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Pupil in Biological News

Bright lights, not-so-big pupils

... cells bear on behavior, the researchers examined pupil constriction in mice that had been genetically ... in the dark, the team measured the degree of pupil constriction. They found that, on average, ... melanopsin molecules are enough to trigger a pupil response. "But it takes a lot of light to ...

Researchers advance knowledge of little 'nano-machines' in our body

... which allows the transmission of electrical signals along our nerve cells. The size of these small valves is about a million times smaller than the pupil of a human eye. The new technique will allow scientist to measure one single ion channel at the time and investigate how different parts inside the ...

Atomic-resolution views suggest function of enzyme that regulates light-detecting signals in eye

... a striking image of the iris of Heikaus' eye, photographed by UW ophthalmology imaging supervisor Brad Clifton. Superimposed in the center of the pupil was a three-dimensional structure of the GAF domain. In humans, GAF-containing proteins are rare. In plants and bacteria, GAF domains are ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... pictures. In order to decrease the associated emotion, subjects were instructed to imagine, for example, a happy out come for a negative image. pupil dilation provided a measure of arousal. During the reappraisal, nondepressed subjects showed increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), ...

Female butterflies go for sparkle -- not size -- when choosing to mate

... quantity of eyespots on the wing, eyespot and pupil color, and pupil reflectivity. "Once we found a trait that ... But when the researchers painted the white pupil on the dorsal side with black paint, thereby ...

Computer imaging assists with facial reconstructive surgery

... the distance from the porion (the top of the external ear canal) to the pupil and to the pogonion (the most prominent point on the chin) was measured. ... the porion to pogonion distance and the ratio of the distance between the pupil and the pogonion and the distance between the porion and the pogonion ...

First demonstration of 'teaching' in non-human animals

... In other words, the teacher provides information or guidance for the pupil at a rate suited to the pupil's abilities, and the pupil signals to the teacher when parts of the 'lesson' have been assimilated ...

Transplanted photoreceptor precursor cells restore visual function in mice with retinal degeneration

... or degenerating rods. The transplanted cells survived and were functional for the duration of the study. Scientists observed improvements including pupil response to light and response to light stimuli from ganglion cells, which form the circuitry to the brain. Swaroop explains that ...

Train your brain to hear your friends at a party

... "When we switch on a bright light our eyes detect the increase in light levels and the brain sends a message to the eye to tell it to contract the pupil and let in less light. This is a feedback system where the brain is getting information from the eye about its surroundings, processing that ...

Does missing gene point to nocturnal existence for early mammals?

... This melanopsin photoreceptor is not linked to sight but uses light for non-visual processes, such as regulating our day-night rhythms and pupil constriction." Although the melanopsin gene is present in all vertebrates, the version in mammals was unusually different to that found in fish, ...

Blink, and the brain misses it

... in visual awareness during blinks may be a neural mechanism for preventing the brain from becoming aware of the eyelid sweeping down over the pupil during a blink and the world going dark," explains Professor Frith. In summing up the study's implications, the authors suggest that when we blink, ...
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