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appendages in Biological News

Research links evolution of fins and limbs with that of gills

... the genetic circuitry that patterns paired appendages (arms, legs and fins) has a deep evolutionary origin that actually predates the origin of paired appendages themselves. "These findings suggest that when paired appendages appeared, the mechanism used to pattern the ...

Origin of claws seen in 390-million-year-old fossil

... puzzled over the origins of the paired grasping appendages found on the heads of scorpions and horseshoe ... suggest that Schinderhannes gives a hint. Their appendages may be an equivalent to those found in the ... mouth opening and a pair of segmented, opposable appendages with spines projecting inward along their length. ...

Forgotten but not gone -- how the brain takes care of things

... which no processing pathway yet exists, filigree appendages begin to grow from the activated nerve cell ... in the structure of the nerve cells? Cell appendages abide the saying "a bird in the hand " ... us most, however, was that the majority of the appendages which developed in response to the information ...

Details of evolutionary transition from fish to land animals revealed

... from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyle involved complex changes not only to appendages (fins to limbs) but also to the internal head skeleton. "Exquisite ... periods. Tiktaalik roseae has features of the skull, neck, ribs and appendages that are shared with the earliest limbed animals (tetrapods), as well as ...

Navigating in the ocean of molecules

... with promising characteristics as the starting point in the quest for new active agents: chemists can then vary the scaffolds with different appendages to synthesize the optimal active agent. Scaffold Hunter can also be used to predict bioactive molecules that do not arise in nature but are very ...

Tulane receives grant to study limb regeneration

... Could the salamander's natural ability to grow back severed appendages lead to a scientific breakthrough for humans who have lost limbs? With the help of a $6.25 million U.S. Department of Defense grant, Tulane ...

UF scientist tapped by Howard Hughes Medical Institute to pursue 'best ideas'

... A University of Florida scientist whose interest in embryonic development and evolution led him to discover the molecular building blocks that shape appendages ranging from feet to flippers was named a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Early Career Scientist today (Thursday, March 26), a distinction given to ...

Snails and humans use same genes to tell right from left

... or left. Patel, a biologist who focuses on the genetics and evolution of crustacean and insect development, such as the formation of segments and appendages in shrimps and crabs, invited Grande to join his lab, even though he had never before worked with snails. Snail handedness becomes obvious very ...

A second career for a growth factor receptor: keeping nerve axons on target

... gene called ephrin-A from the retina." Unlike p75, ephrin-A was a well-characterized sender and receiver of axon guidance signals, but it lacked appendages normally seen on proteins controlling axon migration. p75, however, displayed those elements, suggesting that the proteins could pair up one ...

UT Southwestern researchers create molecule that nudges nerve stem cells to mature

... study, rodent nerve stem cells from an area of the brain called the hippocampus were cultured with Isx-9. They clustered together and developed spiky appendages called neurites, which typically happens when nerve cells are grown in culture. Isx-9 also prevented the stem cells from developing into ...

Scientists find 245 million-year-old burrows of land vertebrates in Antarctica

... For the first time paleontologists have found fossilized burrows of tetrapods any land vertebrates with four legs or leglike appendages in Antarctica dating from the Early Triassic epoch, about 245 million years ago. The fossils were created when fine sand from an overflowing ...

Rice and UT-Houston join DOD push for regenerative medicine

... drugs to prevent infection and promote wound healing. Additional tissue-engineering projects that employ adult stem cells to reconstruct lost appendages such as ears and noses will also be investigated. "We are honored to be part of this consortium, which will allow us to bring to fruition many ...

New book reveals an evolutionary journey of the human body

... is built is written in its genetic code, and scientists can compare that code with those of creatures as different as flies and fish. For example, appendages like wings, fins or limbs are built by similar types of genes. The transformation of fins into limbs didnt involve the origin of new genes, but ...

Conquest of land began in shark genome

... in the zoology department of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, speculate that sharks and many other types of fish do not form more dramatic appendages during this late phase of Hox gene expression because it occurs briefly and only in a narrow band of cells, compared with the more extended time ...

Why nerve cells work faster than the theory allows

... membrane is reversed. This "action potential" spreads out through the long appendages of the cell with high speed. At the end of the appendages it is transmitted to other cells. In 1952, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew ...

CT scan reveals ancient long-necked gliding reptile

... "In some cases, with larger bones, we can see inside the bones," says Ryan. "However, we could not determine the exact morphology of all the appendages because smaller bones were difficult to resolve due to the size of the specimen." The specimens were scanned at a resolution of about one tenth ...

Contrary to common wisdom, scientist discovers some mammals can smell objects under water

... from using their tactile star, he put a grid-work between the animals and the scent trails. The openings in the grid were too small for the star appendages to squeeze through but large enough so the air bubbles could pass without difficulty. These trials demonstrated that the moles could follow the ...

How does a zebrafish grow a new tail?

... is a very intricate structure. It is the fish version of an arm or leg. The question of how cold-blooded animals re-grow missing tails and other appendages has fascinated veterinary and medical scientists. They also wonder if people, and other warm-blooded animals that evolved from these simpler ...

UF scientists discover evolutionary origin of fins, limbs

... fin and tail but no side fins - considered by biologists to share many features with the ancestor of all vertebrates. "The emergence of paired appendages was a critical event in the evolution of vertebrates," Cohn said. "The fossil record provides clear evidence that the first fins evolved along the ...

The diversity of marine life in the Gulf of Maine region is much greater than previously thought

... One of the Gulf of Maine's tastiest delights, the American lobster, is just one species among 441 species known as arthropods ?creatures with jointed appendages and hard outer shells. While the human species loves lobster, other mammalian species, in particular whales, depend on different arthropods, such as ...

Scientists create digital bacteria to forge advances in biomedical research

... their own chemotaxis system, which transmits the biochemical signals responsible for cellular locomotion. They also have flagella, the whiplike appendages that cells use for propulsion, and the motors to drive them. Emonet and his associates have designed their digital bacterial system in modules, so ...

Wake Forest scientists find new combination vaccine effective against plague

... plague are occurring in that safe laboratory in Blacksburg, Va., and not in Winston-Salem. Flagellin is taken from bacterial flagella, whiplike appendages that are used by bacteria to move around their environment. Thus it is possible for animals that have been exposed to a different bacterial infection ...

Protein offers way to stop microscopic parasites in their tracks

... for Sibley and his colleagues has been the question of how Toxoplasma and other apicomplexan parasites move themselves around, given their lack of appendages or hairlike structures known as cilia or flagella. Researchers had determined that Toxoplasma has a rotating protein-based conveyor belt on its ...
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(Date:9/16/2014)... "molecular brakes" that time the generation of important cells ... cells" translate sound waves into electrical signals that are ... If the arrangement of the cells is disordered, hearing ... will be published in The Journal of Neuroscience ... Hey2 act as brakes to prevent hair cell generation ...
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(Date:9/16/2014)... its own bacterial identity. That,s the conclusion of University ... studied the genetic fingerprints of bacteria on 57 species ... study demonstrates for the first time that host plants ... possess very different microbial communities on their leaves," said ... in the UO,s Institute of Ecology and Evolution who ...
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