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Speciation in Biological News

Biodiversity itself begets a species cascade, researchers say

... naturalist who first described modern notions of speciation in "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural ... example, why are there so many insect species? speciation cascades provide one explanation for how a lot of ... fruit flies don't make an impressive example of speciation and environmental adaptation, the researchers ...

University biologist publishes book on bird speciation

... biologist and world-renowned expert on bird speciation has compiled eight years of research and writing into a recently published book, speciation in Birds. Trevor Price, professor of ecology ... doing this in a more systematic way, he said. speciation in Birds is a significant advance in our ...

Evolution: Crabs go deep to avoid hot water

... Journal of Biogeography , reveal temperature as a driving force behind the speciation and radiation of a major seafloor predator; globally, and over tens of ... This study elucidates temperature as a driving force behind the speciation and radiation of a major seafloor predator globally and over tens of ...

Host shift triggers cascading effect on ecosystem, research finds

... the same evolutionary changes. "The research shows the process of speciation in action and might tell us more about why certain groups of organisms are ... have more species than others." The research, "Sequential Sympatric speciation Across Trophic Levels," published Feb. 6 in the journal Science , ...

How 'secondary' sex characters can drive the origin of species

... biologists believe changes in copulatory organ size and shape can spur speciation by making individuals from different populations sexually incompatible. ... sexual traits continue to shape the way species diverge well after speciation has occurred. The speed and magnitude of divergence within O. taurus ...

A global model for the origin of species independent of geographical isolation

... within a species, which encourages divergence as members fill different roles in an ecosystem. In a new study, "Global patterns of speciation and diversity," just published in Nature , Les Kaufman, Boston University professor of biology and associate director of the BU Marine Program along ...

A genome may reduce your carbon footprint

... A comprehensive survey of genetic diversity would help guide conservation efforts to preserve germplasm diversity and allow reconstruction of past speciation events at a more detailed level. As a result of access to multiple related genomes, similarities between closely related species would allow ...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

... that share our environment. Starr Matsushita, University of Puget Sound Mentor: Andreas Madlung A role for aneuploidy as a means for hybrid speciation in the genus Arabidopsis I am incredibly happy to receive such a prestigious fellowship for the summer of 2009. I extend a warm thanks to the ASPB ...

UBC study first to show evolution's impact on ecosystems

... a UBC post-doctoral fellow who is now a researcher at Eawag, the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. "It also demonstrates how speciation of a predator might alter the evolutionary course of other organisms in the food web." "As new species arise from a common ancestor and evolve new ...

April 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

... species management have been applied in a novel approach to vadose-zone hydrology and paleohydrology. By establishing the synchrony between the speciation of cave fauna and the activation of discrete segments of the aquifer recharge zone, White et al. present a new set of tools to hydrologists and to ...

Ancestral genome of present-day African great apes & humans had burst of DNA sequence duplication

... humans and great apes within duplicated sequences containing rapidly evolving genes. Most of these differences occurred at a time just prior to the speciation of chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans,"said University of Washington (UW) researchers Tomas Marques-Bonet and Jeffrey M. Kidd who headed the study. ...

Researchers observe evolution chain reaction

... modification of a second, dependent species. The National Science Foundation supports the research. "It's a nice demonstration of how the initial speciation of one organism opens up an opportunity for another species in the ecosystem to speciate in kind," said Feder. "Biodiversity in essence is the source ...

Rosella research could rewrite 'ring theory'

... biologists have argued that the different forms of crimson rosellas arose, or speciated, through 'ring speciation'," she says. The ring speciation hypothesis predicts that a species that spreads to new areas may eventually join back up with itself, forming a ring. By that time, the populations ...

Ecological Society of America announces 2008 award recipients

... the relationship between primary production and evapotranspiration, theories of habitat selection and, perhaps most importantly, the competitive speciation hypothesis. His vision of promoting risky and innovative science led him to establish two scientific journals, Evolutionary Ecology and ...

Estimation of isolation times in the Drosophila simulans complex

... than either is to the third species)," says Kliman. "Also, with the number of researchers studying the functional divergence that contributes to speciation (specifically, to decreased fitness of hybrid offspring), getting accurate estimates of isolation times for the Drosophila simulans complex will ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- May 14, 2008

... Normal Levels of Total Arsenic in Rice Grain" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es702747y Arsenic in Rice: II. Arsenic speciation in USA Grain and Implications for Human Health DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es702748q CONTACT: Yamily J. Zavala, ....

AIBS honors outstanding contributions to the biological sciences

... professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the State University of New York Stony Brook where his research interests focus primarily on speciation and the evolution of ecological interactions among species. Prior to his presidency of AIBS, Futuyma served as president of the Society for the Study ...

Environmental epigenetics has potential for preventing and treating disease

... placenta. They note that the expression of imprinted genes is species, tissue and developmental stage dependent and may play an important role in the speciation of mammals. The article cites several studies involving metastable epialleles, which are alternate forms of a gene that are expressed due to ...

X-effect: female chromosome confirmed a prime driver of speciation

... that most changes causing hybrid infertility cluster inexplicably on the X chromosome. Presgraves is now looking into why the X is a hotspot for speciation genes, that prevent genetic exchanges between closely related species. The traditional notion of the large X-effect is that the X chromosome is ...

UF researchers devise way to calculate rates of evolution

... processes that drive mutation rates are important. In a previous study, Gillooly and Allen determined how temperature controls rates of speciation when animals and plants evolve into a new species. The latest research takes those findings to the genomic level. Were not saying when this and ...

Amid spiralling government interest, world's top 350 DNA barcode scientists meet in Taipei

... a million barcode records, expected within a few years" What patterns might we discern that will help us to understand exactly how evolution and speciation occur at the molecular level" The Astonishing Growth of a New Species of Science The 2nd International Barcode of Life Conference in ...

Amid spiralling government interest, world's top 350 DNA barcode scientists meet in Taipei

... a million barcode records, expected within a few years" What patterns might we discern that will help us to understand exactly how evolution and speciation occur at the molecular level" The Astonishing Growth of a New Species of Science The 2nd International Barcode of Life Conference in ...

Adaptation to parasites drive African fishes along different evolutionary paths

... yet to be studied", comments Louis Bernatchez, co-author of the study." But it offers an exciting new perspective in the study of African cichlids speciation ". ...

Genetic surprise confirms neglected 70-year-old evolutionary hypothesis

... a bit of luck. Other genetic causes of speciation are clearly documented in nature, and it wasn't ... in inter-species hybrids, which can act as a speciation pressure. In theory, the idea was sound, but ... nearly died for good. The reigning theory of speciation says that the genes causing hybrid sterility must ...

Electric fish in Africa could be example of evolution in action

... allow researchers to test if a specific type of speciation is possible. One common type of speciation is geographically dependent. Animals diverge into ... separate species. This so-called sympatric speciation is more controversial because there have been few ...

Taking evolution's temperature: Researchers pinpoint the energy it takes to make a species

... that shape biodiversity on the planet." speciation - when animals or plants actually evolve into a ... researchers made specific predictions on rates of speciation at the global scale. Then, using fossils and ... data, they looked at rates of DNA evolution and speciation during a 30-million-year period in foraminifera ...

An (ecological) origin of species for tropical reef fish

... from fish thousands of miles away. An ecological speciation model for coral reef organisms may spur the development of a more synthetic treatment of speciation on land and sea. Coral reefs, like tropical ... geographical barriers, indicates that local speciation events may overcome the homogenizing effect of ...

Cricket's finicky mating behavior boosts biodiversity

... appears to be the driving force behind the speedy speciation of the Laupala cricket, the scientists wrote in ... or more than 10 times faster than the average speciation rate for invertebrates. This rapid evolution is ... While early biologists based their estimates of speciation rates on morphological, or structural ...

No sex for 40 million years? No problem

... many scientists had thought that sexual reproduction was necessary for speciation because of the importance of interbreeding in explaining speciation in sexual organisms. Asexual creatures like the bdelloid rotifers were ...

Biologists call for better choice of model organisms in 'evo-devo'

... those that are separated from this ancestor by the smallest number of speciation events. "Sometimes evolution speeds up in association with speciation ?an organism can change a lot in this time. "However, substantial ...

Genomics throws species definition in question for microbes

... on Systematics of Prokaryotes to consider a paradigm shift in the species definition. The need for more thorough study of the mechanisms of speciation before a more meaningful and practical species theory can be developed. The need for more comprehensive and systematic data to uncover whether ...

Finding an answer to Darwin's Dilemma

... of Southern Denmark) and Simon Poulton (Newcastle University, U.K.). Geochemical studies by Drs. Canfield and Poulton included measurements of iron speciation and sulphur isotopes to determine the oxygen levels in the world’s oceans at the time these sediments accumulated in Avalon. The close ...

Sunflower speciation highlights roles for transposable elements in evolution

... be facilitated by rapid reorganization of genomes. Previous work on three independently derived hybrid sunflower species has validated this mode of speciation by documenting novel structural rearrangements in their chromosomes, as well as large-scale increases in nuclear DNA content. The nuclear-genome size ...

Choosy females make colourful males

... brightly coloured males because they are easier to see and are in better shape concludes Dutch researcher Martine Maan following her study of fish speciation in the East African Lakes. Environmental variation subsequently leads to differences in preference and eventually to speciation. Evolutionary ...

Ernst Mayr's theory illustrated in genetic epidemiology studies

... highly non-random and are very much directed by natural selection and are adaptive. "It's incorrect to portray genetic revolution as just a random speciation model. It's a process that is very strongly driven by natural selection, but this adaptive process can go in directions that can't be predicted just ...

Adult stem cells aid recovery in animal model of cerebral palsy

... clues to the identity of genes that drive speciation, and the mechanism by which they do so. This is a significant finding in the field of speciation research: in terms of methodology, this study shows that DNA microarrays can be used to identify regions of the genome that are different between two ...

Islands in the Genome Promote Speciation

... clues to the identity of genes that drive speciation, and the mechanism by which they do so. This is a significant finding in the field of speciation research: in terms of methodology, this study shows that DNA microarrays can be used to identify regions of the genome that are different between two ...

Picky female frogs drive evolution of new species in less than 8,000 years

... population - essentially a new species - that is unable to mate with either of the original frog populations. This example suggests that rapid speciation is often driven by recontact between long-isolated populations, Moritz said. Random drift between isolated populations can produce small variations ...

Possible treatment found for 'chemobrain'

... it contains many chromosomal rearrangements, which makes it valuable for studying how such rearrangements have contributed to the evolution and speciation of humans and other non-human primates. To identify chromosomal rearrangements, researchers will need to sequence only small portions of the gibbon ...
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