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dogma in Biological News

7th annual [BC]2 Basel Computational Biology Conference 'Molecular Evolution' June 18-19, 2009

... master control gene, that is, Pax6 can induce the formation of ectopic eyes in both insects and vertebrates, necessitates a reconsideration of the dogma of a polyphyletic origin of the various eye types in all the animal phyla. Prof. Gehring is recipient of the Kyoto Prize for Basic Science (2000) and ...

Scientists shed light on inner workings of human embryonic stem cells

... and his team have been studying a set of control genes called microRNAs. "To really understand microRNAs, the first step is to remember the central dogma of biology DNA is the template for RNA and RNA is translated to protein. But microRNAs stop at the RNA step and never go on to make a protein. ...

Major international study challenges notions of how genes are controlled in mammals

... Dr. Dostie, who participated in the primary FANTOM4 research and also authored a satellite paper for publication in the journal Genome Biology. "The dogma right now is that there are so-called 'master regulators,' a series of protein switches that sit in specific places on the genome and induce genes. ...

A worm-and-mouse tale: B cells deserve more respect

... Heligmosomoides polygyrus . The team also showed that B cells must be present in order for T cells to mature and operate properly. "It's long been dogma that B cells need the help of T cells to make antibody. That's in all the textbooks," said Lund. "Now work from our laboratory and others shows that ...

Rot's unique wood degrading machinery to be harnessed for better biofuels production

... Up until this study, the underlying genetics and biochemical mechanisms were poorly understood. DNA sequence is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology first articulated over 50 years ago by Francis Crickthe transfer of information from DNA to RNA, which in turn, is translated ...

Team finds breast cancer gene linked to disease spread

... Directed Medical Research Programs. "This award mechanism seeks the 'best and the brightest' early-career researchers who will challenge current dogma and convention and who are the future innovators of breast cancer research," Kaime said. "Era of Hope Scholar Dr. Kang has already made exciting ...

1 missing gene leads to fruitless mating rituals

... which governs behavior. This direct connection surprised the scientists, who have studied other fruit fly courtship genes. "It goes against the dogma that was established for the olfactory and taste systems," said Hubert Amrein, Ph.D., of the Duke Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. ...

Research identifies first method for testing, assessing drug treatments for Chagas' disease

... important to the big picture of immunology, however. This study shows that chronic infections do not by default exhaust the immune system. Current dogma on chronic infections is that constant stimulation of the immune system eventually wears it out, which is one of the problems in treating such ...

Group selection, a theory whose time has come...again

... an even more reductionistic move, genes were called the fundamental unit of selection, as if this was an argument against group selection. Scientific dogma became entrenched in popular culture with the publication of Richard Dawkins The Selfish Gene (1976). Although evidence in favor of group selection ...

Regulation of TATA-less promoters

... the other was the differential usage of TRF2 versus TBP within a gene cluster generally thought to be coordinately regulated. Just goes to show that dogma shifts constantly in this field of transcriptional control, explains Dr. Tjian. In eukaryotic cells, gene transcription is initiated when the RNA ...

Penn researchers link cell's protein recycling systems

... is the autophagy-lysosomal system, a more general process in which proteins are surrounded by membranes inside the cell for bulk digestion. “The dogma has been that the autophagy-lysosomal and the proteasomal systems are trains that run on different tracks, with similar purposes, but no point of ...

Link found between immune system and high plasma lipid levels

... much less hepatic lipase ?and consequently, had higher plasma lipid levels. The authors write: "Our data may help to explain the long time dogma that chronic inflammation is associated with hyperlipidemia, the mechanisms of which have not been well defined. Whether this is an intended and ...

Unicellular microRNA discovery

... the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first finding of microRNAs in a unicellular organism. “The finding changes the dogma that miRNAs only exist in multicellular organisms, and adds an important piece into the blooming small RNA world. A pressing question we have now is ...

White blood cells of cancer-resistant mice overwhelm natural defenses of cancer cells

... mice. Cui and Willingham also want to explore how this one process can detect a wide range of cancer cells of so many different types. The dogma of cancer fighters has always postulated that there are many different cancers. "This new research in mice suggests that there may be some things ...

Interaction between lymph and liver cells may affect immune response

... to adhere and start the TEHLI process. "The notion that naïve T lymphocytes are capable of directly interacting with hepatocytes contradicts the dogma that naïve T cells cannot gain access to peripheral non-lymphoid tissues," the authors state, adding that the study furthers the notion that liver ...

Gene-bender proteins may sway to DNA

... recognizes and binds tightly to the bent DNA conformation." Conclusions by Ansari and her colleagues deviate slightly from the conventional dogma that it is the protein that bends the DNA. She said the results raise important questions about the role that the DNA "bendability" plays in guiding ...

From hot springs to rice farms, scientists reveal new insights into the secret lives of archaea

... plants or removed by other microbes. Animals and people, in turn, obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other herbivorous animals. That was the dogma taught for decades in biology classes-until September 2005, when David Stahl of the University of Washington showed that bacteria do not have a ...

Quality not quantity important for immune response to HIV

... (CTC), recognises and attacks infected HTCs. It was previously thought that the bigger the CTC response, the more effective it would be. It is this dogma that has influenced development of HIV vaccines, with the vaccines attempting to stimulate a large response. However, Professor Goulder and ...

History-hunting geneticists can still follow familiar trail

... kinds of work for 20 years, and to think that mtDNA didn't correlate with population size was clearly going against the dogma. This study shows the dogma is safe in mammals and probably in vertebrates, as ...

Bone marrow may restore cells lost in vision diseases

... is occurring." Researchers want to discover ways to mobilize an elderly patient's own cells to travel to the injury site to make repairs. "The dogma has been that we're born with a fixed amount of RPE, but there is growing evidence retinal progenitor cells exist in the adult," said Lawrence ...

Researchers find molecular 'brake' to cell death

... in these cells, Tang says. But the notion of how to push cancer cells to die has been flawed, Tang says. These new findings "overturn a scientific dogma so long accepted that it has become a textbook standard when talking about apoptosis," he continues. Researchers agree that the seminal event ...

New insight into machinery of immune cells' 'tentacles'

... was a key regulator of actin polymerization, but the downstream molecules in this pathway have remained elusive," said Pendergast. "The prevailing dogma was that this function is mediated by a protein called WASp. However, mice lacking WASp can still form immunological synapses, so we proposed that ...

MiRNA fingerprint identified in platelet formation

... of the National Academy of Sciences. MiRNA has only recently been acknowledged as an important force in biology. For decades, scientific dogma has held that messenger RNA (mRNA) was responsible for carrying out DNA instructions, or code, for protein production in the cell. Little was known, ...

Molecule by molecule, new assay shows real-time gene activity

... could provide us with unprecedented insights into gene expression and many other fundamental biological processes in living cells." The central dogma of molecular biology holds that DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is then translated into proteins. But several technical hurdles have hampered ...

'Accelerated evolution' converts RNA enzyme to DNA enzyme in vitro

... who, along with James Watson uncovered the double helix structure of DNA, articulated in 1970, all known organisms operate according to the central dogma of molecular biology-that the transfer of sequential genetic information proceeds from nucleic acid to nucleic acid, and from nucleic acid to ....

Living taste cells produced outside the body

... period of time." The taste cell culture system provides new insight into how basal cells turn into functional taste cells. Although previous dogma had held that induction was somehow dependent on interactions with the nervous system, the current findings suggest otherwise. Ozdener explains, "By ...

Bacteria that cause tooth decay able to survive without important biochemical pathway

... why strains of the bacteria can survive in the harsh acidic environment they create in the mouth. "We were met with skepticism ?because the dogma was that this biochemical pathway is key for all living cells," said study investigator Jeannine Brady, Ph.D., an associate professor of oral biology ...

Role of microRNA identified in thyroid cancer

... of miRNA 'signatures' in cancer and other diseases has really changed the way we think about the process of malignant growth," says He. Old dogma held that a gene carries a recipe for a molecule of messenger RNA which, in turn, carries a blueprint for the creation of a particular protein. Any ...

Sugar helps control cell division

... their destruction. The comings and goings of the sugar on proteins seem to be important controllers of cell division, say the researchers. "The dogma for decades has been that the cycle of cell division is controlled by the appearance and disappearance of certain proteins called cyclins, but ...

Mechanism for the captation of nutrients in plants- unknown to date

... vacuola, the substances or nutrients are broken up, stored and metabolised. Two processes of captation This discovery breaks with a fundamental dogma in basic plant science holding that all substances penetrate the interior of the cell through the participation of specific transporters present in ...

Stem cells in bone marrow replenish mouse ovaries

... weeks, according to new research published in this week's issue of the journal Cell. This finding provides direct evidence to overturn a long-held dogma in reproductive biology, that female mice generate egg cells only during fetal development and thus are born with a finite stock of eggs that ...

Human Eggs Can Develop From Ovarian Surface Cells In Vitro

... Biology and Endocrinology, offer important new strategies for use in in vitro fertilization and stem cell research, and cast doubt on the established dogma on the fetal origin of eggs in adult human ovaries. It is now well established that fetal mammalian eggs originate from somatic stem cells. More ...

The very unexpected life and death of a leukemic cell

... disease activity may vary over time and this may be the result of fluctuations in birth and/or death rates of the CLL cells. This challenges the dogma that CLL is a purely accumulative disorder where leukemic cells accumulate because they cannot die. Clearly CLL is a disease in which there is a ...

Scientists rid stem cell culture of key animal cells

... trying to migrate down different developmental pathways. Maintaining stock cultures in their undifferentiated state is critical. The feeder cell dogma now can be overturned, says lead investigator Ren-He Xu, a senior scientist at WiCell, a private, nonprofit research institute. "This work completely ...
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