Protecting cells from their neighbors
... in the milieu. The silencing is governed by a repression
mechanism previously described in earlier work -, ... and molecular mechanisms that participate in the repression
and activation of the genomes of distinct species ... other organisms. Given that the transcriptional repression
in germ cells is a general characteristic of all ...
Researchers discover critical detail of cellular defense against genetic mistakes
... the studys key finding, experiments revealed that repression
of protein synthesis during NMD is controlled the ... importance of eIF3 as a target for translational repression
during NMD using an experiment with an mRNA ... thus that eIF3 is a must for the translational repression
that makes NMD possible.
In Maquats model of ...
Parasites ready to jump
... to specific RNA molecules that serve as precursors of the endo-siRNAs. Furthermore, the team pinpointed an entirely novel feature of this system: repression
of transposon activity was also detectable when multiple copies of a mobile element were present in the cell but not yet incorporated into the ....
Regulation of cell proliferation by the OGF-OGFr axis is dependent on nuclear localization signals
... 5 hours, and transit into the nucleus took 8 hours; OGFr remained in the nucleus for up to 8 days. Transport through the nuclear pore and repression
of cell proliferation required two of the three nuclear localization signals (NLS) in OGFr. These results show that the pathway for regulating the ...
Ex vivo neural stem cell expansion
... progenitor cells increases stem cell self-renewal both in vitro and in vivo. They furthermore show that Bmi-1-mediated self-renewal is dependent upon repression
of p21 by the forebrain-specific transcription factor, Foxg1.
New molecular insight into vertebrate brain development
... overproliferation and the formation of an expanded neural progenitor cell population. Decreased YAP/TEAD activity led to increased cell death, while repression
of YAP/TEAD target genes induced premature neuronal differentiation.
Owing to the evolutionary conservation of the Hippo signaling pathway, Dr. ...
CSHL team traces extensive networks regulating alternative RNA splicing
... where the splicing factors Fox-1 and Fox-2 attach, or bind, to unedited target RNA transcripts. "The effect of splicing factors on the activation or repression
of splicing often depends on the location and context of the RNA sequences they bind," Dr. Krainer explained.
It was known that the two proteins ...
Gene is likely cause of stroke-inducing vascular malformations
... of the Laboratory for Accelerated Vascular Research and Mildred V. Strouss Endowed Chair in Vascular Surgery at UCSF. "Furthermore, we found that repression
of the gene in already-ill mice led to their recovery."
Approximately one million people worldwide suffer from BAVMs, though very little is known ...
Controlling embryonic fate by association
... his colleagues found that two critical embryonic cell proteins Nanog and Oct4 associate with specific components that are parts of transcription repression
complexes. These complexes affect the way that genes are expressed and carry out their tasks in the cell.
A special complex called NODE (Nanog ...
Making sense of antisense microRNAs
... precursor mir-iab-8, which is processed into active regulatory RNAs. When ectopically expressed, mir-iab-8 generates homeotic phenotypes via direct repression
of Hox gene targets. The paper from Dr. Welcome Bender (Harvard Medical School) demonstrates that knock out of miR-iab-4 reveals the existence of a ...
An ambulance man for muscle damage
... FoxO is a transcription factor, a protein that plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle atrophy through the induction of genes involved in cell cycle repression
and protein degradation. Suppressing the effects of FoxO, calcineurin ensures that proliferating cells stay alive and keep dividing to produce enough ...
'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus
... the virus.
Insulators, also known as boundary elements, are DNA segments that work to prevent a gene from being influenced by the activation or repression
of its neighbors. About a dozen different insulator elements have been identified in organisms as varied as yeast, fruit flies, and humans.
Reactivated gene shrinks tumors
... dramatically reduces the size of the tumors, in some cases by 100 percent.
"This study provides critical genetic evidence that continuous repression
of a tumor suppressor gene is required for a tumor to survive," said Andrea Ventura, an Italian postdoctoral associate in the Center for Cancer ...
Novel regulatory mechanism identified for key tumor suppressor p53
... scientists from The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and The Vienna Biocenter in Austria have identified a novel mechanism involved in normal repression
of the p53 protein, perhaps the single most important molecule for the control of cancer in humans.
The new molecular pathway described in the ...
miRNA-mediated silencing of mRNAs
... the literature. Dr. Izaurralde explains that, "Our findings reveal that miRNAs silencing gene expression by at least two independent mechanisms: by repression
of translation and/or by induction of mRNA degradation. This provides an explanation for changes in mRNA levels observed at least for a subset of ...
Salk scientists get to the root of plant cell fate
... a mutant TOPLESS, genes that should be kept off in order to produce a shoot aren't, so a root is produced," he explains.
Since transcriptional repression
plays such a key role in animal embryonic development, the finding that a co-repressor controls polarity in plants was surprising, says Long. "We ...
Study identifies new role for breast cancer susceptibility gene
... found that a defect in a repressor complex formed by BRCA1, CtIP, and another known transcription repressor, ZBRK1, released the gene for ANG1 from repression
and promoted survival of neighboring blood vessel cells and formation of capillary-like structures. Further studies demonstrated that mouse mammary ...
Researchers map out networks that determine cell fate
... macrophage and repress neutrophil genes. Gif-1 is required to turn on neutrophil genes and repress macrophage counterparts.
Such counteracting repression
circuitry may be the key to understanding stem cell regulation in general, Singh said. "We think that if this property of mixed lineage ...
Researchers discover new form of cancer gene regulation
... the cell in the form of protein interaction with the cell surface. Through a series of intracellular events, these signals trigger gene activation or repression
through action of transcription factors in the nucleus of the cell.
The altered gene expression profile then results in cellular differentiation, ...
Limiting the damage in stroke
... the gene." In parallel, Bernd Baumann and Thomas Wirth at the University of Ulm had generated two additional mouse models, which allow the reversible repression
or activation of IKK2 at any time in neurons.
"The unique advantage of this system is that we can specifically induce or block this signaling ...
Signs of aging: Scientists evaluate genes associated with longevity
... involved major lipid, nucleic acid, protein, and energy pathways, became less pronounced with advanced age. "We speculate that the apparent metabolic repression
in early and mid-life adults contributes substantially to the observed longevity of daf-2," says Dr. Julius Halaschek-Wiener, a researcher at the BC ...