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Replication in Biological News

Telomeres resemble DNA fragile sites

... of the genome called fragile sites where DNA replication can stall and go awry. But what keeps our fragile ... that ensures the smooth progression of DNA replication to the end of a chromosome. The research, led ... fragile sites make it difficult for DNA replication to proceed, a discovery that unveils a ...

MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle

... that interfere with gene expression) reduce HIV replication and infectivity in human T-cells. In particular, ... destroyed. This results in a reduction of viral replication and infectivity. The study also showed that inhibition of miR29 enhances viral replication and infectivity. The scientists further ...

DNA template could explain evolutionary shifts

... at a different time in the life of a cell. DNA replication takes place as the cell is dividing and becoming ... base pairs. The two separating strands become the replication fork. On one strand, an enzyme called DNA ... in humans or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) in simpler models generated genomic ...

Tips from the journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... interferon type 1, reduced H5N1 influenza virus replication in mice and may offer some degree of protection ... with IFN-a/β significantly reduced replication of both viruses. "These results suggest a role ... response in the control of H5N1 virus replication both in vivo and in vitro, and as such it may ...

Visualizing virus replication in three dimensions

... an insight into the exact process of viral replication and serves as a model for other viruses whose replication is still unclear, such as the hepatitis C virus. ... tiny pores. We were also able to show that replication of the virus genome and its encapsulation in new ...

NYU College of Dentistry awarded $1.9 million NIH grant for HIV research

... to continue its study of a new mode of HIV replication that involves cooperation between viruses. The ... to failure, and can result in an aborted virus replication cycle. As a result, up to 99 percent of HIV DNA ... previously thought. "This new mode of virus replication has implications for many aspects of HIV biology ...

Shades of 1918? New study compares avian flu with a notorious killer from the past

... entirely ineffective in blunting prodigious replication of the H5N1 virus. Respiratory tissues sampled ... and chemokine genes and headlong, sustained viral replication with wider distribution in the lungs. As Baskin ... of lung tissue showed widespread, prolonged replication of viruses and associated tissue destruction. ...

The Burnham Buzz, February 2009

... the molecular machinery that regulates DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint of the cell cycle. Wei ... S-phase of the cell cycle. If damaged DNA or a replication error is identified, Ddk acts as a quality control protein and stops replication at the S-phase checkpoint of the cell cycle. ...

Human beta cells can be easily induced to replicate, according to study in Diabetes

... of a kidney in a diabetic mouse, we saw that replication continued and blood sugar levels normalized," ... of being able to study human beta cells and their replication in vivo, meaning in a living animal, could ... Stewart pointed out. He added that cell cycle replication molecules might also be targets for drugs that ...

Biologists discover link between CGG repeats in DNA and neurological disorders

... one such DNA repeat not only stalls the cell's replication process but also thwarts the cell's capacity to ... explored the link between CGG repeats and replication delays. Mirkin's research was funded by the ... When the repeats got longer, however, the replication machinery got jammed and stalled in both systems. ...

Scripps scientists develop first examples of RNA that replicates itself indefinitely

... and others, but no one could demonstrate that RNA replication could be self-propagating, that is, result in new ... her Ph.D., she began exploring the RNA-only replication concept along with her advisor, Professor Gerald ... as a catalyst that assembles the other. The replication process is cyclic, in that the first enzyme binds ...

Newly described 'dragon' protein could be key to bird flu cure

... the other looked like its mouth." During RNA replication the phase during which the virus "reproduces" ... surface area, finding a way to inhibit RNA replication in H5N1 seems very feasible." Joachimiak hopes ... the types of compounds that could inhibit RNA replication in H5N1 by looking at the atomic-level grooves ...

Copy number variation may stem from replication misstep

... the journal Cell. The new mechanism is called replication Fork Stalling and Template Switching, said Dr. ... a different time point in the life of a cell. DNA replication takes place as the cell is dividing and becoming ... together. The two separating strands become the replication fork. On one strand, an enzyme called DNA ...

New class of drug offers hope to treatment-resistant AIDS patients

... HIV DNA into human DNA. Nair calls this step in replication the most devastating in HIVs attack on human ... and attractive disease target in the HIV replication cycle for intervention by therapeutic agents. ... those compounds didnt sufficiently inhibit HIV replication in infected cells. It wasnt until 2002 when ...

St. Jude influenza survey uncovers key differences between bird flu and human flu

... appear in regions where host protein and viral replication occur. The researchers did not determine what ... to form a complex of proteins critical for the replication of virus genes. The other six persistent host ... to bind to a protein in cells that enhances the replication of viruses; and NS1 plays a role in suppressing ...

DNA replication behavior in complex organisms may foreshadow leaps in genomic discoveries

... more efficient analyses and tests related to the replication of cells, and ultimately, to the better ... cell biology research, had revealed that the replication process is initiated at hundreds of origins in ... However, because previous studies focused on the replication timing and initiation sites, but not on the ...

Features of replication suggest viruses have common themes, vulnerabilities

... at UW-Madison. "We've found some features of replication that appear to cross over among many viruses." ... made the first three-dimensional maps of a viral replication complex using flock house virus, which, like all ... that appears to permit substrates needed for replication to enter and newly made viral genomes to exit. ...

The hepatitis healing power of blueberry leaves

... found in blueberry leaves has shown a strong effect in blocking the replication of the Hepatitis C virus, opening up a new avenue for treating chronic HCV ... different agricultural products for potential compounds that suppress HCV replication and uncovered a strong candidate in the leaves of rabbit-eye blueberry ...

Researchers gain insight into mechanism underlying Huntington's

... understood. However, because DNA expansions require DNA synthesis, DNA replication and/or DNA repair must be involved. Two key TNRs, CAG and CTG repeats ... or "nicked" DNA strand during DNA synthesis associated with DNA replication and/or repair. These hairpin structures are highly thermo-stable and do ...

Is this the beginning of the end of plant breeding?

... introduces. The first steps of both meiosis and mitosis are the replication of the dividing cell's DNA. Once replication has occurred, the chromosomes condense into tightly bound structures, and ...

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork

... its role in regulating cholesterol and lipid metabolism and in aiding the replication of hepatitis C virus" explains David Gatfield, one of Professor Schibler's ... is otherwise known for its function in the circadian clock. and viral replication "It will be exciting to investigate whether the connection between ...

Tumor growth and chemo response may be predicted by mathematical model

... In regions of low oxygen, these changes may include a slowdown in cell replication and heightened cell migration, which can result in a "single-cell file" ... have better access to nutrients and oxygen, migration is lessened and cell replication is resumed. This leads to the formation of wave-like patterns of cell ...

Empire State Stem Cell Board awards $12.7 million to Albert Einstein College of Medicine

... professor of cell biology $1,080,000 Differential regulation of DNA replication during neural lineage specification in human embryonic stem cells and ... Medicine $971,489 Characterization of iPS using a novel high throughput replication timing assay. Mukesh Kumar, Ph.D., instructor in medicine $240,000 ...

New models question old assumptions about how many molecules it takes to control cell division

... the roles of noise in controlling the basic events of the cell cycle DNA replication and cell division. Their work will appear the week of February 23 in ... cell must reliably convey instructions for such essential processes as DNA replication and cell division. How big are the molecular fluctuations expected in a ...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

... their evolution," said Baucom. "We find that the genes involved in their replication are subject to Darwinian evolutionthe same evolutionary processes that ... by finding strong purifying selection on genes involved in their replication and life-cycle, regardless of the family that any the LTR retrotransposon ...

Purdue researcher invents molecule that stops SARS

... Ind. - A Purdue University researcher has created a compound that prevents replication of the virus that causes SARS and could lead to a treatment for the ... specific protein, called papain-like protease, or PLpro, involved in viral replication and evasion of the immune system," said Ghosh who has a joint appointment ...

Landmark study unlocks stem cell, DNA secrets to speed therapies

... occur later in the process of differentiation. "Understanding how replication works during embryonic stem cell differentiation gives us a molecular ... were the findings that the current paper -- "Global Reorganization of replication Domains During Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation" -- is focused solely ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Sept. 3, 2008

... generation of chemotherapy agents that target and block uncontrolled DNA replication a hallmark of cancer, viral infections, and other diseases more ... of so-called nucleoside analogues, artificial pieces of DNA that inhibit replication by substituting for natural segments. Most nucleoside analogues directly ...

Energy-saving bacteria resist antibiotics

... also stops the enzyme DNA gyrase from working, which in turn stops DNA replication and cell division." The researchers found that the two different ... Moonlighting proteins can also control cellular activities, such as DNA replication in the case of MurI. "An alarming increase in the emergence of ...

Programmed death boosts business

... that could be destructive if left to their own devices. It also keeps cell replication in check and prevents the kind of runaway cell replication that would otherwise lead to cancer. Lpez-Fresno and Fernndez-Gonzlez ...

Concentrating on different aspects of pain leads to breakthrough in migraine genetics

... microsatellite study was followed up by an independent targeted replication study. Researchers identified one gene locus on chromosome 10q23, ... evidence of genetic linkage in both populations studied as well as in the replication study. The gene locus was especially strongly linked to female ....

Study proposes new theory of how viruses may contribute to cancer

... as forces of natural selection by wiping out normal cells that support the replication of viruses and leaving behind those cells that have acquired defects in ... researchers noted. Cells with higher expression of K13 emerged after KSHV replication and showed defective expression of two key proteins that are known to ...

Protein handlers should be effective treatment target for cancer and Alzheimer's

... them up into the proper shape to function properly and even haul them off when they no longer work. Cancer needs them even more for the endless cell replication required for tumor growth, Dr. Mivechi says. Essentially the opposite happens in Alzheimer's in which excess protein is a major component of the ...

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

... natural selection against excess DNA. An LTR is far more likely to survive a few years of cell divisions -- and the chance of obliteration via a DNA replication error -- than 10 million years of cell divisions. Plotting the full range of 17 species' LTRs, young and old, Lynch and his colleagues usually saw a ...

Five outstanding young gastroenterologists receive AGA Foundation 2009 Research Scholars Award

... Tai, MD, PhD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Functional characterization of a novel role for a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase in hepatitis C virus replication The prestigious Research Scholar Awards offer each scientist a total of $225,000 to help support his or her research over a three-year period. The ...

Darwin in a test tube

... evolution comes from the fact that each time one of the molecules replicates, there is a chance it will mutate typically about once per round of replication so the population can acquire new traits over time. Two years ago, Voytek managed to develop a second, unrelated enzymatic RNA molecule that also ...

Singapore scientists synthesize gold to shed light on cells' inner workings

... cell for sub-cellular biolabeling and bioimaging. Tracking the cell nucleus can help scientists monitor the fundamental life processes of healthy DNA replication and any genomic changes. With improved bioimaging at the cell nucleus, scientists can also study the effectiveness of drug and gene therapies. ...

Potential new HIV drug may help patients not responding to treatment

... alongside antiretroviral therapy to stop the virus from replicating. The disease can only progress if the virus is replicating, so if we can slow replication down we can reduce the impact of the disease on the patient's life. We still need to figure out how D-1mT is working, then we can think about ...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

... formation." "Examination of different genome sequences within the Rhizobiales family has revealed that gene migration is rife among the different replication units," said Steve Slater, professor at the University of Wisconsin. "Genes are not only migrating between organisms but they are also moving within ...

Common gene variants influence risk factor for sudden cardiac death

... study strongly confirmed 12 out of 14 of the QTGEN variants and identified two additional gene regions. "We were very reassured to see such strong replication in two independent studies" said Newton-Cheh. The QTGEN investigators examined the effect of a genotype score comprised of all 14 variants tested ...
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