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Ribosome in Biological News

Genetic switch potential key to new class of antibiotics

... mRNA and tRNA for protein building. The mRNA's ribosome binding site is instead locked up by the preQ1 ... to the switch that tightly locks up the mRNA's ribosome binding site. The study further detailed how the first base of the mRNA's ribosome binding site binds to a loop of the riboswitch, ...

Life secret exposed: Scientists unlock mystery of molecular machine

... the genesis of all life on Earth. "While the ribosome is a complex structure it features a clear ... in nature." What is a ribosome? The ribosome is an enormous molecule responsible for ... key breakthrough came when he realized that the ribosome is organized by a set of simple structural rules ...

Lost in translation

... which the suite of translational tools called the ribosome recognizes errors, just after making them, and ... out, the Johns Hopkins researchers say, that the ribosome exerts far tighter quality control than anyone ... now know is that in the event of miscoding, the ribosome cuts the bond and aborts the protein-in-progress, ...

Researchers observe spontaneous 'ratcheting' of single ribosome molecules

... RNAs bring individual amino acids into the ribosome where they are assembled into proteins. Various ... the "deacylated" tRNA through an exit site. A ribosome is made up of two subunits composed of ... (RNAs) and about 50 individual proteins. The ribosome was once considered a static "workbench" for the ...

UIC scientists discover how some bacteria survive antibiotics

... of the cell. A newly-made protein exits the ribosome through a tunnel that spans the ribosome body. Antibiotics can ward off an infection by attaching to the ribosome and preventing proteins the bacterium needs from ...

UIC researchers find promising new targets for antibiotics

... Biological Chemistry, UIC researchers divided a ribosome -- the main apparatus within the cell that makes ... looked for those alterations that stopped the ribosome from making proteins. Of the thousands of ... the targets in the course of evolution." "The ribosome is the perfect target," he said. "More than half ...

Bacteria are models of efficiency

... happens when a critical piece of equipment is in short supply, say a main ribosome protein? Tlusty and Tadmor found that their model was able to accurately ... model predicts that a bacterium, for instance, should have seven genes for ribosome production. It turns out that that's exactly the number an average E. coli ...

Study shows more genes are controlled by biological clocks

... perhaps the most important role we've seen so far is the clock's role in ribosome biogenesis." Ribosomes assemble individual amino acids into polypeptide ... using this as a template to connect the correct sequence of amino acids. ribosome biogenesis is the process of making ribosomes, so knowledge that the ...

Scripps Research scientists observe human neurodegenerative disorder in fruit flies

... is expressed, its double-stranded DNA is first transcribed into a corresponding single-stranded piece of messenger RNA. Then an enzyme called the ribosome uses the mRNA as a template to make a protein by reading out its genetic sequence and then translating it into a string of amino acids. That's where ...

American Chemical Society Weekly PressPac -- April 8, 2009

... accurate in comparison to current tests. - MTS ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "Detecting Ricin: A Sensitive Luminescent Assay for Ricin A-chain ribosome Depurination Kinetics" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE: http://pubs.acs.org/stoken/presspac/presspac/full/10.1021/ac8026433 CONTACT: Vern L. ...

Genetic sleuth solves glaucoma mystery

... ribosomes, specialized molecules that make the proteins necessary to keep the cell functioning. Walter suspects that changes to WDR36 will affect ribosome production, and in turn affect the cell's ability to function. But this mutation alone isn't enough to cause glaucoma. Changes also have to happen ...

Cellular discovery may lead to targeted treatment for rare form of anemia

... in cell cycle arrest and ultimately leads to cell death and anemia. "Previous studies suggested L11 was passively coming out of the nucleolus when ribosome production was disrupted. Our study actually showed that the nucleolus stayed intact as ribosomes were still being produced, suggesting selective ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... because of a dramatic increase in the transcription of rRNAs, which in turn leads to an increase in the production of ribosomes. This escalation in ribosome activity means that the cell can synthesize proteins at an alarmingly rapid rate, which contributes to the out-of-control cell proliferation that is ...

Researchers reveal insights into hidden world of protein folding

... airplanes: Unless folded properly, they just won't fly. But researchers have been puzzled by how the long, linear proteins cranked out by the ribosome factories in a cell are folded into the shapes they must assume to perform their function. They only have known that for many of the most complex and ...

Researchers identify proteins involved in new neurodegenerative syndrome

... than normal levels of messenger RNA. Messenger RNA or mRNA takes the proteins blueprint from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the protein-manufacturing ribosome in the cytoplasm (the jelly-like material that fills the cells interior). Studying fruit flies, Botas and his colleagues found two RNA-binding ...

Danish researches solve virus puzzle

... a three dimensional structure. When the ribosome walking along an RNA encounters a pseudoknot it ... pseudoknot which is related to bird flu. When the ribosome encounters a pseudoknot it has to unravel the ... the reading can proceed. During this process the ribosome sometimes slips backwards and, like the letters ...

Biologists probe the machinery of cellular protein factories

... of California, Santa Cruz, has been studying the ribosome for more than 30 years. His main goal is to understand how the ribosome works and how it evolved, but there are also ... seen before and suggests how certain parts of the ribosome move during protein synthesis. A paper describing ...

The molecular post office inside the cell

... areas open up on the ribosome, which allows the ribosome to dock onto another complex. The later complex, ... in protein sorting. It is made from an active ribosome - that is, the protein synthesis machine in the ... chain leaves the ribosome. The SRP binds to the ribosome and directs it, together with the SRP receptor, ...

North & South American researchers find architectural abnormalities in T. cruzi ribosome

... New York, who had pioneered the analysis of ribosome structures by a method he developed for ... the structure of the parasite's ribosome. A ribosome is basically a double ball made mostly of RNA and ... as a primitive link to modern eukaryotes and its ribosome as a source of potential insights into the ...

Evolution of life on Earth may hold key to finding life in outer space

... of Life" ?is to understand when and how the ribosome (or cellular protein synthesis machinery) came ... group are examining the various components of the ribosome machinery trying to learn what parts came first ... later. "Since many of the components of the ribosome are shared by all organisms, we know this ...

Researchers make gains in understanding antibiotic resistance

... center, of the large subunit of the ribosome. The ribosome is the molecular machine responsible for ... ?bound to a mutated version of the Hma ribosome that corresponds to a form found in pathogenic ... binding to the mutant form of the Hma ribosome that do not agree with similar analyses by other ...

Timing is everything: First step in protein building revealed

... a result, Lorsch studies the timing of how the ribosome complex itself assembles and how other factors ... which can kill the cell or lead to disease. "The ribosome is the end stage of gene expression, and gene ... says Lorsch. "If we can better understand how the ribosome works, perhaps we can harness it to help us fix ...

Picking particles faster than one at a time

... to synthesize proteins can be wrecked by jamming their ribosomes, if the ribosome structure is known in detail. Single-particle reconstruction with cryo-EM ... the new algorithm by using it to pick images from among over 130,000 ribosome particles in 55 micrographs provided by the Wadsworth Center of the New ...

Zooming in on the protein-conducting channel

... created a complex comprising the PCC from E. coli attached to a ribosome that contained a newly forming protein segment. The ribosome is the massive protein-RNA complex that constitutes the cell's ...

Study findings offer potential new targets for antibiotics

... University of Illinois thought that there may be additional places in a ribosome that future antibiotics could affect, places that current antibiotics ... initial hunch was correct ?that there actually are other "hot spots" on a ribosome that could act as potential targets for antibiotics ?the researchers first ...

Scientists discover unique microbe in California's largest lake

... Miller says. The foreign DNA encodes a structural feature of the ribosome that makes large and precise movements during protein synthesis, but its ... innovation by genetic exchange has in fact had consequences for ribosome function in these bacteria. The new species of Acaryochloris is the latest ...

To sleep, perchance to dream: New insight into melatonin production

... of AANAT mRNA translation, and thereby melatonin synthesis. The researchers found that rodent AANAT mRNA translation is mediated by IRES (internal ribosome entry site) elements in the 5' end of the transcript, through binding of another protein, called hnRNP Q. In fact, siRNA knock-down of hnRNP Q ...

Regulating the nuclear architecture of the cell

... of these is control of repeated DNA sequences in and outside the heterochromatin. The other is the organization and structure of the nucleolus, the ribosome factory, which is situated at the specific site in the heterochromatin where ribosomal DNA -- consisting of large genes, repeated 300 to 400 times -- ...

Basic work on E. coli identifies two new keys to regulation of bacterial gene expression

... crucial to a cell's well-being. "This work is basic to the growth of all bacteria," says Gourse. "By understanding transcription and control of ribosome synthesis in E. coli, we can understand more about these processes in bacterial species that we need to control, like those that cause disease or ...

New method for identifying microbes

... of DNA to produce "tags" that contain 16 "letters" of genetic code somewhat "upstream" from the beginning of the gene that codes for a piece of the ribosome -- the highly conserved "single point" reference gene. By sequencing these tags and comparing the sequenced code with databases of known bacterial ...

Biotechnology's newest chemical tool

... to those biomolecules as well, further expanding its utility. Klimasauskas said that one potential application might be to label various sites in the ribosome -- the RNA-based site of protein production -- with bright fluorophores using appropriate RNA methyltransferases, enabling real-time dynamic studies ...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

... First, any mRNA with a CBP80 attached to its 5-prime cap can be translated by ribosomes. Secondly, mRNAs linked to CBP80 are targeted for NMD when a ribosome finds an early stop codon. Most recently, the Nature paper demonstrated for the first time that CBP80 works by activating a protein factor known to ...

Life's origins were easier than was thought

... actively in the chemical reactions of the cell activity. Because of their dual role, these cells are called ribozymes (a contraction of the words ribosome and enzyme). But there is an important obstacle to the theory of ribozymes as the origin of life: they could not be very large in length as they ...
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