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Skull in Biological News

Reading the brain without poking it

... lets neurosurgeons put this device under the skull but over brain areas where it would be risky to ... "If you're going to have your skull opened up, would you like something put in that ... by medication, surgeons remove part of the skull or cranium and place a silicone mat containing ...

Field Museum paleontologist leads study on two new dinosaurs from China

... hip and weighed close to 600 pounds. It had a skull over a foot and half in length and armed with ... and narrow snout, rather than a wide, massive skull optimized for powerful biting as is seen in ... expanded areas for jaw muscle attachment on the skull roof, modified "nipping" teeth at the front of ...

Early humans had 'jaws of steel'

... built a virtual model of the A. africanus skull and were able to see just how the jaw operated ... could produce. "We started with a CT scan of a skull that is one of the most complete specimens of A. ... The result a rainbow colored virtual skull that illustrates forces absorbed by the cranial ...

'Hobbit' fossils represent a new species, concludes University of Minnesota anthropologist

... Comparing the simulation to the original Flores skull discovered in 2003, McNulty and Baab were able to ... conclusively that the original "hobbit" skull fits the expectations for a small fossil hominin ... accounts for many features seen in the fossil skull from Flores," McNulty said. "It becomes much more ...

Big brains arose twice in higher primates

... in 1995 in Nature , is one such fossil. The skull dates to 20 million years ago and is the oldest and most complete well-dated primate skull from the New World. In the Novitates paper, ... pathways of brain expansion and its effects on skull growth and shape, and may lead to new insights ...

New 3-D ultrasound could improve stroke diagnosis, care

... for the thickness and unevenness of the skull to see in real-time the arteries within the brain ... The temple locations were chosen because the skull is thinnest at these points. Ivancevich took ... for the thickness and unevenness of the skull in one subject. The speed of the sound waves ...

Craniosynostosis minimally invasive surgery holds more promise than old procedure

... back the scalp of the infant and reshape the skull by breaking the bones that had fused. The other ... a small incision near the point of the fused skull plates. Now, the first long-term study by a ... With craniosynostosis, two or more of the five skull plates fuse prematurely, restricting growth in ...

Skull survey could improve vehicle safety

... found that the average thicknesses of the skull in men was 6.5 millimeters, but 7.1 mm in women. ... the countermeasure for head protection." skull thickness, as one might expect, improves the ... injury, but studies have also demonstrated that skull shape can also have an effect. However, the ...

Unusual fish-eating dinosaur had crocodile-like skull

... An unusual dinosaur has been shown to have a skull that functioned like a fish-eating crocodile, ... to show that while Baryonyx was eating, its skull bent and stretched in the same way as the skull of the Indian fish-eating gharial a crocodile ...

Dinosaur from Sahara ate like a 'mesozoic cow'

... hundreds of tiny teeth and nearly translucent skull bones will be unveiled Thursday, Nov. 15, at the ... its elephant-sized body with a featherweight skull armed with hundreds of needle-shaped teeth, said ... original fossils and a reconstructed skeleton and skull of the dinosaur, will open Nov. 15 at the ...

Sands of Gobi Desert yield new species of nut-cracking dinosaur

... that fossils ever tell paleontologists about a dinosaur's diet. But the skull characteristics of a new species of parrot-beaked dinosaur and its ... solid evidence of nut-eating in any dinosaur. "The parallels in the skull to that in parrots, the descendants of dinosaurs most famous for their ...

UC Davis bioengineer receives Hartwell Foundation grant to address skull fusion disorder of infants

... in the premature fusing of one or more of the sutures necessary for the skull to expand as the child's brain grows. If left untreated, the disorder can ... that can be placed along the sutures as a substitute for the fragmented skull bones. His goal for the three-year term of the grant is to demonstrate the ...

Details of evolutionary transition from fish to land animals revealed

... this transition." Trends in head shape include a flattening of the skull and a lengthening of the snout. Using several well-preserved specimens ... in head shape. "We used to think of this transition of the neck and skull as a rapid event, largely because we lacked information about the ...

Great white's mighty bite revealed

... two carnivores by analysing anatomical and biomechanical data from their skull and muscle tissues. They generated 3-Dimensional models the skull of a 2.4-metre male great white shark on the basis of multiple x-ray ...

DNA study unlocks mystery to diverse traits in dogs

... genes that scientists believe contribute to differences in body and skull shape, weight, fur color and length and possibly even behavior, ... human owners, such as herding or hunting ability, coat color and body and skull shape and size. This resulted in the massive variance seen among the more ...

New dinosaur from Mexico offers insights into ancient life on West America

... ancient skull. Upon its arrival at the Utah Museum of Natural History, the skull then required another two years of meticulous preparation by Jerry Golden, ... the museum. Based on the development of several bony features on the skull and skeleton, the scientists believe that this animal was still a ...

Tassie tiger no match for dingo

... revealing bite forces and stress patterns applying to dingo and thylacine skull specimens. A team led by UNSW palaeontologist Stephen Wroe, along with ... The thylacine has a greater bite force than the dingo but its skull becomes more stressed than the dingo under conditions that simulate the ...

Rodent size linked to human population and climate change

... including the big collections held at Chicago's Field Museum and the Smithsonian in Washington. Altogether, he recorded more than 17,000 body and skull measurements from 1,300 specimens from 22 locations in Africa, the Americas and Asia. The animals were collected from 1892 to 2001, and Pergams ...

Scientists closer to making implantable bone material, thanks to new research

... that these can form. For example, the researchers have discovered that the 'bone-like' materials that were grown from bone cells from mouse skull and mouse bone marrow stem cells successfully mimicked many of the hallmarks of real bone, which include stiffness. However, they found that the ...

A combined tooth-venom arsenal revealed as key to Komodo dragon's hunting strategy

... bleeding. The researchers also examined fossils of the Dragon's giant extinct relative Megalania ( Varanus priscus ). From similarities in skull anatomy they determined that this seven metre lizard would have used a similar venom and bite system, making it the largest venomous animal to have ...

Young dinosaurs roamed together, died together

... at a dig," he said. In addition to herd composition and behavior, the site also provides encyclopedic knowledge of even the tiniest bones in the skull and skeleton. "We even know the size of its eyeball," Sereno said. "Sinornithomimus is destined to become one of the best- understood dinosaurs in ...

Low levels of vitamin B12 may increase risk for neural tube defects

... the brain and spinal cord. One type, spina bifida, can cause partial paralysis. Another type, anencephaly, is a fatal defect in which the brain and skull are severely underdeveloped. Researchers have known that taking another nutrient, folic acid, during the weeks before and after conception can ...

Little Salt Spring underwater archeological site in Florida receives new funding

... date at LSS include deer antler tools, green stone pendants, bone tools and wooden relics, fossils of extinct prehistoric creatures, a 7,000 year-old skull with brain tissue who's mitochondrial DNA revealed a genetic lineage not previously identified in the Americas. ...

Dealing with taxonomic uncertainty for threatened and endangered species

... a strong burden of proof to propose taxonomic changes such as new species. The high data requirement, particularly requiring morphological data from skull collections, has resulted in certain taxonomic groups (like whales) being at a disadvantage and likely under-representing the true taxonomic ...

Mixed population provides insights into human genetic makeup

... began with an online database of genes linked to disease -- Online Mendelian Inheritance of Man. If the symptoms of the disease involved the face or skull the gene implicated in the disease became a candidate for those facial traits. This approach works because although Shriver looked at genes ...

UT to develop fracture putty for traumatic leg injuries

... bones and the replacement of missing bones." Tasciotti said the fracture putty could one day be used to address injuries involving the spine, skull and facial bones. "The findings of this research could eventually benefit all the victims of any bone-related traumatic injury and reduce the number ...

CT scans reveal that dinosaurs were airheads

... similar to the hollow beams used in construction both are incredibly strong but don't weigh as much their solid counterparts. A light but strong skull enabled these predators to move their heads more quickly and helped them hold their large heads up on cantilevered necks, explained Witmer, who ...

A new dinosaur species, Pachyrhinosaur lakustai, unveiled from Pipestone Creek, Alberta, Canada

... a herd of dinosaurs that perished in a catastrophic event 72.5 million years ago. The animals are characterized by a bony frill on the back of the skull ornamented with smaller horns. They also had large bony structures above their nose and eyes which lends them their name: Pachyrhinosaurus ...

Alcohol consumption can cause too much cell death, fetal abnormalities

... tube cells. Cognitive and other brain damage is hard to quantify this early, but mice missing the neural crest gene also experience problems with skull and brain development. Ideally his measurements will give women a better idea of the risk of alcohol consumption and point toward a way to reduce ...

Little teeth suggest big jump in primate timeline

... of ancient primates is made up of teeth, because teeth are easy to preserve and hard," Williams said. "Occasionally we get lucky enough to have a skull to work with, but in this case a few teeth is all we have." Their PNAS report described two upper molars and one lower molar. "From the tooth size ...

Mysterious mountain dino may be a new species

... of Alberta. "It's very distinct from other dinosaurs that were found at the same time in southern Alberta." The seven shin, arm, toe and possible skull bones were found nestled in a dip between mountains in the Skeena range, and while the fragments resemble those from a small two-legged, plant-eating ...

Avoiding Spleen Removal for Cooley's Anemia SufferersAvoiding spleen removal for Cooley's anemia suf

... tissues, primarily in the thorax and the paraspinal regions, can be stimulated to expand, leading to the characteristic deformities of the skull and face, osteopenia, and demineralization of the bones, which are then prone to fractures. Despite excessive erythropoietic activity, affected ...

Origin of cells for connective tissues of skull and face challenged

... overturned a long-standing assumption about the origin of embryonic cells that give rise to connective and skeletal tissues that form the base of the skull and facial structures in back-boned creatures from fish to humans. Weston and co-authors from the Max Planck Institute of Immunology in Germany ...

Harvard researchers publish MRI images of genes in action in the living brain

... tissue repair in the brain of living organisms using MRI. Current methods involve a risky, invasive, and relatively slow process of penetrating the skull to extract tissue samples and then examining those samples in a laboratory. We hope our study provides a tool for better treatments of ...

Ancient reptile rises from Alberta oil sands

... much as most specimens, which have typically been found in shale, Druckenmiller explained. Because of this, I was able to have its three-dimensional skull CT-scanned so we can see the details of the insides of its braincase. This has helped us understand this animal in more detail than almost any other ...

Marsupial lion tops African lion in fight to death

... cats. The marsupial lion also had an extremely efficient bite, Wroe says. In addition to very powerful jaw muscles for its size, its muscle and skull architecture were arranged in such a way as to take greater advantage of leverage than in living cats. Wroe, who has published findings about bite ...

Human embryonic stem cell -- derived bone tissue closes massive skull injury

... hESC-derived mesenchymal cells onto hydroxyapatite-composite scaffolds and used the resulting intramembraneous bone cells to successfully heal large skull defects in mice. The Hopkins researchers believe that this is the first study to demonstrate a potential application of hESC-derived mesenchymal ...

Brain network related to intelligence identified

... the biological basis of intelligence. Twenty-five years ago researchers in the field were engaged in an unedifying discussion of the relation between skull sizes and intelligence test scores. By taking advantage of the huge advances in measurement of the brain that have occurred in the past quarter ...

Fused nasal bones helped tyrannosaurids dismember prey

... was keeping the T. rexes from breaking their own skull while breaking the bones of their prey." ... other carnivorous dinosaurs, says Snively, their skull bones might shear apart slightly when they chomp ... he said. "The T. rex especially had a very strong skull and jaw muscles that would turn it into a ...
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