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Selection in Biological News

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

... "Larger population sizes make natural selection more efficient," said IU Bloomington evolutionary ... and sometimes, perhaps, as the result of natural selection against excess DNA. An LTR is far more likely to ... is an increase in the efficiency of natural selection that accompanies population growth. "We think ...

UNH researcher receives presidential environmental award

... the project utilized an eelgrass restoration site selection model Short developed with funding from the UNH ... time-consuming process," says Short. "This site selection model helps coastal managers find locations most ... growth." In this project, Short notes, site selection was successful; in the 40 acres of restored ...

Why do we choose our mates? Ask Charles Darwin, prof says

... beliefs about the choice of mates and sexual selection being beyond mere chance have been proven ... in Darwin's landmark book The Descent of Man, and selection in Relation to Sex. His work has withstood ... why some populations experience strong sexual selection and others don't." Jones notes that other key ...

Geography and history shape genetic differences in humans

... New research indicates that natural selection may shape the human genome much more slowly than ... take at least 50,000-100,000 years for natural selection to spread favorable traits through a human ... of population history. "We don't think that selection has been strong enough to completely fine-tune ...

Did the North Atlantic fisheries collapse due to fisheries-induced evolution?

... of specific genotypes. Instead the intense selection results from the interaction of fish that select ... the authors ask. A strategy that would remove selection pressures against shallow-water adapted fish ... reserves might be the right strategy by relieving selection pressures on all genotypes. The findings ...

Native Americans descended from a single ancestral group, DNA study confirms

... advantage to humans who carried it. Natural selection would carry this allele into new populations and ... in people without the allele. "If natural selection had promoted the spread of a neighboring ... allele. So we can now consider the positive selection possibility unlikely." The results also ruled ...

Identifying mega-targets for high-yield plant breeding

... which they analyzed to identify mega-targets of selection (i.e. groups of breeding programs likely to be ... The authors identified three mega-targets of selection among the barley breeding programs. They ... that exchange of germplasm within mega-targets of selection would produce adapted genotypes with high yields. ...

Darwin's seminal impact on biology, anthropology, philosophy and psychology

... Montral, has been teaching the theory of natural selection for two decades. The theory stipulates that all ... populated by dinosaurs or bacteria. Natural selection has no precise objective. If we are here it's ... nonetheless convinced that his theory of natural selection also applied to human beings. That's why he ...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

... of Georgia have just found that natural selection on gene function is driving the evolution of one ... we wanted to determine the influence of natural selection on their evolution," said Baucom. "We find that ... we specifically wanted to assess the pattern of selection on these elementsa pattern that could derive from ...

Evolution's new wrinkle

... suspected that certain systems undergoing natural selection can adjust their evolutionary course in a manner ... Wallace's likening of the action of natural selection to the governor on a steam engine --- that is, as ... species evolve because of random mutations and selection by environmental stresses. Unlike Darwin, Wallace ...

Heart valves that grow with the patient

... euros. This is the result of the preliminary selection that was announced on Tuesday by the Head of the ... from science and business in the preliminary selection for the Federal President's Future Prize. The ... has a good chance of success in the final selection at the beginning of December: "The Future Prize ...

NARSAD announces 2008 Prizes for Outstanding Achievement in Research on Mental Health Disorders

... Irvine, who chairs NARSAD's Lieber Prize selection Committee. "His concept of endophenotypes ... Network, who chairs NARSAD's Falcone Prize selection Committee, wrote: "Charles Bowden has made ... Dr. George's work, Dr. Post, chair of the prize selection committee wrote: "Dr. George is one of the true ...

Research pushes back history of crop development 10,000 years

... agriculture which came about as artificial selection was easily able to dominate natural plant ... was so slow and demonstrate why artificial selection of just one plant type does not have the expected ... grown quickly out paces the benefits natural selection Dr Robin Allaby says: "This picture of ...

'Armored' fish study helps strengthen Darwin's natural selection theory

... in freshwater, we were able to track how natural selection operates on this gene," says Rogers. "We ... allele in their offspring, evidence that natural selection favours reduced armour in freshwater," says ... week, Darwin's first publication of his natural selection theory proposed that challenging environments ...

Monarch butterflies help explain why parasites harm hosts

... the researchers also wanted to know how natural selection influences virulence in the wild. They isolated ... transmission opportunities could cause natural selection to favor strains with lower virulence. The teams ... as in the eastern monarch populations, natural selection will favor parasites that can persist longer on ...

Gene's 'selective signature' aids detection of natural selection in microbial evolution

... species to identify occurrences of natural selection in an organisms evolution. The new method ... looked for changes in genes that reflect natural selection and then asked, How does this gene relate to the ... closer to understanding the ecological basis of selection in a species and how changes at the genetic level ...

Insects' 'giant leap' reconstructed by founder of sociobiology

... rarely in other species), is a result of natural selection on nascent colonies of species possessing ... to that widely accepted earlier account, selection acting on individuals that are related (kin ... explains eusociality in Hymenoptera. Kin selection is thought to be especially powerful in these ...

MIT sorts cells with beams of light

... and cloning research, all of which require the selection of cells with particular characteristics for ... the right area or at the right time to meet the selection criteria. If so, its position is noted by the computer. At the end of the selection process, all of the cells whose positions were ...

Group selection, a theory whose time has come...again

... however, Darwins explanation based on group selection had become taboo and has not recovered since. In ... Gene (1976). Although evidence in favor of group selection began accumulating almost immediately after its ... and evidence, Wilson and Wilson show that natural selection is unequivocally a multilevel process, as Darwin ...

New evidence for female control in reproduction

... However this can also be used as a detection and selection system that alerts females to the presence of ... activation for fertilization. We know sperm selection exists in nature, especially in promiscuous ... This may be an aspect of post-coital sexual selection since sperm may remain viable in the human ...

NARSAD presents 2007 prizes for outstanding achievement in neuroscience and psychiatric research

... Bunney, Jr., M.D., chair of NARSADs Leiber Prize selection Committee: "Eve Johnstone has made outstanding ... M. Post, M.D., chair of NARSADs Falcone Prize selection Committee, wrote: "Dr. Helen Mayberg made seminal ... L. Rapoport, M.D., chair of the Ruane Prize selection Committee, commented: "Dr. Leckman is a very well ...

University biologist publishes book on bird speciation

... at Chicago, evaluates the contributions of sexual selection and natural selection in bird speciation, and the roles of geographical ... Royal Society of London meeting to review sexual selection and speciation. The literature was diverse and ...

AIBS to cohost symposium on evolution, disease and human health

... a Sign: Interpreting Evident for Recent Natural selection on the Human Genome. Bustamantes work focuses on ... hypotheses regarding the importance of natural selection and demographic history in patterning genetic ... populations of infectious agents in response to selection from host immunity (natural and vaccine induced), ...

Singapore National Science and Technology Awards

... (SNAS) and supported by A*STAR. The award selection panels comprised key representatives from the ... defence and research institutes. The main selection committee was chaired by Mr Peter Ong, Permanent ... Board of Trustees, SIM University, chaired the selection committees for the National Science Award and the ...

Men shed light on the mystery of human longevity, study finds

... population and will remain invisible to natural selection after reproduction ends." However, in ... because that is a currency by which force of selection is counted. If we have not accounted for the ... analyzed "a general two-sex model to show that selection favors survival for as long as men reproduce." ...

Innovative civil engineering application promises cleaner waters

... ( http://www.cee.vt.edu ). The new BMPs selection approach, called Analytical Hierarchy Process ... is expected to drastically reduce the BMP selection time and will also eliminate the human error from ... environmental engineering. Traditionally, the selection of BMPs has been done only by proficient ...

Nottinghamshire Police First Law Enforcement Agency to Deploy ForensicSoft in United Kingdom

... software and services, is proud to announce the formal approval and selection of its products by the Nottinghamshire Police, of Nottinghamshire, ... cyber crime program," said John DiPippo, ForensicSoft's President. This selection by Nottinghamshire Police marks the first law enforcement agency in ...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

... As these fishes became top predators in aquatic ecosystems, natural selection put the breaks on evolution, say researchers. A highly sought-after ... size and shape for catching fish roughly 20 million years ago natural selection seems to have kept them in an evolutionary holding pattern, the ...

'Science Under Siege'

... about scientific literacy. "[This] collection brings a well-chosen selection of logical and well-reasoned pieces before a general audience that would ... what to do about global warming, the articles contained in this excellent selection should be widely read." In this outstanding compilation, Frazier aims ...

Axel Ullrich named winner of 2009 Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research

... Hopkins School of Medicine and chairman of The Dr. Paul Janssen Award selection Committee. "He is one of few basic scientists whose work not only has ... list of essential medicines." "Johnson & Johnson is pleased the selection Committee chose Dr. Ullrich as the recipient of the 2009 Dr. Paul Janssen ...

What makes a great footballer?

... metrics of a player's skill components should be used to help in the selection and identification of new talent. Our studies could help to streamline selection criteria and efficiency by providing a rank ordering of individuals based ...

Work of Field Museum scientist addresses question of chance in evolution

... As Darwin observed, natural selection leading to adaptation of individuals and populations is occurring ... realization of a particular genetic and developmental channel, and natural selection opened the way for an adaptive solution. ...

Opposites attract -- how genetics influences humans to choose their mates

... species, including humans, and it is also known that MHC influences mating selection by preferences for particular body odours. The Brazilian team has been working in this field since 1998, and decided to investigate mate selection in the Brazilian population, while trying to uncover the biological ...

University of Florida study provides insight into evolution of first flowers

... facts established, we can now think about the vast space open to natural selection to establish ever more rigid borders," said Virginia Walbot, a biology professor at Stanford University who is familiar with the research. The selection process arrived at a "narrow solution in terms of four discrete organs but ...

Predators ignore peculiar prey

... "Maintenance of variation is a classic paradox in evolution because both selection and drift tend to remove variation from populations. If one form has an ... advantage that allows unusual traits to persist". The authors placed a selection of food-bearing model salamanders into a field for six days, with striped ...

DNA blueprint for healthier and more efficient cows

... today's edition of the journal Science. "Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome yet the current level of diversity within breeds ...

'Delicious' new grape debuts

... originated from a cross between AA10-40, a self-fertile, bronze-fruited selection with medium-sized berries, and CD8-81, a self-fertile, black-fruited selection with larger berries. The researchers noted that black berry color of ...

Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Prizes 2009: Six young researchers recognized for outstanding achievements

... the Vice President of the DFG, Professor Luise Schorn-Schtte, chair of the selection committee for the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Prize, on the occasion of the ... of women" amongst this year's proposals and nominations for the prize. The selection committee received 118 nominations, 35 of which were for women. Of the 118 ...

New data suggest 'jumping genes' play a significant role in gene regulatory networks

... that at least five percent of the human genome has been under negative selection during most of mammalian evolution," Haussler said. "We believe that this ... a genome. According to Haussler, however, most of the DNA under negative selection in vertebrate genomes does not appear to be transcribed and shares no ...

150 years of Darwin's landmark book spawns international conference

... scientific works. Over the past century-and-a-half, his ideas on natural selection have expanded beyond evolution through biology and into other disciplines ... biology, and complexity." The conferenceDarwin's Legacy: Natural selection as an Organizing Principle in Sciencewill bring together scientists from a ...
Other Contents
(Date:4/17/2014)... way the immune system may fight cancers and viral ... cells to treat illness. , The research, in mice, ... "neighborhood police" specialized squads of defenders that patrol ... entire city, the body. , Scientists at Washington University ... the liver, skin and uterus each has dedicated immune ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... domestication derive from Charles Darwin, whose ideas in ... during the 19th century, a period when landowners ... is from Darwin that we inherit the ideas ... wild species and total human control over breeding ... this industrial setting has been applied too broadly ...
(Date:4/16/2014)... have identified a new syndrome called "osteosarcopenic obesity" that ... with obesity. , "It used to be the thinking ... would be because the bones were supporting more weight," ... at Florida State. "But, that,s only true to a ...
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(Date:4/17/2014)... (April 17, 2014) Two recent papers by ... and colleagues may help scientists develop treatments or ... fever, Japanese encephalitis and other disease-causing flaviviruses. , ... and molecular genetics at the School of Medicine ... Hughes Medical Institute, and colleagues recently published articles ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... April 17, 2014U.S. military personnel who served in ... concussive traumatic brain injury (TBI) were compared to ... other medical reasons. Differences in measures of overall ... months after injury are reported in an article ... journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... IL, April 17, 2014-- Colic affects about one in ... for numerous pediatric visits during the first several months ... colic symptoms was showing promise; however, the April 1, ... (BMJ2014;348:g2107; Sung, Valerie) reported on a study, "Probiotics and ... L reuteri for infant colic did ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... An international team led by researchers at UC Davis ... plays a key role in cell division, also boosts ... the first time the complex has been shown to ... B1/Cdk1 an excellent target to control cellular energy production, ... was published online today in the journal Developmental ...
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