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Similarity in Biological News

Relationships in rank and file

... Search engines like BLAST evaluate the similarity between a pair of sequences by aligning them ... come to lie in the same columns. The sequence similarity is then calculated by adding the similarities of all aligned amino acids. Here, the similarity between amino acids is measured by how often they ...

Satellites help ensure efficient use of pesticides

... the same climatic zone. The new service, Site similarity Certification (SSC), merges satellite images with ... images are intended to be used to prove the similarity of trial sites and herewith to improve the ... of substituting missing field trials for Site similarity Certifications. ...

Humans related to orangutans, not chimps, says new Pitt, Buffalo Museum of Science study

... comparisons are often flawed: There is no theory holding that molecular similarity necessarily implies an evolutionary relationship; molecular studies often ... for comparison; and molecular data that contradict the idea that genetic similarity denotes relation are often dismissed. "They criticize molecular data ...

Scripps scientists find structure of a protein that makes cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy

... of another protein, MsbA, that transports lipids out of bacteria. This similarity suggests that P-gp works by bringing the two dumbbell-shaped arms together ... cavity is ejected from the cell. While the new study shows another similarity between MsbA and P-gpboth binding cavities are lined with hydrophobic ...

Important new hair-loss gene discovered

... This newly discovered gene, on the other hand, may now account for the similarity in cranial hair growth between father and son. The researchers had ... the mother and the father. "This helps to provide an explanation for the similarity between father and son", declares Professor Nthen. ...

Venomous sea snakes play heads or tails with their predators

... than the colours on the rest of the body and the black colorations were much longer than the dark bands on the rest of the body, highlighting the similarity between the head and the tail. The reason for this mixture of behaviour and coloration results from a developed defence strategy needed when the ...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

... Like humans, Dictyostelium can be infected by Legionella and quickly responds by producing a host of metabolism-associated proteins. Another similarity between humans and Dictyostelium is that both use AMPK as an internal sensor to coordinate energy synthesis with energy needs. However, unlike ...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

... found that one particular group of knockout mice with mutations associated with impaired immune defence began to lose weight and became moribund. The similarity with the human manifestation of the disease, where older or immune impaired patients tend to exhibit the symptoms of acute C. difficile infection, ...

Telomeres resemble DNA fragile sites

... de Lange, head of the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Genetics, and first author Agnel Sfeir, a postdoctoral associate in the lab, suggests a striking similarity between telomeres and common fragile sites, parts of the genome where breaks tend to occur, albeit infrequently. (Humans have 80 common fragile ...

CSHL scientists harness logic of 'Sudoku' math puzzle to vastly enhance genome-sequencing capability

... theorem. "It minimizes the number of pools and the amount of sequencing," says Hannon of their method, which they dubbed "DNA Sudoku" because of its similarity to the logic and combinatorial number-placement rules used in the popular game. The method, which the CSHL team has patented, is currently best ...

Sediment yields climate record for past half-million years

... Atlantic to a similar record taken from an ice core drilled from Dome C in Antarctica, they found it was remarkably similar. "You can't miss the similarity between the two records, one from the bottom of the North Atlantic Ocean and the other from Antarctica," he said. "The record is virtually the same ...

Studies shed light on collapse of coral reefs

... found in humans and other animals. One of the revelations in recent research, she said, is the enormous complexity of coral biology, and even its similarity to other life forms. A gene that controls skeletal development in humans, for instance, is the identical gene in corals that helps it develop its ...

Bolivian rainforest study suggests feeding behavior in monkeys and humans have ancient, shared roots

... might similarly be an option for mitigating obesity in captive primates. "Our findings are also interesting from an evolutionary point of view. similarity in the regulatory pattern of protein intake between distantly related species, such as humans and spider monkeys, possessing very different dietary ...

Scientists urge world leaders to respond cooperatively to Pacific Ocean threats

... Stephen Palumbi, director of Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station and one of the principal organizers of the consensus statement. "Remarkable similarity exists between the major problems experienced in poor and rich countries alike, in populous nations and on small islands," said Palumbi, a professor ...

New genomic technique uncovers coral transcriptome

... of 454. As well as demonstrating the technical power of the method, the study has identified approximately 11,000 genes on the basis of sequence similarity with known proteins, over 30,000 markers of genetic variation, and a number of novel candidate genes for stress-related processes. The ...

Swine flu genes dissimilar to past pandemics

... ago. They have since studied sequences from the new virus and found that only about half of their 34 markers are present. Slezak said, "This lack of similarity does not necessarily mean that the current H1N1 virus is not going to be a major problem, but it does suggest that it lacks many of the attributes ...

Clarke clarifies pattern recognition theory

... texture, form or smell) in different foodstuffs (such as fish) not yet part of their staple diets. "It is fundamentally the recognition of similarity that facilitates adaptability, not, as is often presumed, dissimilarity or deviation, which could lead to the adoption of entirely inappropriate new ...

Gene decides whether coral relative will fuse or fight

... domains are found in vertebrate immune molecules and potentially also in the Hydractinia allorecognition gene, there appears to be no additional similarity between the known surface molecules in these systems. "Indeed," they concluded, "growing evidence suggests that animals have evolved a variety of ...

Small molecules block cancer gene

... did halt the activity of Stat3 in the laboratory. With that information, Tweardy and his colleagues then screened another 2.47 million compounds for similarity to the original three. They found another three. While five of the six had some activity in stopping Stat3, one called 188 was most effective. ...

AZTI-Tecnalia coordinates a platform promoting the use of zebrafish in scientific research

... The use of the zebrafish is expanding rapidly thanks to its low maintenance costs, its ease of handling and reproduction, its high degree of genetic similarity with higher vertebrates and humans, and to the numerous genetic tools available. The DareNET platform aims at promoting the use of the zebrafish ...

New data suggest 'jumping genes' play a significant role in gene regulatory networks

... to Haussler, however, most of the DNA under negative selection in vertebrate genomes does not appear to be transcribed and shares no sequence similarity with the genomes of invertebrates. "Our research suggests that many of these elements serve as distal enhancers for developmental genes," Haussler ...

While focusing on heart disease, researchers discover new tactic against fatal muscular dystrophy

... NEW YORK (Feb. 8, 2009) Based on a striking similarity between heart disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have discovered that a new class of ...

TECNALIA uses artificial vision to improve recycling of electronic scrap metal

... strategic lines: SPECIM with a hyper-spectral line-by-line camera and CSL, with point-to-point spectrometric analysis. ROBOTIKER, given the great similarity between and choice of different classes, has employed processing techniques that enable the extraction of discriminating characteristics, ...

New insights into a leading poultry disease and its risks to human health

... virulence, with more than one quarter (26 percent) conserved in other species. Almost half of the proteins made by these genes (46 percent) had no similarity to proteins that have been deposited into a public gene database. Among the disease causing parts of the plasmid pAPEC-1 are a series of genes that ...

NIH grants Phylonix Phase II SBIR to develop high-throughput in vivo zebrafish assays

... CYP assay will be useful for profiling drug metabolism prior to performing expensive mammalian testing. Because of their genetic and physiological similarity to humans, zebrafish have been shown to be an efficient, predictive animal model for assessing drug metabolism and drug safety. Advantages of ...

AGU journal highlights -- Dec. 31, 2008

... abundant on debris aprons and lineated valley fill but not seen in surrounding terrain. Ring mold craters are concentric crater forms named for their similarity to the cooking implement, in contrast to the bowl-shaped craters that are common at such small sizes (hundreds of meters (hundreds to thousands of ...

Biomedical researchers create artificial human bone marrow in a test tube

... cells that are essential for immunity and blood production are able to grow, divide and differentiate efficiently in these scaffolds due to the close similarity of the pores in the scaffold and the pores in actual bone marrow." The researchers demonstrated that the artificial marrow gives a human-like ...

A simple fusion to jump-start evolution

... the efficiency of the reactions was dependent on fragment size (larger is better, though efficiency drops again after reaching around 100) and the similarity of the fragment sequences. The researchers note that this spontaneous fusing, or ligation, would a simple way for RNA to overcome initial ...

Moving new technologies from the lab to the marketplace

... activities. Chengjun Liu, associate professor of computer science, received a Gap grant for his patented face detection technology to develop new similarity measures required for a robust face detection pilot system. The system, which takes into account such factors as lighting and facial expressions, can ...

Making the ultimate family sacrifice

... as much as scientists previously thought," Ostrowski said. Shaulsky said, "By segregating, they minimize the risk that cells of their genetic similarity will die." Ostrowski said the results suggest that "cooperative" genes are likely those that produce the sticky adhesives that the amoebae secrete ...

Scientists shed light on evolution of gene regulation

... species over the course of their evolution are said to be conserved. A portion of these conserved sequences shows a particularly high level of similarity across species, indicating that a process is at work, called purifying selection, in which changes in the DNA are rejected. Previously, scientists ...

Case Western Reserve University uncovers genetic basis for some birth defects

... facial differences. These children were all missing a very small region of chromosome 22 that contained the ERK2 gene. Saitta agreed that the similarity in the anatomic structures affected in the mice and those in the patients who have lost one copy of this gene suggest that ERK2 and its pathway ...

New cell division mechanism discovered

... cells are formed. - This is the first time in decades that a novel cell division mechanism has been discovered, and the gene products display no similarity to previously known division proteins, Rolf Bernander says. Two of the three proteins are instead related to eukaryotic so-called ESCRT- proteins, ...

European researchers harness unique properties of boron to develop new drugs and diagnostics

... differences. It is the combination of these similarities and differences that give boron its unique potential in medicine. The important similarity is that boron, like carbon, combines with hydrogen to form stable compounds that can participate in biochemical reactions and syntheses. The key ...

Gold nanostars outshine the competition

... of the nanostars using two target molecules, 2-mercaptopyridine and crystal violet. These molecules were selected because of their structural similarity to biological molecules and their large number of delocalized electrons, a characteristic that lends itself to SERS. NIST researchers found that the ...

Brainy genes, not brawn, key to success on mussel beach

... genome. When this was determined, the functions of those genes that were expressed more at that point in time could be inferred based on their similarity to genes in public databases. ...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

... of the molecular machines that perform DNA repair have changed little throughout the long course of evolution; today these machines show remarkable similarity in organisms as diverse as archaea, yeast, frogs, and human beings. One consequence is that information about how Mre11 works in humans can be ...

Researchers develop new self-training gene prediction program for fungi

... these dinucleotides is not sufficient to signal the presence of an intron. Several nucleotides that surround GT and AG are also important, but the similarity of the pattern is not deterministic. Locating the branch site which is nine nucleotides in length, almost always contains an adenine and is located ...

Tel Aviv University researchers create new stem cell screening tool

... the researchers created a database of global gene expression profiles and discovered that all of the pluripotent stem cell lines showed a remarkable similarity in the analysis, while other cell types were more diverse. The analysis by Shamir's lab revealed a protein-protein network common to pluripotent ...

NYU, American Museum of Natural History receive $1.6 million NSF grant

... in plant genomes whose functions are currently unknown, the majority of which do not have any annotation of 3D folded structurethat is, no detectable similarity to another protein with a known structure. In this case annotating the proteins effectively means translating the gene sequence into predictions ...
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