prevent malaria

... transmission goes down, it tends to be the more virulent strains of the disease that survive. "We don't want that to happen, so we'll be studying virulence factors to monitor it," Walker said. The study also will examine how well people accept and use bed nets in their daily routines. "I'm very excited ...

Solving an avian scourge could also provide benefits to human health

... thread that can be found in E. coli and Salmonella-which genetically, are very distant cousins at best. The problem right now is understanding the virulence of APEC as well as Salmonella to find a way that will protect against all types of the bacteria, said Mellata. For the past generation, Curtiss ...

Cornell researcher seeks clues to how tuberculosis infects cells

... to the same stimuli and that BCG appears less capable of protecting itself once inside a macrophage. The findings are consistent with the reduced virulence of BCG, which is key to its safety as a vaccine. The study is a small part of a larger plan to understand the processes that allow the bacteria to ...

Small RNA plays parallel roles in bacterial metabolism

... two functions it performs participate in the same stress response, Vanderpool said. One other small RNA, a 500-nucleotide molecule that regulates virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, was previously found to encode a protein, Vanderpool said, but the activity of that protein did not ...

Scripps research team blocks bacterial communication system to prevent deadly staph infections

... bacterial cells, referred to as quorum sensing. In their free-living state, bacteria are typically easy to kill and non-virulent. The shift to virulence is dependent on small molecules emitted by bacteria known as autoinducers, because bacteria sense when concentrations of these autoinducers are high ...

New molecular clock from LLNL and CDC indicates smallpox evolved earlier than believed

... to be able to compare the genomes, added Lab scientist Beth Vitalis, who helped analyze the data. She added that additional, related studies of virulence factors are in process. ...
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