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Retina in Biological News

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

... (Jointly with Envia Systems) The Artificial retina Project see Lawrence Livermore National Lab ... Corp. of Vancouver, Canada) Artificial retina - With this device, bio-electronic integrated ... integrated circuits. The Artificial retina Project see Lawrence Livermore National Lab ...

Work in mice will contribute to the study of hereditary diseases that lead to blindness

... for intense light exposure in the mouse's retina that will be helpful for the study of retinitis ... the distribution of microglial cells in la retina of the mouse during all its development, both ... to a neurodegenerative process induced in the retina by intense light exposure. Parkinson and ...

Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases

... of Health Research, focused on nerve cells in the retina which convey information from the retina to the brain along the optic nerve, and are the primary link between the retina and the brain. The death of these retinal neurons ...

Mammals can be stimulated to regrow damaged inner retina nerve cells

... nerve impulses to the brain. The findings on retina self-repair in mammals will be published this ... . Other scientists have shown before that certain retina nerve cells from mice can proliferate in a laboratory dish. Today's report gives evidence that retina cells can be encouraged to regenerate in living ...

Duke team explains a longtime visual puzzler in new way

... optics problem, which is that the image on your retina can't be directly, logically related to what is ... that derives from seeing a speed on the retina and making a move in response, which either works ... world and their projection onto a simulated retina accurately predicted the function derived in this ...

Where optics meets medicine

... New Technique for Mapping Blood Supply in retina Increases Safety, Comfort of Exams The Optics of ... NEW TECHNIQUE FOR MAPPING BLOOD SUPPLY IN retina INCREASES SAFETY, COMFORT OF EXAMS Anyone who ... capillaries of the light sensitive tissues in the retina at the back of the eye. With it, they can detect ...

St. Jude defines eye cancer gene's role in retinal development

... a gene called N-myc coordinates the growth of the retina and other eye structures to ensure the retina has the proper thickness necessary to convert ... a potentially fatal malignant tumor in the retina that affects about 300 children in the United ...

St. Jude identifies the specific cell that causes eye cancer, disproving long-held theory

... can arise from fully matured nerves in the retina called horizontal interneurons. This disproves ... St. Jude researchers showed that when the mouse retina had reduced Rb family function, fully ... they maintained their normal position in the retina as well as their normal connections to other ...

Shape encoding may start in the retina

... suggests that there may be dedicated cells in the retina that help compile small bits of information in ... Greene found evidence that the two sides of the retina interact to enhance the effectiveness of shape ... which he describes as linkage. The cells in the retina appear to be coordinating their responses in a ...

JCI table of contents: Aug. 16, 2007

... vessel network forms in response to damage to the retina and often occurs in individuals who are diabetic. ... of the network of blood vessels in the retina under normal and pathological conditions is ... decreased inflammatory cell infiltration of the retina and decreased expression of the proinflammatory ...

When every photon counts

... levels. It also provides new insights into the evolution of the mammalian retina and furthers our understanding of the nuclear architecture in general. ( ... In humans and all other vertebrates, the light has to traverse the entire retina to reach the light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors. "And ...

ORNL, Southern Cal set sights on preventing blindness

... ORNL noted that this research builds upon the highly successful artificial retina project ( http://artificialretina.energy.gov/ ) officially kicked off in ... "What we've been able to do is find a way to provide oxygen to the retina while avoiding the formation of potentially harmful chlorine," Greenbaum ...

Researchers describe protease inhibitor that may aid in diabetic retinopathy treatment

... these fragile vessels can hemorrhage easily, and blood may leak into the retina and the clear, gel-like vitreous that fills inside of the eye. Unless ... blindness. Diabetic macular edema, which involves swelling in the retina that transiently or permanently impairs vision, can occur at any stage of ...

Genetic finding implicates innate immune system in major cause of blindness

... University of Iowa found evidence of proteins expressed by SERPING1 in the retina and the choroid layer (the vascular layer next to the retina), the two ... suggest that the complement system is malfunctioning, attacking the retina and choroid layer. "It seems counterintuitive that a generalised innate ...

Atomic-resolution views suggest function of enzyme that regulates light-detecting signals in eye

... phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), is central to the way light entering the retina is converted into a cascade of signals to the brain. This particular form of the enzyme comes from the cone photoreceptors of the retina and has not been well-researched, in contrast to its rod form. Rods are ...

A second career for a growth factor receptor: keeping nerve axons on target

... up to the brain in a highly dynamic way. Cell bodies in the developing retina sprout processes, called axons, which extend toward visual centers in the ... synaptic connections, retinal axons develop a two-dimensional map of the retina in their targets in the brain. In the mice lacking p75, retinal axons ...

August LabBits: A media tip sheet from the MBL in Woods Hole

... surprising since although glutamate is a major signaling molecule in the retina and throughout the CNS, it is also a potent cytotoxin that, in large ... Chicago, to investigate how zinc may control the wily glutamate. Using the retina of the skate, a cartilaginous fish resembling a manta ray, they record ...

Protein transports nutrients believed to protect against eye disease

... The xanthophylls are known to accumulate in the macula region of the retina to form a yellow spot, and are referred to as macular pigment. Though this xanthophyll concentration in the retina has been observed and associated with a lower risk for the disease, the ...

NYU scientists set stage for understanding how color vision is processed

... The image of the environment formed by the optics of the eye on the retina is then transferred to brain processing centers. Both retina and brain processing centers have specialized morphology and function to ...

Scientists eye secrets of retinal regeneration

... discs in the retina's rod cells regenerate themselves. The retina uses two cell types -- rods and cones -- to sense incoming light. "Rod ... top 10 percent of these discs, but until now, no one really knew how the retina generated new discs. We believe we have solved that riddle." According ...

Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 2009

... Hamilton Eye Center in Memphis. The Retinal Clinch tool features a design that allows the surgeon to remove scar tissue from the surface of the retina with improved precision. This is because the height of the tiny glass spikes that perform the cutting are customized to match the thickness of the ...

New research program BioInterfaces launched

... systems. These key technologies will ultimately contribute to the development of new therapies for many degenerative diseases that affect muscle, the retina or the central nervous system. In addition, BioInterfaces aims to control or inhibit bacterial cells that form biofilms on man-made surfaces, another ...

Eye cells believed to be retinal stem cells are misidentified

... The researchers also compared the structure of the sphere-forming cells with those of confirmed stem cells and other immature cells in the developing retina called progenitor cells. That comparison revealed fundamental differences between the sphere-forming cells and established stem or progenitor cells. ...

Cats' eye diseases genetically linked to diseases in humans

... the genetic mutations result in changes in the function and structure of the photoreceptors. A photoreceptor is a nerve cell found in the eye's retina that is capable of phototransduction, or the process by which light is converted into electrical signals. The changes in the photoreceptors result in ...

Evolution and climate change research advances at Rutgers-Camden

... because it has evolved two retinas in each eye, but only feeds from information derived from one. The fish's highly specialized adaptations, from retina to brain, serve as a model for discerning the circuitry of feeding in all vertebrae whose visual traits aren't as clearly segmented. "This fish ...

Bright lights, not-so-big pupils

... and communicate with the brain. The report appears online this week in Nature . These light sensors are a small number of nerve cells in the retina that contain melanopsin molecules. Unlike conventional light-sensing cells in the retinarods and conesmelanopsin-containing cells are not used for ...

Progression of retinal disease linked to cell starvation

... why. Data published online in Nature Neuroscience Dec. 7 suggest the cones are starving to death. As rods disappear, the structure of the retina breaks down. This might disrupt the connections between the cones and their source of nutrients. "This is the first study linking cone death in ...

Seasonal affective disorder may be linked to genetic mutation, study suggests

... we have found one that has a clear link." The melanopsin gene encodes a light-sensitive protein that is found in a class of photoreceptors in the retina that are not involved with vision, but are linked to many non-visual responses, such as the control of circadian rhythms, the control of hormones, ...

Streamlining brain signals for speed and efficacy

... classes of biotherapeutic agents." Du Lac and her team focus on a simple type of learning: How does the brain learn to stabilize an image on the retina and use eye movement to compensate for a moving head? This so-called vestibular-ocular reflex, or VOR, needs to be fast; for clear vision, head ...

Gene therapy restores vision to mice with retinal degeneration

... and to successfully learn that a light indicated a safe platform to which they could swim. "The same level of melanopsin expression in a human retina might allow someone who otherwise would be totally blind to read newspaper headlines, but the slowness of the response would be a problem," Masland ...

Toxoplasmosis found more severe in Brazil compared to Europe

... that Brazilian children had a five times higher risk than European children for developing eye lesions by four years old. Furthermore, lesions in the retina occurred more frequently and were larger in the Brazilian children, and vision was predicted to be compromised in 87% of the Brazilian children, ...

A mammalian clock protein responds directly to light

... those in plants, the question as to how exactly light effects them is still open for further research. Although cryptochromes are mainly found in the retina of the eye, they are also present in many different tissues of the body that are close to the surface. This suggests that cryptochromes may have ...

Crystal (eye) ball: Study says visual system equipped with 'future seeing powers'

... they require something moreour ability to foresee the future. It takes our brain nearly one-tenth of a second to translate the light that hits our retina into a visual perception of the world around us. While a neural delay of that magnitude may seem minuscule, imagine trying to catch a ball or wade ...

Human vision inadequate for research on bird vision

... arena, but so far no study has been able to show its extent. The Uppsala researchers used a mathematical model to investigate how bird and human retina work. Using the model combined with information on differences in the colour-sensitive cones of the eye, they have been able to figure out how colour ...

American Chemical Society’s Weekly PressPac -- May 7, 2008

... with and without DR who were undergoing eye surgery. They analyzed proteins in the vitreous, the gel-like material inside the eye between the retina and the lens. The study found 252 proteins in the fluid, including 37 proteins that showed changes that were associated with proliferative diabetic ...

A model photochemical compass for bird navigation

... internal compass have been studied intensively, they are not completely understood. One existing theory is that photoreceptors in a bird's retina absorb light, which causes a chemical reaction that, in turn, produces a short-lived photochemical species whose lifetime is sensitive to the ...

Sunbathing tree frogs' future under a cloud

... Preziosi are now seeking further funding to do more comprehensive research using the OCT technique which is more commonly used to examine the human retina and put their hypothesis to the test. As part of their studies, they want to use OCT to compare structural changes in the skin of tree frogs with ...

MU researchers go nano, natural and green

... Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), said Frances Bernham, president of the National Association of Pseudoxanthoma elasticum. PXE causes changes in the retina of the eye that results in significant loss of central vision. The application of soy for the production of gold nanoparticles is amazing, said ...

Restoring sight, advances in fertility treatments and better visibility for pilots at FIO

... In both retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration V two of the most common causes of vision loss V the photoreceptor layer of the retina is destroyed, but the inner layers remain largely intact, still capable of responding to incoming signals and transmitting output signals to the ...
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