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adenosine in Biological News

UT Southwestern researchers identify molecule that helps the sleep-deprived to mentally rebound

... with mice, they found that a molecule called an adenosine receptor is necessary for sleep-restricted ... at UT Southwestern. "We need to have our adenosine receptors intact to do that." adenosine receptors on nerve cells, including brain cells, ...

Jefferson receives $11.6M NIH grant to study novel mechanisms of heart failure

... Medical College, will focus on the role of adenosine receptors in the heart. While much is known about ... after injury and in heart failure. Two major adenosine receptor types in the heart appear to have ... research team wants to more closely study the adenosine receptors in the failing heart. Steven R. ...

A little java makes it easier to jive, researcher says

... Early in his research, he became aware that "caffeine works on the adenosine neuromodulatory system in the brain and spinal cord, and this system is ... in nociception and pain processing." Since Motl knew caffeine blocks adenosine from working, he speculated that it could reduce pain. A number of ...

Biosensing nanodevice to revolutionize health screenings

... living things, including photosynthesis in plants. F1-ATPase breaks down adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphospahte (ADP), releasing energy. Previous studies of its structure and ...

Building memories with actin

... changes. Rex et al. tackled the question by dosing slices of rat hippocampus with adenosine, a naturally occurring signal that squelches LTP. adenosine prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of cofilin, an inhibitor of actin filament assembly, the team found. Cofilin's involvement, in turn, ...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

... understanding how the brain responds to a pathological state." Mitochondria are cellular power plants that generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as a source of chemical energy. While mitochondria are present in all of the body's cells, some cells because of ...

Models of eel cells suggest electrifying possibilities

... be created by engineering proteinsalready have been demonstrated by other researchers. Like the natural counterpart, the cells energy source would be adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from the bodys sugars and fats using tailored bacteria or mitochondria. ...

Life under the laser

... blood as a source of A3-receptors in specialised human blood cells (neutrophils) that have important roles during inflammation. Different types of adenosine receptors are found all over the body and can exist in different areas of the cell membrane and have different properties. Scientists hope that ...

Large reservoir of mitochondrial DNA mutations identified in humans

... mitochondrial diseases, were published in The American Journal of Human Genetics .* Mitochondria, the "engines" present in each cell that produce adenosine triphosphate, are passed from mother to offspring. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA inherited from the mother may cause mitochondrial diseases that ...

UC Davis stem researchers demonstrate safety of gene therapy using adult stem cells

... worked on eighteen cell and gene therapy clinical therapy trials during their 12 years as colleagues, including stem cell gene therapy trials for adenosine deaminase deficiency, also known as the "Bubble Boy Disease," and stem cell gene therapy for HIV, with colleagues from Children's Hospital Los ...

Researchers probe a DNA repair enzyme

... block of genes and chromosomes). They do so by moving along strands of DNA, much the same way cars move on roads, using an energy-packed molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a fuel source. Their primary function is to unzip double-stranded DNA, allowing replication and repair of the strands. ...

Copy number variation may stem from replication misstep

... itself. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) exists as two complementary strands that remain together because of the attraction between nucleotides. A or adenosine is always attracted to T (thymidine). C or cytosine is always attracted to G or guanine. When a cell divides, it must reproduce its DNA so that ...

Biophysical Society announces winners of 2008 Student Travel Awards

... into Rv0008c An FtsZ Inhibitor and Its Complex. Michelle A. O'Malley, University of Delaware, Biophysical Characterization of the Human adenosine A2a G-Protein Coupled Receptor. Laura J. Porter-Peden, Calvin College, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Inhibitor Interactions. ...

Need to pull an all-nighter?

... awake for prolonged periods, a compound called adenosine accumulates in their brains, ultimately producing sleep. Once asleep, adenosine levels gradually decline. Rosenberg had been studying how the brain regulates the accumulation of adenosine in the brain for over 10 years, and, in 2000, he ...

UCSD researchers discover internal compass of immune cell

... core of the amplification system is the chemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The chain of events ... cells to adenosine, which in turn activates A3 adenosine receptors concentrated at the front of cells, ... the cells became disoriented, while blocking A3 adenosine receptors slowed down the cell movement toward ...

Boosting newborns' immune responses

... for newborns' altered immune response: adenosine alters the physiology of white cells to suppress ... triggers. "In the future, we could try to block adenosine in newborn animals to see if this helps protect ... preterm labor, while increasing production of adenosine and IL-6, which may have a protective effect on ...

Penn study finds direct role for glial cells in brain cross-talk

... the SNARE protein was produced, the amount of adenosine decreased. When adenosine accumulated, nerve impulses were suppressed and ... across the synapse. This helps explain why high adenosine levels can suppress epileptic seizures. In ...

Fast test for low blood flow in dogs detects early heart trouble

... flow to the heart. After surgery, the dogs were injected with the drug adenosine to speed up their heartbeat and maximize circulation. The dose, they ... but can be detected and quantified with CT imaging and computer analysis. adenosine is commonly used in stress testing, Lardo says, to relax blood vessels in ...

Darkness unveils vital metabolic fuel switch between sugar and fat

... and type 2 diabetes research. A series of experiments pinpointed 5-prime adenosine monophosphate (5'-AMP) as the key molecular mediator of the constant ... 5'-AMP's more glamorous molecular cousins ?adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), both vital to providing energy to cells, and the ...

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine

... in cells known as mitochondria. Embedded in the membrane of each mitochondrion is a structure called the electron transport chain, which produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that is the source of the cell's energy. The transport chain is made up of a series of proteins known as electron ...

OHSU lab finds meth receptor that could lead to therapy

... research in the Grandy laboratory demonstrated that meth and amphetamine stimulate the production of an important second messenger known as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or cAMP, inside cells expressing the rat TAAR1. Encouraged by this observation, Grandy's team explored the effects of these drugs on ...

Brain networks strengthened by closing ion channels

... spines, the tiny protrusions on neurons that are specialized for receiving information. These channels can open when they are exposed to cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). When open, the information can no longer flow into the cell, and thus the network is effectively disconnected. Arnsten said ...

Peering into the shadow world of RNA

... mechanisms. In particular, she has studied an enzyme called ADAR that converts specific occurrences of a basic RNA building-block molecule called adenosine into another called inosine. In her laboratory, this simple substitution has been seen to have significant biological effects, altering the ...

Scientists design simple dipstick test for cocaine, other drugs

... of the targeted molecule was in the sample solution. So far, the researchers have successfully demonstrated their dipstick technology on both adenosine (a nucleotide consisting of adenine and ribose) and cocaine, in human blood serum. "Our results show that the aptamer-based dipstick is ...

Researchers image molecular motor structural changes

... To date, cell biologists had not been able to capture actual images of the structural changes that a molecular motor undergoes as it breaks down adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the source of energy in all cells, into the power necessary to move along the microtubules. "In order to visualize the actual ...

UNC scientists solve mystery of how largest cellular motor protein powers movement

... functions vital to life. These functions include mitosis, or cell division into identical cells. Dynein uses energy derived from ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that is the principal form of energy for cells. The lack of a comprehensive and detailed molecular structure for dynein has ...

Development of gene therapy

... of continued great difficulties with technical implementation, initial successes in somatic gene therapy are on the horizon, for example in treating adenosine deaminase deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. There are also initial indicators that point to the efficacy of gene therapy in treating ...

Molecular DNA switch found to be the same for all life

... bacteria, the molecular details of its myriad activities have until now been a mystery. Berger's team found that when the DnaA protein binds with adenosine triphosphate or ATP, the nucleotide molecule that supplies energy to all components of a cell, the ring-shaped AAA+ proteins assemble into a ...

Attacking cancer's sweet tooth is effective strategy against tumors

... be cut off from oxygen-carrying blood vessels--a distinct disadvantage since most cells require oxygen to produce the bulk of their energy-storing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the 1920s, Otto Warburg proposed that some cancer cells evolved the ability to switch over to an ancient, oxygen-free route, ...

A new way of looking at molecular motors

... targets being discovered more quickly." Molecular motors run on tracks, like trains, using chemical reactions that involve the chemical compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for fuel. Myosin runs on the filaments of actin, a protein found in muscle cells, but kinesins and dyneins use microtubules, ...

Lactic acid not athlete's poison, but an energy source - if you know how to use it

... building up mitochondria to clear lactic acid quickly. If you use it up, it doesn't accumulate." To move, muscles need energy in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate. Most people think glucose, a sugar, supplies this energy, but during intense exercise, it's too little and too slow as an energy ...

Twin molecular scissors link creation of microRNAs with gene-silencing

... surrounding RISC was also resolved by the current study. Some investigators had theorized that the activity of RISC required ATP for energy. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a molecule used to store and release energy for tasks throughout the body. "The work of RISC is being accomplished with no energy ...

Image of myosin-actin interaction revealed in cover story of Molecular Cell

... It exists to ferry a cargo of proteins needed in a specific place at a specific time. Fueled by hydrolysis -- the process of converting the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into energy -- myosin V travels in one direction using actin as a track to deliver its payload of cell vesicles and organelles. ...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

... end, and ending with the 3-prime end. As mRNA chains are synthesized, a 7-methylguanosine cap is attached to the 5-prime end and a tail of repeating adenosine molecules to the 3-prime end. The cap and the tail protect the mRNA from enzymes that would otherwise destroy it from both ends. Along with its ...

DNA size a crucial factor in genetic mutations, study finds

... that form a double helix. It's like a long, twisted ladder where each rung consists of two molecules that form a base pair. DNA has four bases: adenosine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). A always pairs with T, and G with C. To copy itself, the DNA molecule unwinds and splits. Either ...

Lance Armstrong through a physiological lens: hard training boosts muscle power 8%

... the same extent and also with the same time course suggests an improved efficiency of ATP turnover within muscle fibers during contraction." (ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a nucleotide present that serves as an energy source for many metabolic processes.) "One possible mechanism for increased ...

Transgenic plants remove more selenium from polluted soil than wild plants, new tests show

... sediment from the San Luis Drain and two that contained clean soil. One line of Indian mustard plants was engineered to produce more of the enzyme adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (APS). The enzyme is key to the plant's ability to convert selenate into a non-toxic form of selenium, allowing the plant to ...

Special Imaging Study Shows Failing Hearts Are 'Energy Starved'

... and director of magnetic resonance research at the Johns Hopkins Department of Radiology. “While scientists have long known that nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical that fuels heart contractions and that creatine kinase (CK) is the enzyme for one of the sources of ATP, we ...

New Study from Affymetrix Laboratories Points to Changing View of How Genome Works

... parts of their sequence with overlapping transcripts from the same strand or even from the opposite strand (antisense). Transcripts missing a run of adenosine nucleotides (non-polyA) at the tail-end were twice as common as the more well-studied RNAs that have this sequence. Most transcripts derived from the ...
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