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Respiration in Biological News

High CO2 boosts plant respiration, potentially affecting climate and crops

... But they also release some CO 2 during respiration as they use the sugars to generate energy for ... and growth. How elevated CO 2 affects plant respiration will therefore influence future food supplies and ... been a great deal of controversy about how plant respiration responds to elevated CO 2 ," said U. of I. plant ...

Study helps clarify role of soil microbes in global warming

... change. Other scientists have noted that the respiration of soil microbes returns to normal after a number ... to the changed environment and reduced their respiration accordingly. Bradford and his team, which ... of experiments, the scientists compared microbial respiration in the two groups and found lower rates of ...

Brainy genes, not brawn, key to success on mussel beach

... processes that are fairly incompatible, like respiration and cell division," Gracey explained. respiration creates free radicals, and if an organism ... since they remove free radicals.) By keeping respiration and cell division separate, mussels can decrease ...

Using live fish, new tool a sentinel for environmental contamination

... readings then allowed researchers to calculate respiration rates within the eggs, he said. Using a ... become evident, Sanchez said. Toxins can slow respiration by directly impeding it or they may stress the ... Purdue system could be advantageous as it records respiration in a sensitive life-stage and the optical ...

Thinking ahead: Bacteria anticipate coming changes in their environment

... many of the genes essential for aerobic respiration were practically turned off. To prove that ... and no longer turned off the genes for aerobic respiration when the temperature rose. "This reprogramming clearly indicates that shutting down aerobic respiration following a temperature increase is not essential ...

Study finds hemlock trees dying rapidly, affecting forest carbon cycle

... cycle including tree growth, leaf litter and fine root biomass, and soil respiration over the 3-year period. "While we expected that girdled trees would ... in the first year after girdling and infestation, researchers found soil respiration was approximately 20 percent lower than they expected. The authors ...

Galloping and breathing at high speed

... towards the end of intense, high-speed exercise. The Importance of respiration When a horse is running, its breathing and stride are linked in a 1:1 ... designed athletes that are exceptionally useful for the study of limbs, respiration and other systems of the body. This type of translational research ...

Amazon powers tropical ocean's carbon sink

... North Atlantic had been considered a net emitter of carbon from the respiration of ocean life. A 2007 study estimated that ocean's contribution to the ... in PNAS Early Edition the week of July 21, finds that almost all the respiration is offset by organisms called diazotrophs, which pull nitrogen and carbon ...

Comparing apples and pears

... oxygen concentration is related to the complex mechanisms of gas exchange, respiration and fermentation in the fruit. The correct oxygen concentration is related to the complex mechanisms of gas exchange, respiration and fermentation in the fruit. Restricted gas exchange leads to too low a ...

Complex carbon picture clearer

... CO2 fluxes (also called soil respiration) come from two main sources: the respiration of roots and the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter by fungi, ... the litter addition plots showed substantially higher amounts of soil respiration than would be predicted by the increase in leaf litter, said Powers. We ...

Scientists open doors to diagnosis of emphysema

... of emphysema. Emphysema is characterised by the damage and destruction of the alveoli, the tiny air-sacs of the lungs that are crucial for respiration and uptake of oxygen from the air. Cigarette smoke and other irritants activate immune cells, like macrophages, in the lungs to destroy the ...

Iron isotopes as a tool in oceanography

... behind characteristic isotopic 'fingerprints'. Of specific interest here, iron isotopes in sediment pore fluids may be a unique tracer of sediment respiration by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. Dissimilatory iron reduction is thought to be one of the earliest metabolic pathways on Earth , thus ...

Microscope reveals how bacteria 'breathe' toxic metals

... in the soil or underwater, they can rely on metals to get the energy they need," Lower said. "It's an ancient form of respiration." "This kind of respiration is fascinating from an evolutionary standpoint, but we're also interested in how we can use the bacteria to remediate nasty compounds such as ...

Nearly a century later, new findings support Warburg theory of cancer

... Nobel Prize in 1931, but the biochemical basis for his theory remained elusive. His theory that cancer starts from irreversible injury to cellular respiration eventually fell out of favor amid research pointing to genomic mutations as the cause of uncontrolled cell growth. Seventy-eight years after ...

Cancer-causing gut bacteria exposed

... cancer. Enterococcus faecalis is a normal gut bacterium. Unlike most gut bacteria, it can survive using two different types of metabolism: respiration and fermentation. When the bacteria use fermentation they release by-products. One of these is a kind of oxygen molecule called superoxide, which can ...

Rice lab finds molecular clues to Wilson disease

... atoms inside human cells. Though large quantities of copper can be toxic, our bodies need a small amount for key enzymes involved in, for example, respiration and brain functions. ATP7B acts something like a warehouse manager, locking up bulk quantities of copper and handing it out for use in these ....

Microbe diet key to carbon dioxide release

... around the world in a wide spectrum of climates. As he studied decomposition across these sites, he found similar patterns of nitrogen release and respiration no matter what the climate was like. "A diet rich in carbon causes microbes to release more carbon into the atmosphere in the form of carbon ...

Life in a bubble

... surrounded by water-repellent material is supplied with oxygen by the thin air layer on its surface. The surface area required to support human respiration is impractically large, in excess of 100 square meters; however, other avenues for technological application exist. For example, such a device could ...

American Society for Microbiology honors Dianne K. Newman

... molecules that reduce and solubilize the iron, thereby making it available for use. She also identified and characterized the process of bacterial respiration of arsenate, and then developed a technique to rapidly and accurately identify arsenate respiring bacteria. Dr. Newman holds a B.A. in German ...

Mitochondrial cholesterol makes response to chemotherapy difficult in hepatic cancer

... is centred in the mitochondrion and its role in programmed cell death or apoptosis. The mitochondrion is the organelle in charge of the cell's respiration and of energy generation to satisfy important metabolic functions, which are altered in cancer. In an article published in Cancer Research ...

Pacific coast turning more acidic

... atmospheric CO 2 levels form the beginning baseline for carbon levels in ocean water. As water moves away from the surface toward upwelling areas, respiration increases the CO 2 and nutrient levels of the water. As that nutrient-rich water is upwelled, it triggers additional phytoplankton blooms that ...

Biosensor for measuring stress in cells

... biomolecules. These are caused by reactive oxygen molecules, including the notorious free radicals that are formed as a by-product of cellular respiration and attack cellular proteins, nucleic and fatty acids. Today, reactive oxygen molecules are no longer regarded by and large as culprits, since it ...

Single-celled bacterium works 24-7

... fixation requires a lot of energy, Cyanothece uses the glycogen stored in its chemical gas tank through a process called respiration. Because respiration requires oxygen, the cells conveniently use up this by-product of photosynthesis, likely helping to protect nitrogenase from degradation. Through ...

NYU dental professor discovers biological clock linking tooth growth to other metabolic processes

... biological rhythm that controls incremental tooth and bone growth also affects bone and body size and many metabolic processes, including heart and respiration rates. In fact, the rhythm affects an organisms overall pace of life, and its life span. So, a rat that grows teeth and bone in one-eighth the time ...

Computers explain why pears may become brown during commercial storage

... such as internal browning may result, causing major economic losses. This disorder is known to be related to the complex mechanisms of gas exchange, respiration and fermentation in fruit. However, further conclusions are unavailable due to the lack of reliable methods to measure gas concentrations inside the ...

AGU journal highlights -- Feb. 26, 2008

... fuels have been linked to sea level changes, snowmelt, disease, heat stress, severe weather, and ocean acidification. Yet because it does not affect respiration directly, CO 2 is not considered a classic air pollutant. Noting that increasing levels of CO 2 cause temperature and water vapor content to rise, ...

Translational research patented first experimental treatment against idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

... alveolar tissue. When idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis appears, this regeneration process cannot be developed correctly and fibrosis advances until respiration is impossible. The technique developed by researchers from the IIBB-CSIC-IDIBAPS consists in a transplantation of type II pneumocytes via ...

UF scientists reveal how dietary restriction cleans cells

... the process in humans, Leeuwenburgh added. How does it work? During the aging process, free radicals highly reactive byproducts of our cells respiration wreak havoc on our cellular machinery. Mitochondria, the tiny power plants that keep a cell functioning, are especially vulnerable to this type of ...

Shedding new light on proteorhodopsin

... enables bacterial cells to supplement respiration as a cellular energy source. This ability to ... can use a form of photosynthesis to supplement respiration as an energy source, but the extent to which light could be used to replace respiration was still unknown. "Our thinking was that if ...

Plants' role in global warming re-examined

... Estimates of increased plant respiration in response to higher global temperatures may be ... adapt to higher temperatures and their levels of respiration adjust downward." While some previous ... an explicit time-dependent acclimation of plant respiration to increasing temperatures. ORNL researchers also ...

Of mice, men, trees and the global carbon cycle

... rate, as an animal's body weight quadruples, its respiration rate only triples. In contrast, when Reich ... a quadrupling of weight leads to a quadrupling of respiration rate. The important variable was nitrogen ... the higher nitrogen concentration had a higher respiration rate. Conversely, a big plant and a small plant ...

Liquid ventilation

... and, on being born, the first cry activates this respiration surface. But the main problem that premature ... of the Basque Country has developed a liquid respiration respirator. The machine simulates placentary respiration by filling the lungs of the premature baby with ...

Researchers find link between food odors and lifespan in fruit flies

... using sensitive detectors in his laboratory at NMSU to analyze the aerobic respiration of the tiny flies. Carefully controlling the flow and oxygen content of ... using sensitive detectors in his laboratory at NMSU to analyze the aerobic respiration of the tiny flies. Carefully controlling the flow and oxygen content of ...

Hearts of male and female rainbow trout are different

... and female rainbow trout. Each strip was prepared in one of two ways: (1) incubated without stimulation (i.e., ventricle strips were incubated in a respiration cell containing an oxygenated buffer solution with glucose as the energy substrate). Oxygen consumption was measured using a calibrated oxygen ...

Implanting dopamine generators in brain cells obtains improvement in Parkinson's in monkeys

... body is a small structure located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, at the level of the neck. Its function is to control the rhythm of respiration and the cardiac frequency through releasing dopamine in situations of low oxygen level in the blood. After the implantation of the cellular ...

How fish species suffer as a result of warmer waters

... thermal tolerance window. Investigations at the Alfred Wegener Institute show the key importance of oxygen uptake and distribution ?through respiration and blood circulation ?in setting the animals' thermal tolerance range, in that these processes are optimised to only a limited temperature window. ...

Breathing easy: When it comes to oxygen, a bug's life is full of it

... x-ray scan, has recently allowed scientists to learn much more about how insects breathe. The new imaging technology allows scientists to observe the respiration of live bugs. This advance in technology also comes at a time when physiologists are learning more about the genes that control breathing. When ...

Particle size matters to bacteria ability to immobilize heavy metals

... the metals. We see that larger particles are more quickly reduced and dissolved than smaller particles." The researchers have determined that for respiration the bacteria prefer larger nanoparticles ?about 100 nanometers ?to smaller nanoparticles (less than 20nm) of similar shape. The reasons are still ...

Researchers discover mechanism that determines when detailed memories are retained

... the tones were replayed the next day, the scientists could measure how well they remembered the various frequencies by measuring changes in their respiration rates. The results showed that a weak activation of the nucleus basalis, which resulted in a small amount of acetylcholine being released, did ...
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