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toxicity in Biological News

Scientists report first remote, underwater detection of harmful algae, toxins

... in NOAA's effort to monitor the type and toxicity of harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs are ... only the organism causing a bloom, but also the toxicity of the event, which ultimately dictates whether ... impacts on the coastal ecosystem, since the toxicity of these algae can vary widely from little or ...

Chemicals in common consumer products may play a role in pre-term births

... many other consumer and industrial products. The toxicity varies by specific phthalates or their breakdown ... phthalates cause reproductive and developmental toxicity in animals. A couple of human studies have ... products based on the growing amount of animal toxicity data and since national human data show that a ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- June 17, 2009

... tubes on four feet? EPA moves toward animal-free toxicity tests Chemical & Engineering News The ... of animal-free tests for predicting the toxicity of chemicals to humans, according to an article ... tests. Meanwhile, new technologies for predicting toxicity may emerge and complement conventional animal ...

Countries unite to reduce animal use in product toxicity testing worldwide

... scientific recommendations on alternative toxicity testing methods that should speed their adoption ... scientific validation of non- and reduced-animal toxicity testing methods. If the toxicity testing methods are shown to be reproducible ...

Researchers report 'moderately large' potential for red tide outbreak in Gulf of Maine region

... and the lead investigator of the Gulf of Maine toxicity (GOMTOX) study, spent 10 days collecting seafloor ... Massachusetts. The researchers have found that toxicity in near-shore shellfish is the highest for years ... there are a lot of cells in the Gulf of Maine, toxicity can be confined to offshore waters if the winds ...

Calculating gene and protein connections in a Parkinson's disease model

... scientists have analyzed alpha-synuclein toxicity to identify genes and pathways that can affect ... identified several links between alpha-synuclein toxicity and basic cell processes, including those used to ... ResponseNet also tied alpha-synuclein toxicity to a highly-conserved pathway targeted by ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Jan. 28, 2009

... types of bacteria that serve as models of cell toxicity and indicators of environmental health to QDs ... natural organic matter may be able to mitigate toxicity by complexing metal ions or coating particles. ... might be difficult to predict with short-term toxicity tests." - MTS ARTICLE #4 FOR IMMEDIATE ...

Link possible between pet food contamination and baby formula contamination

... the Society of Toxicology, describes the kidney toxicity of melamine and cyanuric acid based on research that was done to characterize the toxicity of the compounds that contaminated pet food in ... in the paper was done in rats, but because the toxicity depends only on the two compounds being present ...

How to build crops that can beat aluminum's toxic effects

... cells. If that were true, getting around Al toxicity would be no easy task since any single change in ... The new results may offer insight into Al toxicity not only in economically important agricultural ... of Al are critical to the manifestation of Al toxicity in either plant or animals, partly due to the ...

UC Riverside biochemists devise method for bypassing aluminum toxicity effects in plants

... has determined that it is not aluminum toxicity that is directly responsible for inhibiting plant ... breakthrough in our understanding of how aluminum toxicity inhibits root growth," said Leon Kochian , a ... develop into cell types and tissues. Aluminum toxicity results in the loss of these stem cells, and ...

Advance offers revolution in food safety testing

... to use, faster and more directly related to toxicity assessment than conventional approaches now used ... are not readily available to directly assess the toxicity of bacterial contamination in a user-friendly ... bacteria, which does not necessarily describe toxicity and the potential to cause harm. Sometimes ...

UCLA, partners establish new center on environmental effects of nanotechnology

... employ approaches that differ from traditional toxicity testing, which relies mainly on a complex set of ... a predictive science of nanomaterials toxicity is an important and timely approach for ... 40,000 industrial chemicals have undergone toxicity testing, making it very challenging to control ...

Biologists find diatom to reduce red tide's toxicity

... a diatom can reduce the levels of the red tide's toxicity to animals and that the same diatom can reduce red tide's toxicity to other algae as well. If scientists can learn to use this process to reduce the toxicity of red tide, they could reduce the vast amount of ...

Landmark studies assess risk of exposure to elevated levels of EMS confirm clear toxicity threshold

... City have provided unprecedented insight into the toxicity of an impurity called ethyl methanesulfonate ... data provide unprecedented insight into the toxicity of EMS for humans. They will change the long held ... to-date. Scientists investigated the genetic toxicity of EMS using the following sets of studies: ...

New chimeric mouse model for human liver diseases, drug testing

... used as model organisms to study the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, says lead author Karl-Dimiter Bissig, ... In the past, this has led to unexpected toxicity problems, when drugs moved into clinical trials after toxicity tests in rats failed to reveal adverse effects ....

MIT: 'Micro' livers could aid drug screening

... costs associated with their development. Liver toxicity is one of the main reasons pharmaceutical ... due in part to the shortcomings of liver toxicity tests. Existing tests rely on liver cells from ... long, it has the potential to make new types of toxicity tests possible. For instance, it opens the door ...

Yale scientists use nanotechnology to fight E. coli

... began the study out of concerns for the possible toxicity of nanotubes in aquatic environments and their ... cellular damage. The study ruled out metal toxicity as a source of the cell damage. To avoid metal ... Lisa Pfefferle . We're now studying the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and our ...

Growing evidence of marijuana smoke's potential dangers

... that question by comparing marijuana smoke vs. tobacco smoke in terms of toxicity to cells and to DNA. Scientists exposed cultured animal cells and bacteria ... and tobacco. There were distinct differences in the degree and type of toxicity elicited by marijuana and cigarette smoke. Marijuana smoke caused ...

Toxic molecule may help birds 'see' north and south

... Schulten was at first dismissive. "But then I realized that the toxicity of superoxide was actually crucial to its role," he said. The body has ... has been recognized for its role in cellular signaling. However, its toxicity may also explain why humans, who also have cryptochrome in their eyes, do ...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

... Progression. Am J Pathol 2009, 174: 2073-2085 Treatment for Oxygen toxicity Dr. Marieke van Zoelen and colleagues at The University of Amsterdam ... that uPAR, which attracts immune cells, plays a role in oxygen toxicity in the lungs. They found that mice treated with high levels of oxygen had ...

University awarded £1.7M to develop nanotechnology for use in health care

... they will also look to establish if nanotechnology can reduce the toxicity of drugs by using smaller doses without losing effect. The project ... commitment and the doses currently needed have significant associated toxicity when administered over a lifetime. Complications include heart problems, ...

Lithium may help radiation target cancer, spare healthy tissue

... patients can now survive longer and are being cured, alleviating long-term toxicity is becoming more important," she said. Researchers have been searching ... problem is that we cannot kill the tumor completely because normal tissue toxicity limits the dose," Xia said. "So if we can protect normal tissue, we can ...

Long-lasting nerve block could change pain management

... and produced long-lasting local anesthesia in rats without apparent toxicity to nerve or muscle cells. The research was published online April 13 by ... been successful due to the tendency for conventional anesthetics to cause toxicity to surrounding tissue. Indeed, drug packaging materials have themselves ...

Cleaning up oil spills can kill more fish than spills themselves, say Queen's biologists

... detergents used to clean up spills of diesel oil actually increase its toxicity to fish, making it more harmful. "The detergents may be the best way to ... Hodson. "But in the short term, they increase the bioavailability and toxicity of the fuel to rainbow trout by 100-fold." The detergents are oil ...

Nanoparticle toxicity doesn't get wacky at the smallest sizes

... the nanoparticles use to get inside cells. One difficulty in measuring toxicity is that not everyone agrees which kind of dose unit to compare. Some ... number of particles. Neither method distinguishes whether a nanomaterial's toxicity is due to the inherent nature of the material or the particle size under ...

Donation for new Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology

... Centre is to unravel the molecular basis of nanomaterial performance and toxicity through "structure-activity" assessments at membrane organelle, cellular ... ratio. CPNN also intend to provide "bench-mark protocols" for toxicity evaluation of nanomedicines in animals, and at cellular and molecular ...

What causes cell defenses to crumble?

... that are not regarded as toxic by conventional standards can enhance toxicity of other compounds. Little is known about the global environmental and ... authorisation procedure has been looking at associated risks, such as toxicity and mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. The sensitization effect of certain ...

NSF and EPA establish 2 centers for environmental implications of nanotechnology

... providing an important service to our nation and beyond." Traditional toxicity testing relies mainly on a complex set of whole-animal-based toxicity testing strategies. "This approach cannot handle the rapid pace at which ...

Synthetic moleculues could add spice to fight against cancer

... molecule favored by the researchers has a nearly 100-fold difference in toxicity to cancer cells vs. healthy cells, meaning it takes 100 times more of the ... changes that may seem insignificant can have dramatic effects on these toxicity properties," Fuchs said. "But most of the compounds we've made have been ...

Experimental chemotherapy regimen shows promise in treating advanced lung cancer

... on the part of both patients and treating physicians to accept the toxicity of platinum-based therapy, given the associated small gain in survival, so active therapies with improved toxicity profiles are clearly needed," said the study's lead investigator, Isamu ...

Research measures movement of nanomaterials in simple model food chain

... stability, small size, solubility in aqueous solutions and lack of toxicity to whole organismsalso raise concerns about their long-term impact on the ... the NIST team investigated the dietary accumulation, elimination and toxicity of two types of fluorescent quantum dots using a simple, laboratory-based ...

Butter-flavored popcorn ingredient suspected cause of lung disease

... concentrations in the workplace. The NIOSH research examined the acute toxicity of inhaled diacetyl in rats, and compared different exposure patterns. It was one of the very first studies to evaluate the respiratory toxicity of the chemical flavoring agent at levels relevant to human health. The ...

NOAA science story tips -- AAAS 2008 edition

... Ben Sherman, NOAA National Ocean Service, 301-713-3066, ext. 178 NOAA toxicity assessments of the anti-fouling biocide, Irgarol 1051 in larval and adult ... Sublethal effects on several biomarkers were observed only in larvae. The toxicity in both life stages was observed only at concentrations above those that ...

Chemicals used as fire retardants could be harmful, UC-Riverside researchers say

... who also was interviewed for the KNBC story. The extent of their toxicity is currently being investigated by the U.S. Environmental Protection ... is urging more research funding into the short- and long-term toxicity of PBDEs. Due in part to our lifestyles electronic equipment, car and ...

Waterborne carbon increases threat of environmental mercury

... that is much more toxic," Moreau says. "[Methylation] increases mercury's toxicity by essentially putting it on a fast train into your tissue - it increases ... is there to stay, Moreau says an understanding of what regulates mercury toxicity is critical for developing ecosystem-level management strategies. ...

Decoding effects of toxins on embryo development

... and industry for reliable methods needed to evaluate the developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and waste products. The research ... under the REACH programme but can also help to evaluate the developmental toxicity of novel compounds at an early stage of drug development," says Strhle. ...

Trial seeks 'genetic fingerprint' for predicting drug effectiveness

... to treat advanced colorectal cancer. Studies have shown the drug has fewer toxicity complications compared with other therapies. After six weeks of ... between molecular markers and drug resistance, with the goal of reducing toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents and improving patient survival. ...

PETA awards $120,000 to Duluth Foundation for advancing non-animal tests

... to Reduce Animal Testing to further its important work aimed at improving toxicity testing and saving the lives of millions of animals who are routinely ... is fundamental to enacting the vision for a more intelligent and humane toxicity testing strategy that was set forth recently in a landmark report by the ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- Aug. 29, 2007

... Menachem Elimelech and colleagues point out that past research on the toxicity of SWNTs has focused on their adverse human and environmental effects. ... by direct contact with SWNTs is the likely mechanism responsible for the toxicity to model bacteria. These observations point to the potential use of SWNTs ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Aug. 8, 2007

... Research in Toxicology In a study that eases concern about the toxicity of nanoparticles being considered for use in medical imaging and ... several weeks. The genetically modified plants significantly reduced the toxicity of the TNT-contaminated soil. This is the first report to demonstrate ...
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