Making a point: Picoscale stability in a room-temperature AFM
... backwards to a detector. Any lateral vibration or drift
of the sample shows up at the detector as a ... the second beam is used to detect vibration or drift
in the probe tip, with the added complication ... imaging applications, they showed the long-term drift
at room temperature was a mere 5 picometers per ...
AGU journal highlights -- Oct. 16, 2008
... calculate sea ice thicknesses over the Transpolar drift
during the late summers of 2001, 2004, and 2007, ... older, thicker ice has decreased due to changed drift
patterns. The authors suggest that the shift to ... Title:
Reduced ice thickness in Arctic Transpolar drift
favors rapid ice retreat.
Predators ignore peculiar prey
... of variation is a classic paradox in evolution because both selection and drift
tend to remove variation from populations. If one form has an advantage, such as being harder to spot, it should replace all others. Likewise, random drift
alone will eventually result in loss of all but one form when there are no ...
Separating the good from the bad
... to their ability to forage for food, since chiral effects make them drift
off-course. But it is also important for several industries that rely upon ... into the center of the microfluidic device and demonstrated that they drift
off-course in a direction dictated by their chirality.
But the ...
The continents as a heat blanket
... (Vol. 171, S. 313-322).
Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift
was turned up when the driving forces for continental drift
were discovered during the 50s and 60s: The enormous heat in the Earth's ...
Ocean fish farming harms wild fish, study says
... sea louse can produce over a thousand larvae during her life. Larvae drift
in the ocean and a lucky few of them drift
close enough to a fish to attach. Most larvae die without ever finding a ...
Migratory moths may hitch their rides, but they're anything but drifters
... enable them to carry out the spring northwards migrations, or do they just drift
with the wind?"
To answer that question, the researchers examined the ... preferred direction, using their internal compass to make up for any wind drift
that sends them off their course north. Chapman said they don't know ...
The sea ice is getting thinner
... for the first time during this International Polar Year. They are able to drift
freely in the Arctic Ocean whilst collecting data on currents, ... trace elements from Siberian rivers and shelf areas, that through polar drift
are being pushed towards the Atlantic.
American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- June 17, 2009
... in their bodies. Barely one-third of a strand of hair in diameter, diatoms flourish in enormous numbers in oceans and other water sources. They die, drift
to the seafloor, and deposit their shells and oil into the sediments. Estimates suggest that live diatoms could make 10−200 times as much oil ...
Researchers gain genome-wide insights into patterns of the world's human population structures
... population structure.
"The genome-wide distribution of these markers," Akey believes, "can largely be accounted for by genetic drift." Genetic drift
is gradual accumulation of random changes in the gene pool of small populations. Akey added that some of these variations, however, do cluster in ...
MIT: How you feel the world impacts how you see it
... the classic waterfall illusion, if you stare at the downward motion of a waterfall for some period of time, stationary objects like rocks appear to drift
upward. MIT neuroscientists have found that this phenomenon, called motion aftereffect, occurs not only in our visual perception but also in our ...
ORNL, Southern Cal set sights on preventing blindness
... a "ground" electrode behind the patient's ear, the research team is able to maintain constant pH in the area being treated. At the same time, any pH drift
can be exported to a surface-accessible region where it can be easily dealt with, according to the researchers.
Others involved in this project ...
Lobster traps going high tech
... processes in the Gulf of Maine, such as how lobster larvae and other planktonic animals and plants, including those that cause harmful algal blooms, drift
and settle. This information may also help determine how ocean currents disperse, condense and transport pollutants, invasive species, and food for ...
Polar research reveals new evidence of global environmental change
... sea ice decreased to its lowest level since satellite records began 30 years ago. IPY expeditions recorded an unprecedented rate of sea-ice drift
in the Arctic as well. Due to global warming, the types and extent of vegetation in the Arctic shifted, affecting grazing animals and hunting.
When fish farms are built along the coast, where does the waste go?
... or federal regulators when they approve locations for fish farms.
Existing software is typically derived from models that attempt to describe the drift
of effluent from sewage outfall pipes, even though the substances and situations are different from fish farms. (Sewage outflow, for example, is ...
Polarstern expedition 'LOHAFEX' can be conducted
... Polarstern has in the meantime found a closed eddy that is suitable for the experiment. It is located at Lat. 48S and Long. 15 30′W. First, a drift
buoy with a position tracking device will be deployed near the centre of this eddy. From this point, Polarstern will then spread dissolved ferrous ...
Land iguanas under continuing threat on Galapagos archipelago
... multiple loci across their genome. In so doing, researchers are able to draw conclusions regarding relationships, genetic diversity and genetic drift
among various populations.
Galpagos land iguanas diverged from the famous Galpagos marine iguanas 10 to 20 million years ago, and there are ...
Sniffing out a better chemical sensor
... the most information rich data also avoids noisy portions of the sensor response, thereby incorporating robustness against the effects of sensor drift
The researchers say that they are continuing to work on applications involving rapid identification of chemicals in unknown backgrounds ...
North American environmental commission launches trinational vaquita conservation plan
... the next two years.
The main and most immediate threat to the vaquita's survival is their incidental capture in fishing nets, such as gillnets and drift
nets. About 40 vaquitas are estimated to die each year from incidental capture.
Though the vaquita only inhabits the waters of the Upper Gulf of ...
RV Polarstern on its way to East Siberian Sea
... want to clarify the tectonic interrelations on the bottom of the Arctic Ocean in the track of Alfred Wegener, who founded the theory on continental drift
in 1915. They employ seismic measurement methods which shall allow a glance at the geological units and sediments. "At the bottom of the sea we find ...
Studying volcanoes with balloons
... masks at the infernal mouth of the volcanohe analyzes the plumes using controlled meteorological (CMET) balloons, which have altitude control and drift
"The balloons are piloted remotely by satellite link," Durant explained, "with flight visualization using Google Earth. We were ...
Setting the record right: species diversity less dramatic than previously believed
... methods did not account for many important occurrences in the history of the Earth, including changes in the geography of Earth due to continental drift
and variations in the state of global climate.
Collaborative efforts of 35 researchers from the U.S., Germany, the UK, France and Slovakia resulted ...
Does fishing on drifting fish aggregation devices endanger the survival of tropical tuna?
... patterns of these far-travelling fish species. Tagging surveys allowed comparison of the nature of migrations accomplished by fish moving with the drift
of FADs with that of non-FAD-associated individuals. The migration directions and displacement rates in terms of daily distances travelled were ...
Killer fungus spells disaster for wheat
... could be more unpleasant surprises in store. On mature wheat, the fungus reproduces asexually to release billions of identical spores. If the spores drift
onto a barberry bush (Berberis vulgaris), however, they switch to sexual reproduction, and so could swap genes with other stem rusts to produce ...
Changes in ocean conditions in Sargasso Sea potential cause for decline in eel fishery
... survival of their young.
After hatching, their transparent leaf-like larvae, known as leptocephali, remain in surface waters for up to a year and drift
towards the Gulf Stream, which transports the European eels home to coastal waters in Europe. Along with the Gulf Stream, the Antilles Current and ...
Researchers offer new theory for dogfish and skate population outburst on George's Bank
... approach to fisheries management.
The concepts Frisk and colleagues put forward also place an emphasis on movement of adults rather than the drift
of eggs and larvae as has been typical in research on connectivity among populations.
The research team developed their hypothesis by analyzing ...
AGU journal highlights -- Feb. 26, 2008
... of the Earth Observing Systems Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the Aqua satellite. Noting that reliable estimates of summer ice drift
are often obscured by weather, atmospheric moisture, and surface melt effects, Kwok seeks to determine how best to fill in the 3- to 4-month annual ...
Antarctic expedition provides new insights into the role of the Southern Ocean for global climate
... current physical and biogeochemical conditions in the Southern Ocean. Recording equipment aboard Polarstern, as well as ocean-deployed buoys and drift
units designed to sink to deep water will be measuring ocean currents in the Southern Ocean, distribution of trace substances, transport of water ...
'Hot spots' the key to controlling European carp in Australia
... are regularly inundated by water - heavy rain and floods enable the carp to disperse into adjoining river channels.
The results support the larval drift
theory, indicating the carps need for high water flow events to disperse their larvae.
The drought initially hindered this research, because the ...
Divers find new species in Aleutians
... anemones because they move across the seafloor as they feed. While most sea anemones are anchored to the seabed, a "swimming" anemone can detach and drift
with ocean currents. The size of these anemones ranges from the size of a softball to the size of a basketball.
Another new species is a kelp or ...
New hope for horse lovers as effective control for killer ragwort is proposed
... vegetation and would be unsuitable on sites designated for nature conservation or as special scientific interest. Herbicides can also create spray drift
hazards and leave residues in food commodities.
In order to start phase one of what could develop into a three phase project, CABI, a ...
Ernst Mayr's theory illustrated in genetic epidemiology studies
... an interaction of natural selection with genetic drift
that could cause genetic revolution ?new ... interaction of selection and what we call genetic drift
could cause what he called a genetic revolution, ... it's inevitable that a random process like drift
will interact with natural selection strongly to ...
Picky female frogs drive evolution of new species in less than 8,000 years
... long-isolated populations, Moritz said. Random drift
between isolated populations can produce small ... arise because of natural selection or genetic drift
or mutation or some combination of those three, ... the southern and northern frog populations would drift
apart into two distinct species. In the case of ...
Remote sheep population resists genetic drift
... will decrease over time.
"What is amazing is that models of genetic drift
predict the genetic diversity of these animals should have been lost over ... extreme conditions on the craggy, windswept island have prevented genetic drift
due to the premium advantage the more genetically diverse mouflon on the ...
Ocean temperature predicts spread of marine species
... life, including commercially important species, reproduces via larvae that drift
far along ocean currents before returning to join adult populations. The ... among species. Consequently, larvae in cold waters develop more slowly and drift
further before beginning their next development stage because colder ...
Study warns deep-sea mining may pose serious threat to fragile marine ecosystems
... that support Papua New Guinea’s commercial fishing industry, as well as local subsistence fishers. Depending on ocean currents, these nutrients could drift
widely, disrupting the food chain and potentially damaging ecosystems that lie within other countries?economic zones or in international waters. This ...
Scientists map air pollution using corn grown in US fields
... carbon dioxide, while the Colorado region had the least. The scientists expected pollution from California and other western coastal states to drift
east, but they found that the Rocky Mountains appeared to provide a barrier for the movement of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels.
Air in ...
New system could drastically reduce herbicide use
With this level of precision, Tian says the system has clear environmental benefits. In addition to cutting herbicide use, chemicals do not drift
off-target when placed directly on the plants.
The original inspiration for this robot came several years ago, when Tian and two graduate ...
Climate experts search for answers in the oceans
... of climate change by helping us to better understand the sea surface temperature story."
Phytoplankton, microscopic marine plants that drift
on or near the surface of the sea, absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and convert it into organic carbon. This process is known ...