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Probability in Biological News

Prostate cancer vaccines more effective with hormone therapy

... enrolled in the study, the three-year survival probability was 71 percent and the median overall survival ... to the vaccine had a three-year survival probability of 81 percent and an overall survival of 5.1 ... taking nilutamide had a three-year survival probability of 62 percent and an overall survival of 3.4 ...

BARACLUDE data show low resistance over 5 years in nucleoside-naive hepatitis B patients

... Through five years of treatment, the cumulative probability of developing mutations in the virus that confer ... treatment with lamivudine failed, the cumulative probability of genotypic BARACLUDE resistance was 51 percent ... studies over time is low, with a cumulative probability of genotypic BARACLUDE resistance of 1.2 percent ...

UC San Diego physicists tackle knotty puzzle

... The longer the string, the greater was the probability of getting complex knots. Based on these ... weaves through the coils, with a 50 percent probability of going under or over any coil. A computer ... a stiff string in a smaller box decreases the probability of knot formation. Increased confinement reduces ...

Weight gain between first and second pregnancies associated with increased odds of male second child

... ask: Are there any factors that can influence the probability of giving birth to a baby boy or girl? A new ... gain appears related to a slight increase in the probability of giving birth to a baby boy during a second ... there are factors still unknown influencing the probability of giving birth to boys or girls. The authors ...

Condition of bluefin tuna in gulf of maine is declining

... look lean, Golet says. In 1991, he found, the probability of landing a C+ fish (A being the highest grade) ... August and September, respectively. By 2004, the probability increased to 68 percent and 76 percent in the C+ ... are leaner on arrival to the Gulf of Maine; the probability of catching a poor quality fish (grade C or ...

Some short-term memories die suddenly, no fading

... separately measure two things: the accuracy of a short-term memory and the probability that the memory still existed. Each test was given to 12 adults. In the ... "either had the memory or didn't have the memory," Luck said, "and the probability of having it decreased between four and ten seconds. The memories did not ...

Altered gene can increase risk of schizophrenia

... The paper also presents an innovative statistical method, Posterior probability of Linkage Disequilibrium (PPLD). This is the work of co-author Veronica ... It showed that of the 60 SNPs we were evaluating, three had a much higher probability of association with the illness," Brzustowicz said. "This paved the way ...

The law of the weakest

... for scarce resources. This competition between species in turn affects the probability with which the individual can reproduce and survive a matter of life and ... was that in large populations, the weakest species would with very high probability come out as the victor," says Frey. This "law of the weakest" even ...

Study reveals effects of unconscious exposure to advertisements

... A small number of visual exposures to an object typically raises the probability of acquiring the object, which enhances preference, according to Changizi. ... 'U', with an initial rapid rise in preference based on the enhanced probability that an object can be obtained, followed by a plateau and a gradual ...

Men are red, women are green, Brown researcher finds

... "If it is on the more red end of the spectrum (the face) had a higher probability of being male. Conversely, if it is on the green end of the spectrum (the face) had a higher probability of being female," Tarr said. To test the concept further, Nestor and ...

Fish choose their leaders by consensus

... Sumpter said. Condorcet justified the jury system by showing that the probability that a majority of independent-minded individuals is correct in a decision ... philosophical ideal. A simple quorum rule, in which an animal's probability of committing to a particular option increases sharply when a threshold ...

Grant supports emerging field of massive data analysis and visual analytics

... mankind." Georgia Tech's expertise in advanced computer-based analysis, probability and statistics, numerical algorithms and optimization, machine learning, ... analysis of problems like these requires expertise in statistics and probability methods, which Georgia Tech School of Mathematics professor and principal ...

Is there anybody out there?

... of Environmental Sciences, takes this idea further by looking at the probability of each of these critical steps occurring in relation to the life span of ... published in the journal Astrobiology, suggests an upper limit for the probability of each step occurring is 10 per cent or less, so the chances of ...

Flying off course

... the distances and the more numerous a particular species, the higher the probability of this species of bird straying to Europe. The birds' body size is not ... are in Central Europe. "The more numerous a species is, the greater the probability that one of them will be 'wrongly programmed' and go astray," explains Dr ...

Fewer babies born after Caesarean delivery

... first child between 1982 to 1996, who were then monitored until 2003: probability of having child number two for women who had a Caesarean section: 12 ... the sub-group who had a child who was stillborn or died in the first year: probability of having child number two was the same as for women who gave birth in the ...

University of Pennsylvania researchers develop formula to gauge risk of disease clusters

... A feature of the formula is that, given the relevant data, the required probability calculations can be done in less than five seconds on a personal computer. In statistical terms, the formula gives an exact expression for the probability distribution of the maximum of a number of multinomially distributed ...

New discovery suggests trees evolved camouflage defense against long extinct predator

... similar to the appearance of leaf litter, which would have made them difficult for a moa to distinguish. The unusual colouring may also reduce the probability of leaf outlines and help camouflage leaves against the sunlight-draped forest floor. Moa also lacked teeth and swallowed leaves by placing them ...

Analysis of Copernicus putative remains support identity

... Warsaw and the Uppsala laboratory were identical. "Although these results points towards the materials being from the same individual, there is a probability of random match", says Marie Allen. The DNA material in this case was limited and also degraded. Therefore, a so called mitochondrial DNA test was ...

Policy transparency key to saving world's fisheries

... part of the study, Mora and his colleagues combined the database on management effectiveness with a recently developed index that quantifies the probability that the catch of a particular country is sustainable or not. This part of the study showed that out of several attributes analysed, the transparency ...

Geographic profiling applied to track hunting patterns of white sharks in South Africa

... could mean that white sharks refine their search patterns with experience, and learn to concentrate hunting efforts in locations with the highest probability of successful prey capture. It might also suggest that larger sharks competitively exclude smaller sharks from the prime hunting areas. The ...

Did the North Atlantic fisheries collapse due to fisheries-induced evolution?

... age at which the fish become mature have decreased. So-called "probabilistic maturation reaction norms" show that the length at which there is a 50% probability of becoming mature, has, on average, decreased nearly one centimeter per year. The changes observed very likely are evolutionary genetic changes and ...

Origins of wolverine in California genetically verified

... comprised mostly of wolverines from Idaho, with a 73 percent confidence level. By comparison, the California wolverine had less than a five percent probability of belonging to most of the other North American wolverine populations evaluated. The scientists also used carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses ...

Plants could override climate change effects on wildfires

... scenarios, you would have a good chance of being wrong," he says. "You wouldn't be wrong if vegetation didn't change, but the greater the probability that vegetation will change, the more important it becomes when predicting future fire regimes." Higuera and his colleagues examined historical ...

Penn biologists discover how 'silent' mutations influence protein production

... silent mutations changed the amount of fluorescent protein by as much as 250-fold, without changing the properties of the protein. Codon bias, the probability that one codon of three adjacent nucleotides will code for one amino acid over another, was previously thought to be the cause for protein expression ...

Fluorescent cancer cells to guide brain surgeons

... was possible to remove the fluorescent tumor tissue completely thanks to the intensive yellow-green light signal. The researchers calculated that the probability of the glowing tissue being tumor cells is 97 percent. "Staining is a tremendous help for the surgeon, because he or she can recognize the exact ...

Amniotic fluid may provide new source of stem cells for future therapies

... for the injection and conducting the transplant in adult mice (engraftment is easier to obtain in newborn mice). As additional confirmation of the probability that AFKL cells are indeed stem cells, the researchers examined them for the expression of specific genes known to be involved in hematopoietic ...

CEL-SCI Corporation to Launch Aseptic Filling for Stem Cell Produced Therapies and Other Biological Products

... and sterile media products. The use of a cold 4 degrees Celsius fill, as opposed to the normal room temperature fill, significantly increases the probability of maintaining drug activity, potency and thus potentially extending the shelf life of new biological and stem cell produced products. CEL-SCI will ...

Research synthesis shines light on several management options after fires in diverse ecosystems

... Logging can kill naturally regenerating trees if the soil is disturbed after the trees have been established. Crown fire reduces the probability of future fire for years to decades. Fire and loggingseparately or combinedaffect soil properties. Severe, large, fires reduce water uptakes ...

Highlights from the March editions of ESA journals

... the explanatory power of their models. In some instances, the combination of an unfavorable climate with a suitable landscape cover increased the probability of species establishment. On the other hand, some areas with favorable climates became less so when their unfavorable habitat data were included. ...

Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Prizes 2009: Six young researchers recognized for outstanding achievements

... L. Ferrari (31), mathematics, University of Bonn Patrik L. Ferrari is acclaimed as one of the best young researchers in the world in the field of probability theory and statistical physics. In his studies of anomalous fluctuations of processes in the so-called KPZ universality class, he is working in one ...

Cleft lip and palate: Genes more important than thought?

... something to do with the occurrence of clefts. Good news for mothers of children affected 'Without this genetic factor on chromosome 8, the probability of a child in our population of getting clefts would be significantly less than 1 in 700,' Elisabeth Mangold points out. 'In effect, this is good ...

Why didn't Darwin discover Mendel's laws?

... the 20th century, and laid the foundations for genetics. Mendel had a good understanding of biology, but his understanding of physics, statistics and probability theory were far superior to Darwin's. Darwin's view of biology was greatly influenced by geologist Charles Lyell during and after the 1831-1836 ...

Predicting risk of stroke from one's genetic blueprint

... tool: a patient's genetic information would simply be entered into the model, which would correlate and analyze the data and output an overall probability of stroke, based on the stroke-related SNPs in the patient's genome. "It sounds like magic," says Ramoni. "But it's just a piece of technology. It ...

Relationships in rank and file

... can usually mutate into any of the other 19 amino acids without any adverse effect. In a folded region on the other hand, it will mutate with high probability into other hydrophobic, or water-repelling, amino acids." The program is based on a very general idea that can be applied to every kind of ...

Singapore-US scientists first to develop revolutionary microchip that uses 30 times less energy

... international network based at Rice. The vision for this will include next generation electronics, based on principles drawn from the mathematics of probability as it relates to areas such as risk analysis, perceptual neurobiology, nanoscale devices and computing with applications to exciting domains such as ...

Stroma genomic signature predicts resistance to anthracyclin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer

... how breast cancer patients are treated. Indeed, in the future, if a clinician learns with a simplified test that a particular woman has a high probability of not responding to an anthracyclin-based therapy, this clinician may consider prescribing an alternative chemotherapeutic regimen. Moreover, this ...

Substantial work ahead for water issues, say scientists at ACS' Final Report briefing

... one has succeeded in developing cheap, low maintenance sensors for water contaminants that could detect low levels of substances and do so with a low probability of a false signal." ...

UGA study may give hope that ivory-billed woodpeckers still around

... that the ivory-billed woodpeckers had a very small chance of persisting through modern times, but he believes Mattsson's analysis shows that the probability is larger than originally suspected. Conroy is optimistic about implications from their findings for similar species thought to have blinked out ...

Game of two halves leads to brain asymmetry

... such as the heart and positioning of internal organs. If Nodal is inhibited, the competition is fairer and the group of nerve cells has an equal probability of migrating to the right or left side, but a bias in the direction of migration can be restored by adding extra Fgf8 to one side of the brain. ...

How chromosomes meet in the dark -- Switch that turns on X chromosome matchmaking

... and speed required. Obviously sheer chance meant that CTCFs would randomly encounter and bind to an X chromosome. There was an even smaller probability then that such a pairing would then encounter another X chromosome and bind to it as well the CTCF would effectively then force colocalization by ...
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