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Spore in Biological News

C. difficile spores spread superbug

... short course most mice had dropped back to normal spore shedding levels around two weeks after cessation ... will be invaluable in determining the role of spore formation in transmission and how and why some ... agent was necessary to reduce environmental spore contamination enough to eliminate transmission. ...

FBI unveils science of anthrax investigation

... from millimeters down to nanometers. The first spore material from the letters arrived at Sandia in ... surface-sensitive tool," says Kotula. "Because a spore body can be 1.5 to 2 microns wide by 1 micron ... cannot localize the elemental signal from whole spore bodies." Using more sensitive transmission ...

NIST, Army researchers pave the way for anthrax spore standards

... bacterium can survive for decades in a stable spore state, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been working with NIST to develop anthrax spore reference materials. These materials could be ... in laboratory studies of anthrax, to calibrate spore detection equipment and to assess the efficiency ...

Are sacrificial bacteria altruistic or just unlucky?

... 2008 -- An investigation of the genes that govern spore formation in the bacteria B. subtilis shows that ... colonies or encase itself in a tough, protective spore to wait for better times. In fact, B. subtilis is ... model organism by biologists who study bacterial spore formation. "It's too early to say whether B. ...

In many fungi, reproductive spores are remarkably aerodynamic

... and applied mathematics was fostered at Harvard by the physical proximity of disparate facilities such as high-speed cameras Roper used to photograph spore release and the 130-year-old Farlow Library, which ranks among the world's strongest mycological and botanical collections. "This collaboration ...

Positive results in Phase 2 trial of treatment of C-difficile-associated diarrhea

... by well-designed and well-executed studies is amply demonstrated." About Clostridium difficile Acquired Diarrhea (CDAD) C. difficile is a spore forming bacterium that is common in the environment and can colonize the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It can be easily spread among hospitalized ...

American Society for Microbiology honors Katharine R. Clapham

... a publication in Molecular Microbiology about the localization of the protein SpoVM, an unusually small peptide during the developmental process of spore formulation. Ms. Clapham is currently taking a genetic approach to gather more information about the function of SpoVM. In the summer and fall of ...

Tree-killing fungus officially named by scientists

... beetle. R. lauricola is the only known tree pathogen among the ambrosia fungi and differs from other Raffaelea species in its DNA sequence and spore sizes. The fungus also grows faster than similar fungi. Ambrosia beetles introduce the fungus into redbay or other laurel tree species by ...

Reforestation using exotic plants can disturb the fertility of tropical soils

... from areas surrounding the A. holosericea plantation had a balanced distribution of mycorrhizal fungi species, whereas the breakdown of the fungal spore content in soil from the plantation showed a predominance of one species and therefore a strong imbalance in the composition of the mycorrhizal fungi ...

Monarch butterflies help explain why parasites harm hosts

... the previous stalk back to the lab for analysis. The spores on the eggs and on the milkweed were counted, which is no easy task considering that each spore is 1/100th the size of the powdery scales on butterfly wings. A single egg can have more than 1,000 spores on it. The researchers crunched the ...

Fungi can tell us about the origin of sex chromosomes

... sex in plants and animals and the parts of the genome that control mating types in certain fungi. The research group specifically studied a spore sac fungus (Neurospora tetrasperma) and can show that the similarities are great, regarding both present-day structure and the way in which it arose. ...

Some cheaters can keep it in their genes

... Sciences. Some cells become the spore, while about one-quarter form a stalk. The stalk cells die they appear to sacrifice themselves to allow the spore cells to be dispersed on the wind to new feeding grounds. The teams earlier work had focused on this remarkable level of cooperation in the hope ...

New decontamination system kills anthrax rapidly without lingering effects

... ability of a microorganism to reproduce. UV-C also prevents replication, but both types of radiation can penetrate the outer structure of an anthrax spore to destroy the bacteria inside. The current decontamination standard chlorine dioxide gas kills microorganisms by disrupting transport of ...

Anthrax cellular entry point uncovered

... a professor in the UAB Department of Microbiology and co-author on the study. This study reveals the biological paradigm that makes the anthrax spore clever enough to target the Mac-1 receptor, and use this entry point to boost its lethality. Bacillus anthracis infection occurs in three forms: ...

Researchers track how spores break out of dormant state

... atomic force microscopy (AFM) the alterations of spore coat and germ cell wall that accompany the transformation from a spore to a vegetative cell. When starved of nutrients ... periods and, partly because of their tough spore coat, have a significant resistance to extreme ...

Tearing down the fungal cell wall

... the linkage of the outermost layer of the fungal spore cell wall to the middle layer appears to be ... in the cell wall of the spores, a decrease in spore germination rate, lower survival rates for the ... the gene and its impact on the structure of the spore cell wall. A recently developed gene disruption ...

Scientists seek answers on what activates deadly anthrax spores

... is back in the news. "A key aspect of anthrax spore biology concerns the germination process through which the dormant spore becomes a reproductive, disease-causing ... control mechanism in anthrax is clear, as spore germination and outgrowth are fundamental to ...

Genome of Clostridium botulinum reveals the background to world's deadliest toxin

... of acquiring resistance to antibiotics. It lives either as a dormant spore or as a scavenger of decaying animal materials in the soil, and doesn’t ... More than 110 of its set of almost 3700 genes are used to control spore formation and germination when opportunity arises. "C. botulinum ...

Anthrax attack posed greater potential threat than thought

... exposure induced both. Finally, cellular immune responses declined with post-exposure use of antibiotics, suggesting that the intervention impeded spore germination and implying that it may reduce the incidence of both subclinical and clinical B. anthracis infection. In an accompanying ...

Key to lung cancer chemo resistance revealed

... with a larger set of samples and then to screen for appropriate drugs. Funding for the study was provided by the National Cancer Institute Lung spore (Specialized Program of Research Excellence), National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Center, ...

Single molecular 'mark' seen as pivotal for genome compaction in spores and sperm

... increase in genomic volume in the resulting yeast spores, as though the compaction had been lost," Berger says. "The frequency of successful spore creation was also lowered significantly." ...

Combination therapy shows promising results in patients with advanced lung cancer

... is an important early step in utilizing combination targeted therapies in lung cancer," said Dr. Steven Dubinett, director of UCLA's lung cancer spore and a professor of pulmonary and critical care medicine. "Dr. Reckamp's trial is the first to study increasing doses of a COX-2 inhibitor in lung ...

Airborne mold spores increase kids' risk for multiple allergies

... a total of 48 hours in the child's primary activity room and in the child's bedroom during sleep. Samples were analyzed for both total and individual spore counts. "We found that, at least in children, some fungi may cause allergic sensitization while other fungal types may actually inhibit the ...

When the going gets tough, slime molds start synthesizing

... There, in response to the DIF-1 signal, slugs literally stand up and their cells metamorphose into either a column of stalk cells or next-generation spore cells, which perch atop the column waiting for food supplies to be restored. Noel and Michael Austin, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Noel's lab ...

Wisconsin scientists discover a master key to microbes' pathogenic lifestyles

... fungi found worldwide. The sensor, says Klein, is like an antenna situated in the membrane of the fungi's spores. It senses temperature, and when a spore finds itself at a comfortable 37 degrees Celsius, the body temperature of a human or other animal, it kick starts a genetic program that transforms ...

Lethal needle blight epidemic may be related to climate change

... in summer precipitation over the past decade. That constituted a smoking gun, because D. septosporum's life cycle depends on summer moisture for spore distribution. The increase in precipitation had no clear link to a known climatic oscillation that might have explained it, and the authors conclude ...

Anthrax stops body from fighting back, study shows

... samples from volunteers, the researchers studied how neutrophils reacted when exposed to a purified form of anthrax lethal toxin, the part of the spore linked to the illness. Unlike an intact inhalation anthrax spore, the pure toxin is not dangerous for researchers to use and allows them to ...

Purdue researchers find key to rice blast fungus

... another to cause biochemical changes. The fungus spreads when its spores are blown to rice plants and stick on the leaves. Once on the plant, the spore forms a structure called an appressorium. This bubble-like structure grows until it has so much pressure inside that it blasts through the plant's ...

Pollution-eating bacteria produce electricity

... characteristic of these bacteria is that they are the first known spore-forming bacteria shown to continuously generate electricity. A bacterial spore is a dormant stage of growth for the organism and is highly resistant to heat, radiation and drying. Such characteristics could prove useful in ...
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