Turning sunlight into liquid fuels
... by short bridges to form bundled clusters. The bundles
were shaped like a sphere with a diameter of 35 ... behind the enhanced efficiency and speed of the bundles
was their size.
"We suspect that the ... very large internal area of these 35 nanometer bundles
(where catalysis takes place) was the main factor ...
Cystic fibrosis patients may breathe easier, thanks to bioengineered antimicrobials
... two of the most common components in infected mucus form ordered bundles
of aligned molecules, which is something you dont expect in something as ... Held together tightly by the attraction of opposite charge, these bundles
basically lock up the antimicrobials so that they are unable to kill ...
Earliest animals lived in a lake environment, research shows
... that houses highly preserved fossils dated to about 600 million years ago. These beds have no adult fossils. Instead, many of the fossils appear as bundles
of cells interpreted to be animal embryos.
"Our first unusual finding in this region was the abundance of a clay mineral called smectite," said ...
Laughing hyenas, wailing levees, the sound of cheese and blaring bagpipes
... heightened hearing: a connection between the swim bladder and the ears, which may help to amplify sounds to the ears; and elaborately-oriented hair bundles
in the inner ear, which suggests better hearing than fish with less complex patterns. Some of the deep-sea fishes also have a variety of unusual ...
UK robot sub searches for signs of melting 60 km into an Antarctic ice shelf cavity
... Environment Research Council. Autosub has a maximum range of 400km and is powered by 5,000 ordinary D-cell batteries. The batteries are packed in bundles
in pressure-tested housings. Either end of the seven-metre sub there are free-flooding areas where the payload of instruments are installed. It ...
Spun-sugar fibers spawn sweet technique for nerve repair
... damaged by disease.
The sugar filaments are coated with a corn-based degradable polymer, and then the sugar is dissolved in water, leaving behind bundles
of hollow polymer tubes that mimic those found in nerves, said Riyi Shi, an associate professor in Purdue's Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering ...
Simplicity is crucial to design optimization at nanoscale
... level of the self-assembled natural molecules, which made up the other 2 percent of the structures. The most successful of those again utilized the bundles
of four alpha-helical proteins.
That analysis shows that random arrangements of elements typically lead to inferior performance, and may explain ...
Neural mapping paints a haphazard picture of odor receptors
... lemon, orange, peppermint, pine, rose, and even fox pheromones. The neuroscientists found that across individuals and even across the two species, bundles
of neurons from a given type of odor receptor -- known as glomeruli -- were found in almost exactly the same spot on the olfactory bulb, a sensory ...
Researchers 'unzip' molecules to measure interactions keeping DNA packed in cells
... long, thin strands of double helices. DNA fits inside cell nuclei by being wound like thread around proteins called histones, forming tightly packed bundles
called nucleosomes. But that same DNA must often be uncoiled and accessed by such enzymes as RNA polymerase, which the researchers liken to a motor ...
First trial in patients with a potential treatment of the incurable ALS muscle disease
... patients dies within three years − some even in the first year − usually as a consequence of suffocation.
In ALS, the patient's nerve bundles
that extend to the muscles deteriorate. As a result the patient loses control of the muscles, and progressively becomes paralyzed. The originating ...
Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation
... a cell: microtubules, actin filaments, the cell membrane, and two protein complexes. Microtubules are hollow protein pipes that arrange themselves in bundles
down the long axis of the cell. As they extend from the cell center towards the periphery, they carry with them one of the protein complexes, so that ...
Taking the next step toward advanced artificial limbs
... along channels etched in the materials. Axons are long, thin fibers that extend from neurons and carry electrical impulses across the nervous system. bundles
of axons form nerves. Fully developed axons are covered with a sheath of myelin, a fatty-like substance that insulates the axons and helps them work ...
Protein fibrils as alternative plastics?
... surface of the bacterial cells that protects them from antimicrobial substances and facilitates their attachment to surfaces.
Amyloid fibrils are bundles
of highly ordered protein filaments made of ladder-like strands and can be several micrometers long. In cross-section, amyloids appear as hollow ...
Research at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source reveals structure and behavior of collagen
... of skin, teeth, ligaments, the heart, blood vessels, bones and cartilage. In these tissues, collagen molecules pack themselves into overlapping bundles
called fibrils. These fibrils, which each contain billions of atoms, entwine themselves into collagen fibers that are visible to the naked eye.
Stanford researchers make first direct observation of 3-D molecule folding in real time
... have discovered that RNA-the stringy molecule that translates our genetic code into protein-can act a lot like a protein itself. RNA can form loopy bundles
that shut genes down or start them up without the help of proteins. Since the discovery of these RNA clumps, called "riboswitches," in 2002, ...
480-million-year-old fossil sheds light on 150-year-old paleontological mystery
... shows that, below the dorsal armor, the machaeridians had an elongate body with paired, soft, limb-like extensions on each segment, and two bundles
of long, stiff bristles on each extension. The segmented nature of the body, and especially the presence of soft limbs carrying bristles, ...
ASU researchers use NASA satellites to improve pollution modeling
... by detecting the absorption of specific wavelengths of light, but they have had to rely on ground data and radiosondes atmospheric instrumentation bundles
sent up on weather balloons to surmount the large uncertainties associated with the technique.
This is the reason comparisons were made between ...
International team compares 12 fruit fly genomes
In the cells of the tiny fruit fly ( Drosophila) , researchers in the 1930s found valuable resources known as polytene chromosomes -- giant bundles
of chromosomes, banded into distinct segments corresponding to specific genetic loci.
Polytene chromosomes give geneticists a window on the ...
Scientists identify molecular cause for one form of deafness
... protein called espin can cause floppiness in tiny bundles
of protein filaments within the hair cells, ... in living cells. F-actin is organized into bundles
by espin, a linker protein found in sensory ... and humans.
"We found the structure of the bundles
changes dramatically when normal espin is ...
The shape of life: research sheds light on how cells take shape
... continue to grow, they clump together in bundles
of 200 to 300. Then these bundles
buckle. Valles and Tang believe that the buckling ... they create energy and generate force. Then the bundles
buckle to relieve compression stress.
Three-dimensional, miniature endoscope opens new diagnostic possibilities
... physicians access to hard-to-reach internal organs and structures ?utilize bundles
of optical fibers to supply light to and transmit images from the areas of ... or more in diameter. Existing miniature endoscopes using smaller fiber bundles
may be more flexible but have difficulty producing high-quality images. ...
The longest carbon nanotubes you've ever seen
... than copper and many other materials--could ultimately find use in smart fabrics, sensors and a host of other applications.
To grow the aligned bundles
of tiny tubes, the researchers combined advantages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), a technique for creating thin coatings that is especially ...
Meeting the ethanol challenge: Scientists use supercomputer to target cellulose bottleneck
... By using "virtual molecules," they have discovered key steps in the intricate dance in which the enzyme acts as a molecular machine -- attaching to bundles
of cellulose, pulling up a single strand of sugar, and putting it onto a molecular conveyor belt where it is chopped into smaller sugar pieces.
Hundreds of thousands of viral species present in the world's oceans
... The ocean is full of life--large, small, and microscopic. Bacteriophage (phage) viruses are minute, self-replicating bundles
that alter microorganisms' genetic material and moderate their communities through predation and parasitism. Despite their small size, they are ...
Comments, experts and background on the 2006 Nobel Prize in chemistry
... a technique that records the pattern formed as x-rays bend and spread while passing through atoms in a substance. Those images look like bundles
of twisted wire. However, they provided scientists with an understanding of how transcription works on a molecular level. ...
Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell
... with a set of proteins known as histones; four similar histones join together to form a cylindrical spool around which the DNA wraps. Each of these bundles
is called a nucleosome, and many nucleosomes are bound together by the continuing strand of DNA, which forms a string of beads that further coils to ...
A new focus for the mechanism of nerve growth
... "FSM see that this was caused by inefficient recycling of actin filaments at the back end of the actin network treadmill."
Recycling of actin bundles
at the ends of structures called filopodia was most strongly affected. This is important because filopodia are thought to play a key sensory role in ...
University of Arizona plant scientists to unravel maize genome
... is to unravel the complete DNA sequence of the maize plant and to determine the number of genes and their position on the chromosomes - the tiny bundles
of DNA that form the storage units of genetic information.
The grant further strengthens and expands Arizona's leading position in genomics ...
U of MN researchers reverse memory loss in mice
... past, it was generally accepted that dementia was caused by two substances that accumulate in the brain: neurofibrillary tangles, which are tangled bundles
of fibers in neurons, and amyloid deposits, a toxic build-up of plaque in the brain. The researchers found that even after the memory loss was ...
Man and mouse share genome structures
... called chromatin, is a key regulator of gene expression in healthy and diseased cells, Bernstein said. Chromatin is composed of DNA spooled around bundles
of histone proteins, and resembles a chain of beads which is then compressed into a working chromosome. Chemical tags placed on the histones alter ...