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fibers in Biological News

Crustacean shell with polyester creates mixed-fiber material for nerve repair

... in wet environments. Researchers combined the fibers at the nanometer scale by first using a technique ... into nanometer-scale fibers, and then weaving the fibers together. The resulting material has a texture similar to that of the nanosized fibers of the connective tissue that surrrounds human ...

Progress toward artificial tissue?

... This gel can be spun: just as silk and synthetic fibers can be wet-spun for textiles, the gel can be made ... when injected into a special bath. The dried fibers have a porous, sponge-like structure and consist ... solution further cross-links the DNA, causing the fibers to become denser and more strongly connected. ...

Non-wovens as scaffolds for artificial tissue

... mechanical properties of the individual polymer fibers and for this purpose developed a special ... machines". They then placed and fastened the fibers over the testing machines. Under the microscope the researchers were able to observe how the fibers behave when they are pulled, how far they stretch ...

Breaking the ties that bind: New hope for biomass fuels

... have discovered a potential chink in the armor of fibers that make the cell walls of certain inedible ... spins these sheets into high-tensile-strength fibers of material. Not only are the fibers incredibly strong, but they are incredibly ...

The secret to chimp strength

... motor neuronsnerves cells that connect to muscle fibers and regulate muscle movement. More grey matter ... any given time. We can engage just a few muscle fibers for delicate tasks like threading a needle, and ... is clear that we do not contract all our muscle fibers at once," Walker writes. "So there might be a ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Dec. 3, 2008

... The scientists describe development of cotton fibers coated with electrolytes and carbon nanotubes ... 1/50,000 the width of a single human hair. The fibers are soft, flexible, and capable of transmitting ... battery. When coated with certain antibodies, the fibers detected the presence of albumin, a key protein ...

American Chemical Society Weekly PressPac Oct. 15, 2008

... of a key natural protein into strong nano-sized fibers about 1/50,000th the width of a human hair. The ... materials from natural proteins, hoping that such fibers would be more compatible with body tissue than ... Scientists recently focused on producing these fibers through "electrospinning," a high-tech weaving ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 28, 2008

... an electric charge to turn polymers into thin fibers in the presence of electricity, produced plastic ... types of plastics have been electrospun into fibers with extended uses and properties, researchers have been unable to spin POM into fibers until now, the researchers say. They report ...

Cow stomach holds key to turning corn into biofuel

... allows a cow to digest grasses and other plant fibers can be used to turn other plant fibers into simple sugars. These simple sugars can be ... be produced with less cost. Turning plant fibers into sugar requires three enzymes. The new ...

Promising new nanotechnology for spinal cord injury

... the site of the injury because the damaged nerve fibers can't regenerate. The nerve fibers or axons have the capacity to grow again, but ... injury site and enables the severed spinal cord fibers to regenerate and grow. The gel is injected as a ...

Low exposure to asbestos-like mineral from Montana vermiculite may up lung disease risk

... who experienced low cumulative exposure to these fibers had changes in the lining around their lungs. In ... and environmental health. Once inhaled, these fibers are very persistent and stay in the lung for a ... the high propensity of these asbestos-like fibers in Libby vermiculite to dramatically increase the ...

Story ideas from the Journal of Biological Chemistry

... is intriguing since it shows that aciniform silk fibers are not made for one specific task but rather get ... thin fiber acts like twine to hold thicker silk fibers together. ARTICLE: Aciniform spidroin: A constituent of egg case sacs and wrapping silk fibers from the black widow spider, Latrodectus Hesperus ...

Neural stem cell study reveals mechanism that may play role in cancer

... newborn neurons then migrate along the stem cell fibers up to the neocortex, the seat of higher cognitive ... high levels in migrating neurons and along radial fibers and that they were, in fact, highly localized in ... white matter pathways -- the network of neural fibers that connect neurons. While roles for the gap ...

Tires made from trees -- better, cheaper, more fuel efficient

... cellulose a product that can be made easily from almost any type of plant fibers to partially replace silica as a reinforcing filler in the manufacture of ... also provide another market for large amounts of Pacific Northwest natural fibers and the jobs and technology needed to process them This advance is ...

Monitoring water through a snake's eyes

... a building or community's water supply in real time. Modifying special fibers developed in his Tel Aviv University lab, Prof. Katzir can detect "colors" ... to track down prey. Connected to a commercial infrared spectrometer, the fibers serve as sensors that can detect and notify authorities immediately if a ...

True grit

... and softer calcite crystals. While in most such materials a matrix of hard fibers contains a softer filling, the reverse is true for the urchins' tooth: a matrix of relatively soft calcite fibers holds the harder magnesium calcite crystals, which allows these crystals ...

6 young ASU faculty earn NSF Career awards

... Sodano's method uses nanowires to form an interface that bonds and blends fibers such as carbon, glass or polymers with other materials. The effect of ... technologies that require high temperatures, which can damage the fibers and reduce the material's strength. Sodano's team wants to understand ...

Plant gene mapping may lead to better biofuel production

... Liu explained, small molecules called acyl groups attached to cell-wall fibers can act as barriers to hinder conversion of the fibers to sugar. Acyl groups can also form cross-linked networks that make cell ...

Stanford researchers develop biodegradable substitutes for wood, plastic bottles and other materials

... composites, or "biocomposites"-glue-like resins reinforced with natural fibers that are made from plants and recyclable polymers. Billington's group ... a number of promising materials. The best turned out to be natural hemp fibers fused with a biodegradable plastic resin called polyhydroxy-butyrate ....

A budding role for a cellular dynamo

... lab of biologist Bruce Goode, set out to discover how the length of actin fibers is controlled. By answering this question, the scientists sought to ... of embryonic development. In yeast cells, as in all other cells, actin fibers serve as internal "railways" or tracks that give the cell directionality ...

National Science Foundation grants Clemson professors award to develop nanoprobes

... traditional methods of sampling biological fluids. Needles containing tiny fibers will work like a sponge to draw up fluids from even the smallest surface. ... Materials Science and Engineering and the Center for Advanced Engineering fibers and Films, according to center director Douglas Hirt. Kornev and Igor ...

Scientists discover a molecular scaffold that guides connections between brain cells

... a kind of scaffold. This scaffold, in turn, directs the growth of nerve fibers and their connections between specific types of neurons. As they learn ... so-called Purkinje cells, a type of neuron that deploys a bushy array of fibers called dendrites that extend through layers of cerebellar territory. The ...

Turning fungus into fuel

... has uncovered important clues about how the organism breaks down plant fibers into simple sugars. The finding could unlock possibilities for industrial ... The organism uses enzymes it creates to break down human-indigestible fibers of plants into the simplest form of sugar, known as a monosaccharide. The ...

Irritating smells alert special cells, NIH-funded study finds

... the surface of the nasal cavity are in close contact with trigeminal nerve fibers which end just below the surface. Earlier research revealed that these ... with solitary chemosensory cells on the surface and trigeminal nerve fibers just below allows the nose to detect a greater number of irritating odors, ...

Oosight microscope enables embryonic stem cell breakthrough

... cell, which led to his landmark discovery in 1951 of the meiotic spindle fibers in living cells. He later showed that dynamic disassembly of the spindle fibers can produce force that moves the chromosomes toward the poles of the cell ...

Cell transplants may improve severe urinary incontinence

... grafted into normal striated skeletal muscle they fuse with host muscle fibers where they can form mosaic fibers or regenerate new fibers. In the double-blind study, self-donated ...

First-ever study: lack of critical lubricant causes wear in joints

... wear. Under an electron microscope, scientists could see that the collagen fibers that cartilage is composed of were breaking up, giving the surface a ... nanoscale, the molecule appeared as a mesh row upon row of interlocking fibers that could repel a microscope probe. This repulsion, created with water ...

Odd protein interaction guides development of olfactory system

... positions in the antennal lobes. The commissure, a network of neural fibers that connects the lobes, also was missing. Because receptors and their ... absent Wnt5 was moving into regions where it didnt belong, and the neural fibers that formed the glomeruli were following. Neural development was truly ...

Antioxidant to retard wrinkles discovered by Hebrew University researcher

... that delays the aging process by countering the breakdown of collagen fibers in the skin. Dr. Bossi conducted her research under the supervision of ... the result, among other things, is a breakdown of the collagen and elastin fibers in the skin. When this happens, there is a loss of skin elasticity and the ...

Scientists open doors to diagnosis of emphysema

... MMP12 is an enzyme secreted by macrophages which usually helps them to break down the extracellular matrix (the complex network of proteins and fibers that surround and support the cells of the body), a process important for normal wound healing. However, over-stimulation of macrophages by irritants ...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

... discovery are highlighted in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) called "Evidence for heteromorphic chromatin fibers from analysis of nucleosome interactions." The authors include Gaurav Arya, a nanoengineering professor at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of ...

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

... a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at UCSF. The investigation, conducted in mice and in human tissue, showed that repair of nerve fibers is hampered by biochemical signals that inhibit the development of cells known as oligodendrocytes, which function as repair workers in the brain. ...

Prenatal meth exposure linked to abnormal brain development

... know how prenatal meth exposure may lead to lower brain diffusion, less diffusion of molecules in white matter typically reflects more compact axonal fibers in the brain," said Chang. "This is consistent with our prior findings of smaller subcortical structures in children with prenatal meth exposure, ...

American Chemical Society Weekly PressPac -- April 8, 2009

... underlying materials. Until recently, however, scientists knew little about the chemical mechanisms that allow mussels to coat the tendon-like fibers in byssal threads with a material that is both hard and extensible. The researchers conducted a detailed chemical analysis of the protective outer ...

CSHL researchers explain process by which cells 'hide' potentially dangerous DNA segments

... if stretched end to end. A genome of this size can squeeze into a cell's tiny nucleus because it is compressed into highly condensed chromatin fibers by proteins called histones. All chromatin in the cell nucleus represents a massive condensation of the genetic material. But a portion of it ...

As good as it gets: Octogenarian muscles don't get stronger with exercise

... His team may be able to build on two intriguing findings from the current study: while the octogenarian women had many fewer muscle fibers, the fibers they did have were large and healthy looking the genes involved in muscle growth are present in the resting muscle of the octogenarians at much ...

Spun-sugar fibers spawn sweet technique for nerve repair

... together. These tubes act as sheaths that house the conducting elements of the nerve cell. The first step in making the tubes is to spin sugar fibers from melted sucrose. "It's basically like making cotton candy," Li said. The sugar filaments were coated with a polymer called poly L-lactic ...

Genome of a heat and drought resistant cereal plant analyzed

... Asia and Europe it is mainly utilized for food and fodder and is also gaining in significance as a basis for bio-fuel. The plant also provides fibers as well as combustible material for heating and cooking. As part of an international consortium of scientists, researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum ...

Brain structure assists in immune response, according to Penn vet study

... "We found, quite unexpectedly, that the movement of infiltrating T cells was closely associated with an infection-induced reticular system of fibers in the brain," lead author Emma Wilson said. "These structures were not present in normal brain tissue." "This observation suggests that in the ...

Nicotine activates more than just the brain's pleasure pathways

... chorda tympani (CT), which is a branch of the facial nerve that serves the taste buds in the front of the tongue and found that activity in CT nerve fibers increased when nicotine was put on the mice's tongues. Looking ahead, Oliveira-Maia said that drugs thath block the nAChR receptors are now being ...
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