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host in Biological News

Animal and plant communication at the ESA Annual Meeting

... Insect herbivore species often specialize on the host plants that they eat, evolving adaptations to use ... to specialization than better utilization of host plants as food. Specialists might also be more ... than generalists, he postulated, at using their host plants for defense or refuge from predation, ...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

... the microbiota - that we are all are host to. When the team treated mice with ... "It will also facilitate determining the host factors important in disease and will lead to ... microbiota and the immune system of the host - in this case the mouse - primarily in response ...

2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center scientists receive Presidential Early Career Award

... mimicry," in which viral proteins can resemble host proteins to hijack important cellular functions. His lab showed that host proteins can evolve to defeat viral mimicry, ... and identify cases of "reverse mimicry," in which host genomes hijack viral proteins to protect ...

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... it may provide some degree of protection to the host in the early stages of infection," say the ... infections, such as MRSA, by activating the host immune response. They report their findings in ... we found that L5 induced the activation of the host immune responses and protected the mice from ...

Sweden to host 1.3 billion Euro research center

... seven countries voted in support of Lund's bid to host the European Spallation Source (ESS), with a ... history and all three sites which competed to host the ESS put forward very credible bids. On ... must now establish a formal agreement with the host country and commit the funds and resources ...

The challenges of avian influenza virus: Mechanism, epidemiology and control

... China, reminding us the virus is expanding its host range from birds to mammalians. In 2003, during ... victims or carriers of H5N1, the expansion of the host range and interspecies transmission of H5N1 virus ... our understanding of the virus itself and the host factors affecting this change. George F. GAO, ...

Locking parasites in host cell could be new way to fight malaria

... parasites depend upon an enzyme stolen from the host cell for successful infection. Historically, many ... developing ways to keep parasites from entering host cells, but Greenbaum's group was curious about an ... route of attack: locking the parasites inside the host cell. These studies began with Plasmodium ...

The host makes all the difference

... with the flu virus, we have investigated how the host reacts to an infection," says Klaus Schughart, ... the role played by the genetic factors of the host and what increased receptiveness means in the ... for the newly-created flu viruses to leave the host cells, in turn, they require neuraminidase (N). ...

When intestinal bacteria go surfing

... the intestine. But how do the bacteria bring the host cells to convert the actin skeleton? Researchers ... which the bacteria insert entire proteins in the host cell," explains Theresia Stradal, head of the ... Two factors, Tir and EspFU, are brought into the host cell from the bacterium for pedestal formation. ...

Scientists identify human monoclonal antibodies effective against bird and seasonal flu viruses

... that is necessary for viral entry into the host cell, thereby preventing further infection of host cells and the rise of escape mutants. "The ... change to allow entry of viral RNA into the host cell. It's very difficult to get a mutation that ...

Scientists identify human monoclonal antibodies effective against bird, seasonal flu viruses

... that is necessary for viral entry into the host cell, thereby preventing further infection of host cells and the rise of escape mutants. "The ... change to allow entry of viral RNA into the host cell. It's very difficult to get a mutation that ...

Special issue of BMC Microbiology spotlights standardized language for describing microbes

... either peacefully with or wreak havoc on their host cells. Some microbes keep their host cells alive; others kill them quickly. Some ... beginning of the project was the realization that host pathogenesis is only one possible outcome on a ...

Host shift triggers cascading effect on ecosystem, research finds

... America, shifted from its ancestral hawthorn host ( Crataegus spp .), to introduced European apples ... of host-related adaptations and are now distinct host races, on their way to becoming separate species." A host race is a group of organisms in the process of ...

Single gene lets bacteria jump from host to host

... a single gene is enough for the microbe to switch host animals. The finding, reported this week (Feb. ... bacterium's lineage and allowed it to expand its host range into the squid," according to Mandel. "The ... message of the paper is that bacteria can shift host range by modifying their capabilities with small ...

New insights into a leading poultry disease and its risks to human health

... ABC transporters help the bacteria elude toxins a host uses to fight off the infection. Most of the ... strategies to acquire iron sequestered by the host can survive in specific niches and consequently ... by their ability to transfer from their own host bacteria into new recipient bacteria. By ...

2009 Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Awards granted for pioneering ideas in cancer research

... attack upon it. This effect, called Graft Versus host disease, leads to severe tissue and organ damage, ... result in death. Prevention of Graft Versus host disease has long evaded scientists, despite their ... activity is a driving force behind Graft Versus host disease. Moreover, as Notch activity is ...

How Toxoplasma gondii gets noticed

... the parasite, which relies on survival of the host to ensure its own transmission. But how the infected host elicits an immune response isn't completely ... within specialized vesicles inside infected host cells, but the process by which peptides from the ...

Haag honored with Presidential Early Career Scientists Award

... mussels have developed strategies to attract host fishes and infect them with larvae. These ... mimic minnows, crayfish, and other prey items of host fishes. Fishes are tricked into attacking these ... of a meal; however, larvae rarely harm the host fish. Haag also led a 10-year effort to ...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

... Understanding the evolutionary pressures between host genome and transposable element will in the ... LTR retrotransposons are abundant and impact host genomes, we wanted to determine the influence of ... derive from the effect of the elements on the host genome, or the effect ...

Computation and genomics data drive bacterial research into new golden age

... knowledge of how bacteria behave when inside host organisms such as humans, both in benevolent ... the outside environment, such as an attack by a host immune system. As Buttner noted, second ... of environmental insults, such as action of a host immune system, or indeed of an antibiotic drug. ...

From sheet metal elements to host cells: DFG launches 10 new collaborative research centers

... Centres in detail: (in alphabetical order by host university) Collaborative Research ... "Control Mechanisms of Microbial Effectors in host Cells"aims to acquire new, fundamental knowledge ... of the interactions between virulence factors and host factors. By incorporating both plant and human ...

Scripps research scientists identify blood component that turns bacteria virulent

... "How a bacterium recognizes signals in the host that trigger pathogenesis mechanisms, and the ... of virulence gene expression in response to host bicarbonate levels and have used this finding to ... in the presence of bicarbonate really mimics the host growth conditions." In their current study, ...

ASU researchers receive NIH awards for studies of malaria and emergent disease

... will delve into the genetic mysteries behind the host shift of retroviral disease from primates to ... that may be under positive selection by the host immune system." Escalante says that he is "particularly interested in how host switches may lead to molecular adaptations in ...

New CU-Boulder study shows diversity decreases chances of parasitic disease

... show that an increase in diversity of host species actually can reduce parasite transmission ... has shown that a decrease in diversity in mammal host species for ticks carrying Lyme disease increases ... of parasite transmission was not total host diversity but the specific composition of ...

Waste from gut bacteria helps host control weight, UT Southwestern researchers report

... plays a large role in controlling whether the host animals are lean or fatty, a research team, ... animals weigh less. The study shows that the host can use bacterial byproducts not only as a source ... The bacteria break up large molecules that the host cannot digest. ...

Entomological Society of America names 2008 award winners

... feeding in a northern hardwood forest, larval host location behavior, adult host choice and performance, and interactions between ... illinoense (Fabaceae), a potential reservoir host for BPMV. This work has resulted in peer-reviewed ...

Why some primates, but not humans, can live with immunodeficiency viruses and not progress to AIDS

... in humans and SIV infection in macaques, the host immune system becomes highly activated, ... dendritic cells in AIDS-susceptible or resistant host species. Dendritic cells are part of the immune ... patterns of Toll-like-receptor signaling. Because host immune responses are unable to clear AIDS virus ...

Study reveals how viruses collectively decide the fate of a bacterial cell

... make collective decisions about whether to kill host cells immediately after infection or enter a latent state to remain within the host cell. The research, published in the September ... that control whether viruses burst out of the host cell or enter a latent state. "What has ...

UCR graduate student discovers, names bacterium linked to psyllid yellows

... psyllid into their tomato and potato host plants, subsequently causing yellowing and death ... looking at symbiont and psyllid interactions with host plants as well as other susceptible host plants of the bacterium. She also is trying to ...

Entomologists play matchmakers for cerambycid beetles

... opposite sex. Instead, these beetles gather on host trees, drawn there by their attraction to ... the chemicals that attract these species to their host trees." During the second year of the ... fungi, and other pathogens that can kill the host trees. Cerambycids are also likely to transmit ...

Plant parasite 'wiretaps' host

... that sucks water and nutrients from its plant host also taps into its communications traffic, a new ... the lab. They found that RNA molecules from the host could be found in the dodder up to a foot (30 cm) ... synchronize its lifecycle with that of the host plant, Sinha said. "It might be important for ...

Potential new drug target to fight tuberculosis identified

... pathogen only needs in order to survive in the host environment." The research was just published ... internal pH with the organism lying inside a host cell. "The ability to make those kinds of ... with, rather than in difference to, the host environment, ...

From foe to friend: Researchers use salmonella as a way to administer vaccines in the body

... programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer ... bacterium colonizes the lymph tissues of the host and manufactures a protein from the S. ... of arabinose and clearance of the strain from host tissues," the researchers state in the PNAS ...

BWF awards $7 million to infectious disease investigators

... understanding the interaction between the human host and the infectious agentbacterial, viral, fungal, ... approaches to study the interaction between the host and the microbe." Following are the 2008 award ... Brown University Phenotypic variation and host adaptation by the human fungal pathogen Candida ...

Monarch butterflies help explain why parasites harm hosts

... hypothesis. Parasites have to harm their host to replicate and be transmitted, said lead author ... what this study found is that if they harm their host too much, theyll suffer too. On the other hand, ... Predictions require careful knowledge of host and parasite biology, but one idea is that ...

Getting wise to the influenza virus' tricks

... to allow the virus to multiply by hijacking the host cell protein production machinery. The findings ... a key role in stealing an important tag from host cell RNA molecules to direct the protein ... comes to hijacking the normal functioning of the host cell. The influenza virus steals a password ...

Fruit flies show how salmonella escapes immune defenses

... of immune defenses at once and set up shop in a host organism. New results are reported in the April 2008 issue of the journal Cell host & Microbe. The Emory University research team ... secreted by invading organisms to usurp the host immune response for their own benefit. They ...

Mechanisms of plant-fungi symbiosis characterized by DOE Joint Genome Institute

... tips of the fungus that colonize the roots of the host plant. "We believe that the proteins specific ... in soil pores inaccessible to roots of the host plant. "The Laccaria genome sequence, its ... between the fungi and the roots of the host plant so that an equitable exchange of nutrients ...

Viruses evolve to play by host rules, according to University of Pennsylvania researchers

... the preferences of its host. The host bacterium is exerting a strong evolutionary ... because a virus must hijack the machinery of its host in order to reproduce. We are seeing that ... way the bacterium does, obeying the rules of its host and demonstrating co-evolutionary behavior. ...

Disrupting common parasites' ability to 'talk' to each other reduces infection

... cycle by communicating with each other in the host cell. When they sense high enough levels of ABA, the parasites break out of host cells; otherwise, they stay in the host cell and remain dormant. With help of online ...
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