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Splicing in Biological News

A splice of life

... Daniel Pomeranz Krummel. "The process of RNA splicing is vital to human cell development and survival," ... with regards to its size, but the process of RNA splicing that occurs in our cells is different. The ... cells have evolved to utilize this process of RNA splicing to generate a whole other dimension to the ...

CSHL scientists clarify editing error underlying genetic neurodegenerative disease

... cellular function called RNA splicing. RNA splicing is an essential step in the process in cell ... shorthands: A, U, G and C. The cell's RNA splicing machinery is correctly guided to the splice site ... target RNA. "In the three decades since RNA splicing was discovered, scientists have believed that a ...

Case Western Reserve finds mechanism underlying alt. splicing of premessenger RNA into messenger RNA

... code that in turn create mistakes in alternative splicing may be considerably more complicated than ... titled "Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing by silencers that modulate 5' splice site ... Yang Yu, Ph.D. was the lead author. "Regular" splicing is the process by which long strings of ...

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory scientists trace a novel way cells are disrupted in cancer

... that, in ways not yet fully understood, this same splicing factor acts on a group of other molecules that ... and his colleagues found that several known splicing factors are present at higher-than-normal levels ... to make higher-than-normal levels of this splicing factor. Changes in the PI3K-mTOR Pathway ...

CSHL team traces extensive networks regulating alternative RNA splicing

... biologists and geneticists call RNA splicing. splicing is a key step in the multi-step process that ... Poorly understood until recently, the splicing machinery and the networks that control it are ... called Fox-1 and Fox-2--which are two among many splicing factors--control regulatory networks involving ...

Deep sequencing study reveals new insights into human transcriptome

... study. In addition, a global survey of mRNA splicing events identified 94,241 splice junctions, of ... "A Global View of Gene Activity and Alternative splicing by Deep Sequencing of the Human Transcriptome", ... We provide here global features of alternative splicing events in human cell lines. Such a comparison of ...

Scientists find a fingerprint of evolution across the human genome

... the DNA before the protein is made. Signs of splicing Previous researchers assumed that mutations ... important. In addition to demonstrating how splicing affects genetic evolution, the statistical ... to co-author Adrian Krainer, a CSHL professor and splicing expert, the exciting thing will be to ...

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory scientists devise potential approach to treat spinal muscular atrophy

... an expert on the topic. Alternative Ways of splicing RNA When he first learned about SMA, Dr. ... because I realized that what we knew about splicing could be applied" to the disease. All the researchers needed to do was to alter the splicing of the second copy of the gene to include the ...

Deadly genetic disease prevented before birth in zebrafish

... and the researchers worked with are caused by splicing defects, or an interruption in genetic code. The ... If we can make cells ignore the gibberish, or the splicing defect, the fetus can develop normally." Up to 20 percent of genetic diseases are caused by splicing defects, Madsen said, so this treatment method ...

University of Toronto finds humans and chimps differ at level of gene splicing

... but we wanted to find out if it could be the splicing process that accounts for some of these ... was that six to eight per cent of the alternative splicing events we looked at were showing differences, ... And those genes that showed differences in splicing are associated with a range of important ...

Unravelling new complexity in the genome

... occurs in the nervous system. The alternative splicing step allows a single gene to specify multiple ... and pathways are regulated by alternative splicing differently in nervous system tissues compared to ... measurement of thousands of alternative splicing events in cells and tissues. Until recently ...

ISU researchers find possible treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

... genes. This copy is called pre-mRNA. Pre-mRNA then becomes mRNA by splicing out certain parts of the sequence that are non-coding, meaning they don't ... succeed in treating Spinal Muscular Atrophy, we will know how to correct splicing of other genes in other diseases," he said. ...

Human genes sing different tunes in different tissues

... years ago to 50-plus percent more recently. "A decade ago, alternative splicing of a gene was considered unusual, exotic but it turns out that's not true ... alternative exon functions like a molecular switch. Scientists who study splicing have a general idea of how tissue-specificity may be achieved, but they ...

UD researchers discover novel 'gene toggles' in world's top food crop

... operate differently, and different pieces are spliced out of each. These splicing differences limit the pairing ability between the sense and the antisense to a small region that includes the microRNA. In addition, splicing of the precursor of natural antisense microRNAs allows a hairpin to form, ...

RNA interference therapy heals growth deficiency disorder in a live animal

... by a series of five exons. The defective hormone is the result of a splicing error: It is made by combining the segments coded by the first two exons ... growth hormone. This came as a real surprise: We never thought that a splicing error would lead to cell death, says Patton. Meanwhile, progress in RNA ...

Boston University biomedical engineers teach bacteria to count

... field of synthetic biology addresses biological research questions with an engineering approach. Researchers design and build networks of genes, splicing them into bacterial genomes to run specific tasks or manufacture desired molecules a process akin to installing biological computer software. Though ...

Research team finds important role for junk DNA

... templates for the rearrangement process," Landweber said. "Now we've been studying the actual machinery involved in the process of cutting and splicing tremendous amounts of DNA. Transposons are very good at that." The term "junk DNA" was originally coined to refer to a region of DNA that ...

A new gene silencing platform -- silence is golden

... binding domain that can be tailored to any gene. The second domain inhibits mRNA maturation by binding U1 snRNP, a component of the cellular splicing apparatus. By combining both capabilities in the same molecule, the U1 Adaptor can inhibit the pre-mRNA maturation step of polyA tail addition in ...

Mutant host cell protein sequesters critical HIV-1 element

... mRNAs can be "translated" into viral proteins. "Although there has been a great deal of effort directed at understanding HIV-1 transcription, mRNA splicing and nuclear export, little is known about the translational control of HIV-1 RNA in the cytoplasm," says senior study author, Dr. Johnny J. He from ...

Stowers Institute's Baumann Lab identifies key step in maturation pathway of telomerase

... ends together are tightly coupled during intron removal. To our knowledge this is the first example where uncoupling of the first and second step of splicing generates a functional product in a single-step reaction." The work sheds light on human health by demonstrating that interfering with ...

Researchers discover critical detail of cellular defense against genetic mistakes

... about 75 percent of human genes code for more than one protein through a process called alternate RNA splicing. Unfortunately, the more intricate the splicing process, the greater the opportunity for error. More than one-third of alternatively spliced mRNAs are flawed, and must be destroyed before they can ...

Yale scientists visualize the machinery of mRNA splicing

... unexpected features showing two sections that were most implicated as key elements of the active site and strengthening a theory that the process of splicing in humans shares a close evolutionary heritage with ancient forms of bacteria. Looking to future applications of the work, Pyle said, Group II ...

Tiny genetic differences have huge consequences: McGill researchers

... of messenger RNA (mRNA), via a process called splicing, is genetically controlled by these SNPs. The SNPs in certain individuals lead to changes in splicing and result in the production of drastically altered forms of the protein. These out-of-proportion consequences may lead to the development of genetic ...

New route for heredity bypasses DNA

... and gain a better shot at surviving. The research also could have implications as a new method for controlling cellular processes, such as the splicing order of DNA segments, and increasing the understanding of natural cellular regulatory processes, such as which segments of DNA are retained versus ...

UVA reports surprising findings related to myotonic muscular dystrophy

... thought that the toxic RNA causes DM1 by disrupting normal RNA splicing. Much of the research on DM1 is focused on factors that cause RNA splicing defects. Our work may provide explanations for pathogenic effects not accounted for by RNA mis-splicing, Mahadevan explained. In this current ...

Evolution with a restricted number of genes

... DNA into RNA. During this phase, parts of the newly synthesised RNA may be removed and the remaining sequences combined into new RNA message. This splicing of RNA occurs during gene transcription, and in extreme cases, can produce RNAs coding for several thousand different proteins from a single gene. ...

Lecture to honor victim of Sept. 11 tragedy

... in the fields of molecular and cellular biology where his studies have provided critical insights regarding mechanisms of RNA transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and signal transduction. In 1982 he co-authored Molecular Cloning-A Laboratory Manual, a text that revolutionized the way modern biological research ...

MGH researchers describe new way to identify, evolve novel enzymes

... and repeat the experiment. The induction of random mutations to produce different forms of the enzymes and reducing the time allowed for the splicing reaction enabled the development of more efficient versions by means of guided evolution. Szostak notes that the final version of the enzyme ...

Gene mutation linked to cognition is found only in humans

... specific to humans that triggers a change in the splicing pattern of the neuropsin gene, creating a new splicing site and a longer protein. Introducing this ... weakening effect of a different, type I-specific splicing site and a significant reduction in type I ...

RNA splicing factor implicated in ovarian tumor cell growth

... found that interfering with the production of a splicing factor can inhibit the growth and invasiveness of ... tract-binding protein, or PTB, and another splicing factor compared to normal matching ovarian ... splicing, Beck said. Defects in pre-messenger RNA splicing have been shown to cause a variety of human ...

UCLA scientists design masks to hide genetic mutations from cell

... have devised a novel way to correct abnormal gene splicing ?a common mutation that often leads to disease. splicing edits out the punctuation from a cell’s genetic ... cell from seeing the genetic defects and restores splicing to the correct location in the gene. IMPACT: ...

Living view in animals shows how cells decide to make proteins

... which the genetic process -- called alternative splicing -- goes awry and produces the wrong proteins, the ... Scientists previously have examined alternative splicing in cells and tissues in test tubes, but this ... "We were able to watch alternative splicing as it occurred in different tissues," he said. ...

RNA map provides first comprehensive understanding of alternative splicing

... footage, a molecular process called alternative splicing enables a single gene to produce multiple ... snippets of RNA affects the way that alternative splicing is controlled in the brain. Though scientists have begun to appreciate how alternative splicing adds a layer of complexity to brain processes ...

Newly discovered behavior in cancer cells signals dangerous metastasis

... genetic copying program inside cells. Alternative splicing determines how the DNA is chopped into pieces and ... the gene produces. In cancer cells, the splicing machinery goes awry -- as do myriad functions within the cells. When the splicing process proceeds one way, the cells become ...

RNA splicing occurs in nerve-cell dendrites

... occur. Researchers have long agreed that mRNA splicing takes place within the cell nucleus. In the ... proteins) and introns (non-coding regions). mRNA splicing works by cutting out introns and merging together ... can be spliced and reconnected. Specifically, splicing removes pieces of intron and exon regions from ...

Single gene is genetic switch for fly sexual behavior

... fruitless protein, as a result of sex-specific splicing of the mRNA. The male form of Fruitless is ... form, suggesting that male-specific fruitless splicing "not only promotes male-female courtship, it also ... Ebru Demir and Barry J. Dickson: "fruitless splicing Specifies Male Courtship Behavior in Drosophila" ...

Reversal of role for a viral protein associated with the development of lymphoma

... at Carnegie Mellon. Ultimately, recursive splicing could be responsible for thwarting molecular ... large introns are removed by multiple recursive splicing steps," Lopez said. "These steps involve the ... Our work also indicates that most recursive splicing events leave no clues in the final mRNA. This is ...

Carnegie Mellon University research reveals how cells process large genes

... at Carnegie Mellon. Ultimately, recursive splicing could be responsible for thwarting molecular ... large introns are removed by multiple recursive splicing steps," Lopez said. "These steps involve the ... Our work also indicates that most recursive splicing events leave no clues in the final mRNA. This is ...

Cellular Defects in Premature Aging Disease are Reversible

... bind to the mutant splice site and prevent the splicing machinery from cutting in the wrong place. "You ... to the mutated region and did not cover-up other splicing locations. One week after correcting the splicing defect, the mutant lamin A protein had been ...
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