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axon in Biological News

What makes an axon an axon?

... Inside every axon is a dendrite waiting to get out. Hedstrom et al. ... online Nov. 10. At the junction between the axon and the cell body is the axon initial segment (AIS), which sparks action ...

Rare genetic disorder gives clues to autism, epilepsy, mental retardation

... transmit signals). Normal neurons grow just one axon and multiple dendrites (short projections that ... the researchers were able to limit multiple axon formation by using the cancer drug rapamycin to ... increased SAD-A is associated with increased axon growth, the researchers also speculate that the ...

A second career for a growth factor receptor: keeping nerve axons on target

... neurons live or die, leads a double life as an axon guidance protein. "Historically, we thought ... that mediate cell survival and those controlling axon guidance were part of two separate processes," ... was a well-characterized sender and receiver of axon guidance signals, but it lacked appendages ...

NJIT biomedical engineer receives NSF Career Development Award

... to support and expand his research into rapid axon stretch growth, a technique for regenerating ... PA, recreated in the laboratory a natural form of axon growth that occurs through stretching as an ... device that uses live imaging techniques to study axon growth. Pfister received his PhD in materials ...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

... to severe abnormalities of the nervous system. "Knowing the effectors of axon guidance molecules such as Shh", adds Dr. Charron, "helps us to understand ... This invention is expected to speed up the discovery of drugs that control axon pathfinding. "Dr. Charron is one of the country's leading newly arrived ...

New findings in taste and smell

... organ Emx2 stimulates odorant receptor gene expression and controls OSN axon growth Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory sensory neurons mediate axon targeting and glomerular formation Investigations of olfactory receptor ...

Researchers disprove 15-year-old theory about the nervous system

... increase in axonal diameter." When nerve cells are unmyelinated, the axon has a smaller diameter and contains neurofilaments that are less modified ... classified as light, medium and heavy. Loss of all neurofilaments in the axon results in myelinated axons with slowed conduction velocities. For ...

Salk scientists identify key nerve navigation pathway

... Once the growing cell lands at its target in a muscle cell, it is the axon that will relay the messages that allow an animal to control and move its ... neuron, the cone is dispersed in pieces along both the forward end and the axon extending behind it. The defect is found in the structure of the ...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

... at lower than normal levels, they observed that a greater number of the mitochondria began to abandon their posts along the cell's dendrites and axon and return to the cell body proper. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the movement of mitochondria may help scientists identify how the ...

Maintaining the brain's wiring in aging and disease

... These swellings disrupt transport but not, it seems, completely. Enough material gets through the swellings to keep more distant parts of the axon alive for at least several months, and probably for a year or more. This is important because it suggests a successful therapy applied during this ...

In the war against diseases, nerve cells need their armor

... the nerve cell's axon. This juncture acts as a molecular fence, which organizes and segregates the distribution of key proteins along the nerve cells axon and plays an imperative role in the proper conduction of electrical signals along the length of the nerve cell. When the function of netrin-1 and its ...

Taking the next step toward advanced artificial limbs

... much like the rubber or plastic coating that insulates electrical wires. Lambert's team will try to achieve predictable neuron growth and axon myelination on various surfaces in the laboratory. Whether they are controlled by the nervous system or remnant muscle activity, the advanced ...

Weill Cornell science briefs June/July 2008

... According to the researchers, the explanation for this cellular feat is a simple matter of distance. "Think of the cell body as New York City and the axon [the long narrow stretch between the cell body and cell terminal] as a highway leading to Boston," explains lead researcher, Dr. Tim Ryan, from the ...

Charcot-marie-tooth disease research funding

... disease Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy (dHMN). The results of these studies will help to better understand the cell biological events leading to axon degeneration in CMT and dHMN. Since these diseases are likely determined, at least in part, by environmental factors, the results of these ...

Study of marine snail leads to new insights into long-term memory

... become stronger. Scientists had thought that during learning in snails, the neurotransmitter serotonin binds to receptors on the presynaptic axon and, through a complicated process, causes the growth of new presynaptic axons. In Current Biology, Glanzman and his UCLA colleagues report that "the ...

Mutation may cause inherited neuropathy

... long axons. Such neurons that transmit signals over huge distances depend on dynein, the "cargo-transporter" to carry molecules from the tip of the axon to the neurons cell bodies. If the cargo-transporter is somehow disturbed, Popko said, like in the case of mutations in Dync1h gene, neurons that ...

Biophysical Society announces 2008 International Travel Awards

... Dual Effect of Na+I on Ca2+ Influx Through the Na+/ca2+ Exchanger in Dialyzed Squid Axons. Experimental Data Confirming the Validity of the Squid axon Kinetic Model. Elspeth B. Elliott, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom, K201 Inhibits Diastolic Ca2+ Release And Contractions in Isolated Rat ...

MIT IDs proteins key to brain function

... produce brain cells, but those neurons were unable to extend any axons or dendrites. It was already known that Ena/VASP proteins are involved in axon navigation, but the researchers were surprised to find that they are also critical for neurite formation, Gertler said. Ena/VASP proteins are ...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

... and spinal cord. When the kinase is deleted, the axon doesn't make the proper connections. When ... that in late stages of development, when the axon needs to stop growing, a shorter molecule, minus ... down to a small molecule that actually inhibits axon growth function," Dr. Xiong says. She ...

Brain works more chaotically than previously thought

... As soon as an electrical impulse runs through an axon cable, tiny bubbles containing glutamate travel to the axon membrane and release their content into the ... are closely packed together here. So the axon could not only excite the actual receptor but ...

Growth factor stimulates rapid extension of key motor neurons in brain

... enhances both the speed and extent of axon outgrowth of corticospinal motor neurons are the ... between IGF-1 and its receptor reduced axon growth to control levels, confirming that the ... IGF-1 as a potent and specific enhancer of CSMN axon growth is highly relevant to our understanding of ...

Most important actors in the growth process of neurons identified

... of an axon's growth, three things can happen: the axon can grow further, pull back, or change direction. Therefore, axon growth is a process that consists of several ... for something as complex as the nervous system. axon growth is a complicated process in that it ...

Salk and Stanford teams join forces to reveal two paths of neurodegeneration

... cells while others shoot past their target cells. axon pieces that went astray degenerate, effectively ... that the same molecular shears used to trim axon branches in injured adult axons also do so during ... observed, These findings show that axon degeneration after injury or developmental ...

Newly identified protein complex sheds light on axon growth mechanism

... light on the molecular mechanisms underlying axon growth and synapse formation in the nematode worm ... of vesicles along axons - a process that drives axon growth and helps synapse formation. The research ... nervous system and is required for normal axon development. Hengartner and colleagues then ...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

... impact in neuronal growth cone actin dynamics and axon formation. The authors focus on the RING ... in primary hippocampal neurons, which stimulate axon outgrowth, and by over-expression of Rnf6 that results in a significant decrease in axon length. Finding that Rnf6 targets LIMK1 for ...

Cerebral navigation: How do nerve fibers know what direction to grow in?

... direction; others are inhibitory, making the axon turn away or stop growing. In two papers in the ... the axon's growth cone. But how this triggers the axon to change course or stop growing has been a ... about the inner workings of the cell that govern axon guidance," says Michael Greenberg, PhD, Director ...

New roles for growth factors: Enticing nerve cells to muscles

... does not necessarily rely on an entirely new set of molecules to govern axon navigation, but instead uses growth factors already involved in embryonic ... during embryonic development will be missing." Hence the need to identify axon guidance factors. He continues, "It is not enough to make the right cell ...

Neuroscientists discover new cell type that may help brain maintain memories of smells

... granule cells. "The multiphoton microscope allowed me to identify the axon and then follow it for long distances without damaging the Blanes cell. Once I could follow the axon as it coursed through the brain, it was relatively easy to see where it ...

Gradient guides nerve growth down spinal cord

... "The nervous system is using a similar set of chemical signals to regulate axon traffic in both directions along the length of the spinal cord." It may ... used to assemble this complex network in newborn mice, where corticospinal axon growth is still underway. Before birth, axons grow out from the cell body ...

Molecular messengers perform a crucial role in the ability of injured nerve cells to heal themselves

... system can regrow when their axons are damaged. But how does the damaged axon inform the cell body that it must start producing vital proteins for the ... messengers, proteins called Erk-1 and Erk-2, enter the picture. When the axon is injured, these proteins bind to molecules of phosphorus. In this ...

3 proteins may play important role in nerve-cell repair

... in part, why mature nerve cells cannot regenerate damaged axons. "Our findings provide additional evidence that cAMP plays an important role in axon growth and suggest that these receptors are likely to play a major role in regulating cAMP production in nerve cells," says Saeki, an associate ...

Mechanism for neurodenegerative diseases linked to transport proteins

... of motor neurons. In the new study, Brady and his co-workers were able to show that polyQ-AR, the mutated protein in SBMA, caused inhibition of fast axon transport by activating an enzyme called JNK that can inhibit these transport proteins. Brady said this is the first proposed mechanism for polyQ ...

Spinal cord bridge bypasses injury to restore mobility

... loss of the ability to breathe or move arms or legs, depending upon the injury site. Silver said the medical community also assumed that the cut axon tips died when they hit the scar wall. In prior research in his lab by his graduate student, Tom, it was discovered that axons are alive and ...

Neurons grown from embryonic stem cells restore function in paralyzed rats

... Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, used a combination of transplanted motor neurons, chemicals capable of overcoming signals that inhibit axon growth, and a nerve growth factor to attract axons to muscles. The report is published in the July 2006 issue of Annals of Neurology.* "This work ...

Chemical signaling helps regulate sensory map formation in the brain

... found the first of those signaling systems, a family of ephrin proteins that are present in graded fashion in the brain and are involved in axon guidance. The A-class ephrins are required for map formation along the anterior-posterior (front-to-back) axis and the B-class for medial-lateral ...

How nerve cells stay in shape

... passively transmitted. Synapses can, depending on input, change and in this way store new memory. A synapse has two parts: one originates from the axon of the sending cell, the other, from a dendrite of the receiving cell (see image 1). Both parts comprise a special set of molecules, which clearly ...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain

... HSV gene carrier under the skin of a laboratory rat, the vector is taken up by sensory nerve terminals in the animal's skin and carried through the axon back to the sensory ganglia cell bodies next to the spinal cord," says Shuanglin Hao, M.D., Ph.D., a U-M research investigator and first author of ...

Scientists use gene transfer technology and common virus to block neuropathic pain in animals

... HSV gene carrier under the skin of a laboratory rat, the vector is taken up by sensory nerve terminals in the animal's skin and carried through the axon back to the sensory ganglia cell bodies next to the spinal cord,?says Shuanglin Hao, M.D., Ph.D., a U-M research investigator and first author of the ...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

... neuron growth. "Given the limited expression of p75, the discovery of TAJ function is an important step for understanding the regulation of axon regeneration," wrote Mi and colleagues. Wrote Park and colleagues, "The implication that more than one TNF receptor member may be involved in ...
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