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Random in Biological News

Evolution's new wrinkle

... In this process, species evolve because of random mutations and selection by environmental ... selection. Biological change is always driven by random mutation and selection, but at certain pivotal junctures in evolutionary history, such random processes can create structures capable of ...

ETH Zurich study on salmonella self-destruction

... in Vancouver (CN), have been able to describe how random molecular processes during cell division allow ... second group then multiplies unhindered. random processes and self-sacrifice What determines ... difference between the two groups is a result of random molecular processes during cell division. ...

Knee injuries may start with strain on the brain, not the muscles

... rote training exercises in a controlled lab setting, which is much less random than a true competitive scenario. In this case, expanding the anticipated ... to include shorter stimulus-response times could improve reaction time in random sports settings. "If you expose them to more scenarios, and train the ...

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

... cell, one X chromosome is turned off again, but this time it is a random process and it can be either the maternal or paternal X chromosome that is ... X chromosome before implantation did not happen at all, and that only the random XCI after implantation occurred. However, Ms van den Berg and her ...

Beetle shell inspires brilliant white paper

... arranged layers or structures. Whiteness, however, is created through a random structure, which produces 'scattering' of all colours simultaneously. ... and legs showed them to be covered in long flat scales, which have highly random internal 3D structures. These irregular internal forms are the key to its ...

New models question old assumptions about how many molecules it takes to control cell division

... with one another. Second, cells are extremely tiny; therefore sensitive to random fluctuations in the number of molecules being created or destroyed at any ... and expensive mechanism to replicate DNA molecules and not allow the random fluctuations predicted by statistical physics." The weak link in the ...

Evolution education for K-12 teachers needs beefing up, says CU-Boulder professor

... the evolutionary process. There is difficulty in grasping the idea that random biochemical events can produce novel and useful adaptations, he said, and an inability to understand how such random events take place at the molecular and cellular level to generate ...

Y chromosome and surname study challenges infidelity 'myth'

... were no more likely to have such a common ancestor than men chosen at random from the general population. "Surnames such as Smith come from a ... of the most familiar of the rarer names in the study was Attenborough. A random sample of Attenboroughs including derivations such as Attenborrow found ...

Singapore-US scientists first to develop revolutionary microchip that uses 30 times less energy

... is also ideally suited for encryption, a process that relies on generating random numbers. Thus the microchip can be quickly incorporated in electronic ... in computer gaming, lotteries and cryptography (internet security) where random calculations are valuable. "This is in addition to applications where ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... and Archaea, but also six eukaryotes of varying complexity and two random sequences. The eurkaryotic genomes used were as much as 1,000 times longer ... segregates whole proteomes of all bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes and random sequences into separate groups or domains. Most of the phylum groups ...

Developer of advanced computing memory, father of biochemical engineering, and innovative engineering educators win highest engineering honors of 2009

... -- "for his invention and contributions to the development of Dynamic random Access Memory (DRAM), used universally in computers and other data ... THE CHARLES STARK DRAPER PRIZE Robert Dennard's invention of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) using one-transistor cells paved the way for the ...

Our unconscious brain makes the best decisions possible

... A series of dots appears on a computer screen, most of which are moving in random directions. A controlled number of these dots are purposely moving ... consisted of a few dots moving to the right within the jumble of other random dots, the neuron coding for "rightward movement" would occasionally fire. ...

New cardiology research presented at CHEST 2008

... internists took a pretest consisting of five heart murmurs played in random order. They then listened to audio files of five basic murmurs on an MP3 ... participants took a posttest consisting of the same murmurs played in a random order. The murmurs used in the training session were simulated heart ...

Metastatic movements in 3-D

... unclear. Recent work has suggested that an integrin called a5b1 drives random movement, while an integrin called avb3 has been associated with ... the type of movement. To further explore the contribution of a5b1 to random migration, the authors thus blocked avb3. The treated cells changed their ...

Bee swarms follow high-speed 'streaker' bees to find a new nest

... spread along a 12m length with each individual on her own apparently random course is easier said than done. For a start you have to locate your ... to head towards the nest. Schultz also admits that he was surprised at how random the bees' trajectories were in the bottom half of the swarm, 'they were ...

Mate selection more biologically determined in some human populations

... couples were more MHC-similar or MHC-dissimilar in comparison to random pairs of individuals. African couples were not more MHC-similar or MHC-dissimilar, although genome-wide they were more similar than random couples, probably as a consequence of social factors. On the other hand, ...

Distinguishing between 2 birds of a feather

... the past, they had to rely on simplified objects on a computer screen or random stimuli to garner information on how the brain's visual circuitry works. ... pattern. By measuring a certain neuron's action potentials in response to random visual stimuli the researchers can infer the profile of its receptive ...

Multithreaded supercomputer seeks software for data-intensive computing

... not just for speed, but also to better tackle large networks of seemingly random data. And now, a multi-institutional group of researchers has been awarded ... this advantage translates into the machines being able to handle complex, random networks of data. Mainstream machines split up the data, assigning parcels ...

Texas A&M researchers develop tool to study complex clusters of genes

... genes are statistically very close to each other when you compare it to a random situation of genes, Sze explained. "Imagine putting genes in a random order," Sze said. "When placed randomly, two specific genes are likely to ...

Why do so many species live in tropical forests and coral reefs?

... total population could be modeled as if they were equivalent entities in a random evolutionary lottery influenced only by rates of birth, death, and ... from fictional distribution curves generated by models based on random processes; that is, processes in which the fates of hypothetical species ...

After drought, ponds keep up with the Joneses

... played beneficent god, played pernicious god, adding drought, normally random in nature, to one-half of the pond environments. After the drought, ... Chases findings show that community assembly can sometimes be much more random than that. Chases results have implications for wetland mitigation ...

University of Pennsylvania researchers develop formula to gauge risk of disease clusters

... distribution of the maximum of a number of multinomially distributed random variables. Mathematically, the formula depends on generating function ... in Niles, Ill., in 1956-1960, which was reasonably assessed as a chance, random event. On the other hand, 12 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia in ...

'Microfluidic palette' may paint clearer picture of biological processes

... NIST system, as described in a new paper,* is that the gradients are generated by diffusionthe gentle movement of matter from one point to another by random molecular motion. Microfluidic systems usually mix fluids more actively, by pumps and the circulation of currents. Diffusion gradients allow cells ...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

... physics and computational biology in solving challenging biological problems," said Xu. Monte Carlo simulationsthe use of algorithms with repeated random samplings to produce reliable predictionshave been around for some decades but have been steadily refined. These simulations are useful for extremely ...

Iowa State University researchers develop process for 'surgical' genetic changes

... of research from the lab to the field. Wright and Townsend hope the precision of this technique will speed the regulatory process. "In the random process, regulators would say, 'You really don't know what you're doing,'" said Townsend. "With this new technology, we can tell them, 'The genome ...

Analysis of Copernicus putative remains support identity

... Uppsala laboratory were identical. "Although these results points towards the materials being from the same individual, there is a probability of random match", says Marie Allen. The DNA material in this case was limited and also degraded. Therefore, a so called mitochondrial DNA test was ...

Targeting children effective use of limited supplies of flu vaccine and could help control flu spread

... conurbations, suggesting that these should be priority areas for tackling the spread. However, they showed that vaccinating entire households at random was an inefficient use of resources; instead, vaccinating key individuals offered sufficient protection to others in their household. Although a ...

Nonstick and laser-safe gold aids laser trapping of biomolecules

... creating the platform for such experiments has generally involved nonspecifically absorbing fragile molecules onto a sticky glass surface, producing random spacing and sometimes destroying biological activity. Its like dropping a car onto a road from 100 feet up and hoping it will land tires down. If the ...

American Chemical Society weekly presspac -- June 10, 2009

... be treated in ways that could slow its progression. ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "Sniffing Chronic Renal Failure in Rat Model by an Array of random Networks of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE: http://pubs.acs.org/stoken/presspac/presspac/full/10.1021/nn9001775 ...

Manatees can probably hear which directions boats approach from

... to swim to the speaker that they thought the sound came from, the team then played the broadband sounds, of 0.2, 0.5, 1 to 3s, from each speaker at random while monitoring the animals' responses. One of the manatees, Buffett, successfully identified the source of the broadband sounds with almost 90% ...

Scientists find formula to uncover our planet's past and help predict its future

... to the problem, using a mathematical algorithm, assuming the dynamics of each system has unknown parameters and that the data are distorted by random fluctuations, the researchers from California and Lancaster were able to successfully recreate measurements in a study on a vole-mustelid community. ...

One sponge-like material, three different applications

... cobalt-molybdenum-sulfur, is a new class of chalcogels, a family of material discovered only a few years ago at Northwestern. (Chalcogels are random networks of metal-sulfur atoms with very high surface areas.) The new chalcogel is made from common elements, is stable when exposed to air or water ...

Researchers gain genome-wide insights into patterns of the world's human population structures

... genome-wide distribution of these markers," Akey believes, "can largely be accounted for by genetic drift." Genetic drift is gradual accumulation of random changes in the gene pool of small populations. Akey added that some of these variations, however, do cluster in regions of the human genome ...

Predators ignore peculiar prey

... drift tend to remove variation from populations. If one form has an advantage, such as being harder to spot, it should replace all others. Likewise, random drift alone will eventually result in loss of all but one form when there are no fitness differences. There must therefore be some advantage that ...

Random picks better than complicated process in gene identification

... sample." Another key aspect of the paper is the novel use of analytical rarefaction in gene discovery. In rarefaction, a species is selected at random from that ecosystem. Those selections are charted, with each selection considered one unit of effort. Once selections yield only previously selected ...

Some short-term memories die suddenly, no fading

... between the click and the actual color indicating the accuracy of the memory. When color had disappeared from memory, however, subjects clicked at random on the wheel. The second test was similar to the first, but used shapes instead of colors. Published in the April issue of the journal ...

Scientists give a hand(edness) to the search for alien life

... team theorizes, the landscape will eventually have a large amount of molecules that favor one handedness. If the surface had just a collection of random chiral molecules, half would go left, half right, Germer says. But lifes self-assembly means they all would go one way. Its hard to imagine a planets ...

The story of X -- evolution of a sex chromosome

... in the autosomes, according to the researchers. By adaptation, Bachtrog means that the gene sequences in the X chromosome are becoming fixed as random mutations have finally settled on a few beneficial changes that accommodate the increasingly irrelevant Y chromosome. Between 10 and 15 percent of ...

Therapeutic cloning gets a boost with new research findings

... "To create a cloned fetus by somatic cell nuclear transfer, only one adult somatic cell -- one donor cell -- is needed," he explains. "Because a random cell population exhibits a low mutation rate overall and only one cell from that population is used for cloning, the likelihood is remote that the ...

New technique used to profile anthrax genome

... ones that are only being produced by 1 in 100 or 1 in 1000 cellsand with this level of sensitivity we can actually get a glimpse of the random events that make individual cells different from one another," said Bergman. Combining the structure and abundance information for every gene in a ...
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(Date:10/22/2014)... 20, 2014 The Nano-Bio Manufacturing Consortium (NBMC), ... Research Laboratory (AFRL), has chosen a project proposed by ... University of Arizona College of Medicine – ... project,s goal is to assess different sweat collection methods ... of sweat under a variety of human-body conditions, the ...
(Date:10/18/2014)... and stress-related psychiatric disorders are associated with ... molecular mechanisms underlying this relation are unknown. ... development of targeted preventive strategies and new ... This work is presented at the European ... an international group of researchers from Germany ...
(Date:10/17/2014)... . Why do ... to reproduce? And why are there two sexes anyway? These ... of the research journal Molecular Human Reproduction published ... Bielefeld University Bielefeld has compiled this special issue on sperm ... to copulate with several males in quick succession – chimpanzees ...
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