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Vesicles in Biological News

Cells use import machinery to export their goods as well

... economy of the cell, little bubbles called vesicles serve as container ships, ferrying cargo to and ... Scientists have long believed that other, similar vesicles handle the reverse function, importing ... This sort of shipping was assumed to end with the vesicles fusing completely to the membrane and delivering ...

Fate in fly sensory organ precursor cells could explain human immune disorder

... addition, they found that under normal conditions vesicles (tiny bubbles) containing the Notch activating ... Under normal circumstances Delta containing vesicles traffic to the microvilli. In the Arp3 mutants, ... said Bellen. It is then encapsulated in the vesicles and travels to the basal, or bottom, of the ...

Dictyostelium cells shown to lay 'breadcrumb trail' as first step in multicellular formation

... now show that ACA is packaged into intracellular vesicles that cluster at the rear of cells in a process ... vesicles. Interestingly, the ACA-containing vesicles themselves, not just their contents, are ... is a small and diffusible molecule, perhaps the vesicles serve to package the chemoattractant so that it ...

Caltech biologists spy on the secret inner life of a cell

... bodies," that contain other small vesicles. The vesicles previously were believed to be responsible only ... long tubes that then broke off into the small vesicles that carry antibodies through the cell. When those vesicles arrived at the blood-vessel side of the cell, ...

Weill Cornell science briefs June/July 2008

... To communicate between cells, tiny transport vesicles package and ship neurotransmitter-chemicals to ... works. Observing proteins within cellular vesicles labeled with a fluorescent marker in the lab, for ... identification, the researchers saw that about 20 vesicles can be simultaneously manufactured right at the ...

Leading scientist named new chair of Cell Biology at Yale

... complexes known as SNARES, expressed on both vesicles and target membranes, first ensure that different classes of vesicles bind to appropriate membranes and then unleash the biochemical changes leading to fusion of vesicles with those membranes and the delivery of the ...

Talking to cells

... way of sugar groups on the vesicle surface. The vesicles subsequently transfer information to the cellsin ... vesicle surface. The researchers brought the vesicles together with bacteria that have glucose-binding ... dye molecules that were previously placed in the vesicles transferred specifically into the interior of ...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... some bacteria). Results showed Glaucoma produced vesicles with all bacterial strains and Tetrahymena also ... the vesicles. C. steinii did not produce any vesicles from any of the pathogens. The presence of ... and their sequestration of enteric bacteria in vesicles indicate that they may play an important role in ...

Breakthrough technology observes synapse in real time, supporting theory of vesicular recycling

... in sac-like structures called vesicles. These vesicles move from the interior of the cell to the cell ... function in the reverse direction, with incoming vesicles being transported into the cell's interior. The vesicles aren't discarded, however. Instead, once they ...

The downside of microtubule stability

... help construct the Golgi complex in two ways: they capture the vesicles that combine to form a mature Golgi complex; and they provide a track along which these vesicles can travel to their rendezvous point near the nucleus. By breaking up the ...

NYU Langone Medical Center's tip sheet to the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease 2008

... JULY 29, 2008 at 12:30 p.m. CT An NYU study found that membrane vesicles that are essential for the trafficking of materials across nerve cells are ... linked to Alzheimer's disease development were unable to shuttle the vesicles to their proper destinations in nerve cells, causing them instead to ...

Nanotubes could help study retrovirus transmission between human cells

... of the nanotubes. In their labs, they experimented with giant lipid vesicles that appeared to mimic key aspects of the cellular membrane. Giant lipid vesicles resemble micron-sized spherical soap bubbles that exist in water. They ...

Aging gracefully requires taking out the trash

... literally self-eating, which requires the assembly of specialized vesicles called autophagosomes. These vesicles surround or engulf damaged cellular proteins or structures and then ...

Chasing tiny vehicles

... phases: how the particles reached the cell membrane, came to rest there and then ultimately enclosed in a membrane vesicle invaded the cells. The vesicles move randomly, often downright erratically inside the cell, until a so-called motor protein binds them and quickly transports them towards the cell ...

Visualizing virus replication in three dimensions

... are synthesized. The dengue virus uses this membrane network and transforms it for its own use. "We now know that viral RNA is replicated in vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum and is secreted through tiny pores. We were also able to show that replication of the virus genome and its encapsulation ...

Autopilot guides proteins in brain

... but effective sorting mechanism. At first, kinesins blindly carry both types of proteins towards the axon. However, dendritic proteins enable the vesicles transporting them to bind to a second motor, known as myosin, that literally walks them back into the dendrite. This filter ensures that only ...

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

... amount of PEG, a small amount of dextran, water and dried lipid allowed the lipid to rehydrate and form the vesicles. The PEG and dextran filled the vesicles to the same concentration as the surrounding liquid. The lipid membrane encapsulated a mixture of PEG and dextran in water, but, the material ...

How Toxoplasma gondii gets noticed

... But how the infected host elicits an immune response isn't completely understood. Like many other parasites, T. gondii resides within specialized vesicles inside infected host cells, but the process by which peptides from the trapped bugs are processed by infected cells and presented to killer T cells ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

... is going wrong in many of them," says the study's senior author, Zbigniew K. Wszolek, M.D., professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic. Molecules, vesicles and organelles within a cell are constantly carried via a network of crisscrossing microtubules that act like the tracks of an elaborate railroad ...

Obesity predisposition traced to the brain's reward system

... genes encoding two proteins, one that is involved in dopamine synthesis, and another that is a transporter responsible for packaging dopamine into vesicles from which it is later released upon stimulation." "Obesity has so far been approached mostly as a metabolic rather than as an addictive ...

Nixing immaturity in red blood cells

... The vesicle then fuses with a cellular component called a lysosome that degrades its contents. The inclusion of components in the cell by autophagy vesicles was generally considered to be nonspecific. This is not a random process, said Wang. Nix is instructing the cell to get rid of these ....

New study finds uncontrollable stress worsens symptoms of endometriosis

... nor did they swim. Sixty days after the induction of the endometriosis the rats were sacrificed and examined for the presence of endometriotic vesicles (small structures inside cells used to transport liquids such as proteins), and damage to the adjacent organs (including the colon and small ...

Where college students live can impact their weight, eating and exercise habits

... nor did they swim. Sixty days after the induction of the endometriosis the rats were sacrificed and examined for the presence of endometriotic vesicles (small structures inside cells used to transport liquids such as proteins), and damage to the adjacent organs (including the colon and small ...

Media highlights in the January issues of Biophysical Journal

... is potentially of fundamental importance to gene expression. Volume 94, Issue 2, January 15, 2008 Translocation of Aquaporin-Containing vesicles to the Plasma Membrane is Facilitated by Actomyosin Relaxation Christoph P Riethmuller, University of Munster Hans Oberleithner, University of ...

A key enzyme helps keep the synapse on track

... of Medicine and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, found that synj1 was essential to vesicle recycling. Their work showed that synj1 helped strip vesicles of a clathrin molecule "coat" once it had delivered its cargo to the cell membrane. Collaborating on the new study, Dr. Ryan and Dr. de Camilli ...

Researchers develop better membranes for water treatment, drug delivery

... salt-rejecting polymeric membranes. Currently, the experimental polymer membranes exist only as small vesicles. Our next step is to convert the vesicles into larger, more practical membranes, Kumar said. We also want to optimize the membranes for maximum permeability. ...

Biologists prove critical step in membrane fusion

... In urchin eggs, thousands of membrane-bound vesicles are attached to the plasma membrane. Within seconds after fertilization, the contents of these vesicles are rapidly released. Previous research has shown that special proteins kept these vesicles tethered to the egg’s membrane. What about the ...

High-resolution light microscope reveals the fundamental mechanisms of nerve communication

... visualize, for the firsttime, individual synaptic vesicles - more precisely, to visualize the protein ... embedded in the membranes of individual vesicles. vesicles are membrane 'bubbles' roughly 40 nm indiameter ... reabsorbed to form another vesicle. Neural vesicles do not fuse with the cell membrane with equal ...

The synapse is a shotgun

... the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from sac-like vesicles across the synapse to two types of receptors, ... that neurotransmitter is released only from vesicles in active zones, where everybody thinks it is ... the traditional textbook view -- in which all the vesicles are released at the active zone -- that's taken ...

Achilles heel of the herpes virus possibly found

... help cells to manage the fusion of membranes of vesicles inside the cell with other specific vesicles. vesicles are tiny membrane-encased packets that ... HSV drug treatment. It could act as a way to link vesicles containing drugs with cells, and deliver them ...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

... cell of our body contains a huge number of small vesicles which exhibit complex patterns of intracellular traffic: some vesicles travel from the cell center to the periphery and ... case is provided by the long-ranged transport of vesicles and organelles along the axons between our nerve ...

Structure-building cell signals also may influence learning and memory

... which allows the cell to continue making new vesicles as needed. "This was a new pathway for ephrin," ... that increased signaling did indeed create more vesicles in normal cells. Most important, these new vesicles were important parts of nerve cell synapses, the ...

NIH Researchers Discover How Insulin Allows Entry of Glucose Into Cells

... studies that GLUT 4 was transferred from the vesicles within the cell to the cell membrane, when the vesicles combined, or fused with, the membrane. ... to determine, however, where in the cell the vesicles were stored and how insulin stimulated them to ...

New research questions basic tenet of neuron function

... neurons are tiny organelles called synaptic vesicles that sequester neurotransmitters and release them ... to other neurons. It is known that synaptic vesicles release their neurotransmitters in two different ... Until now it was believed that the same synaptic vesicles were responsible for releasing neurotransmitters ...

Researchers Uncover Key Step In Manufacture of Memory Protein

... is converted to mBDNF by other enzymes. The vesicles are then transported to the cell’s outer ... an electrical signal from another neuron, these vesicles fuse with the cell’s outer membrane, open up, and ... could not be delivered into the lipid raft-rich vesicles for conversion to mBDNF. Instead, it appeared to ...

Carnegie Mellon scientists find key HIV protein makes cell membranes bend more easily

... Cells also communicate with one another via small, membrane-bound vesicles that contain proteins or other molecular cargo. When delivering their goods, vesicles from one cell fuse with the outermost membrane of another cell to form a ...

Cellular traffic backups implicated in skeletal malformations

... which traverse the gelatinous cytoplasm of the cell's interior. The vesicles eventually dock with the Golgi, a structure that resembles a pancake stack ... of the defect ?a gene called sec23a, which is a critical component of the vesicles that transport proteins from ER to Golgi. But since the gene is supposedly ...

Think fast! Rice undergrad unlocks nerve speed secret

... In the second it takes you to read these words, tens of thousands of vesicles in your optic nerves are released in sequence, opening tiny surface pores ... "Nerve cells are one of the few cells in our bodies in which vesicles are prepositioned at the cell membrane, because they have to be ready to ...

Newly identified protein complex sheds light on axon growth mechanism

... UNC-76 in a protein complex likely to be involved in the trafficking of vesicles along axons - a process that drives axon growth and helps synapse ... UNC-76 binds to molecular 'motor' proteins called kinesins that transport vesicles along growing axons. Hengartner and colleagues propose that the ...
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