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Phosphorylation in Biological News

Grant supports LSUHSC research on how like cell receptor systems determine very different functions

... personnel needed to identify and characterize ERK phosphorylation targets proteins to which phosphate groups can ... function specified by the scaffold. These phosphorylation targets are involved in the development of ... activity of growth factor receptors as a novel phosphorylation target. Understanding this novel mechanism might ...

Two new studies on circadian rhythms

... the 24-hour cycle. Both studies looked at phosphorylation of the frequency (FRQ) clock protein, a central ... "The Cell paper describes how the cell uses phosphorylation of a clock protein to keep the period length of ... We used mass spectrometry to follow the degree of phosphorylation of over 75 sites on the FRQ clock protein across ...

American Chemical Society Weekly PressPac -- April 8, 2009

... mice, the researchers compared the extent of phosphorylation in both capacitated and noncapacitated sperm ... the capacitation process. The relative ratio of phosphorylation between the capacitated and noncapacitated ... To Analyze Capacitation-Associated Changes in the phosphorylation Status of Mouse Sperm Proteins" DOWNLOAD FULL ...

New method for detection of phosphoproteins reveals regulator of melanoma invasion

... mutations often lead to dysregulation of protein phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ... In particular, identifying cellular targets for phosphorylation is needed to gain a more comprehensive ... their method, the researchers identified ninety phosphorylation events that were regulated by oncogenic B-Raf. ...

Impaired energy metabolism linked with initiation of plaques in Alzheimer's brain

... caused an increase in BACE1 levels and led to the phosphorylation of the stress-inducible translation initiation factor, eIF2?. Further, direct phosphorylation of eIF2? increased BACE1 levels and enhanced Aβ production while inhibition of eIF2? phosphorylation prevented energy-deprivation induced increases in ...

All eukaryotic kinases share 1 common set of substrates

... Kinase mediated phosphorylation is generally recognised as the major regulator of ... programmed cell death. Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation plays a major role in many diseases such as ... kinase substrates described in the PhosphoBase phosphorylation database. They incubated them with radio actively ...

Protein can help cells or cause cancer, Purdue researcher finds

... Topors binds itself to p53 molecules during the ubiquitination process. phosphorylation is basically an instruction from Plk1 to increase its ubiquitination ... research is to test different Plk1 inhibitors to see how they affect the phosphorylation process. ...

New piece found in the puzzle of epigenetics

... produced, but not any snRNA. The reason for that is presumably that this phosphorylation enables the interaction with a protein complex the so-called integrator ... Eick showed that the enzyme TFIIH kinase is responsible for the selective phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II. "With these findings another building block has been ...

Johns Hopkins researchers detect sweet cacophony while listening to cellular cross-talk

... as its phosphate counterpart and, indeed, even plays a role in regulating phosphorylation itself. More to the point, the work has implications for finding new ... proteins, all responded in some way to increased O-GlcNAc: 280 decreased phosphorylation and 148 increased phosphorylation. "The influence of sugar is ...

Fox Chase researchers discover a method for clamping down on a cancer-promoting enzyme

... to them in a process known as phosphorylation. The active site where the phosphorylation reaction occurs is an attractive target for drug development, since ... a library of over 33,000 small molecules for their ability to block phosphorylation by pure PAK1 protein. Any small molecules that blocked PAK1 were noted and ...

Karen Beemon wins the 2007 Retrovirology Prize

... that one of the important transformation mechanisms is the aberrant phosphorylation of cellular proteins on tyrosine residues. Dr Beemon received her PhD ... mechanisms of multiple classes of retroviruses involve aberrant phosphorylation of cellular proteins at tyrosine residues. Over the last two decades, Dr. ...

Pathogens use previously undescribed mechanism to sabotage host immune system

... systems. All MAPKs contain a threonine -X-tyrosine motif and require phosphorylation of both threonine and tyrosine for activation. Previous work demonstrated ... towards different MAPK substrates, explains Dr. Shao. Further, as phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues is widely used as a regulatory mechanism ...

Building memories with actin

... et al. tackled the question by dosing slices of rat hippocampus with adenosine, a naturally occurring signal that squelches LTP. Adenosine prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of cofilin, an inhibitor of actin filament assembly, the team found. Cofilin's involvement, in turn, implicates signaling cascades ...

New evidence of how high glucose damages blood vessels could lead to new treatments

... nitric oxide, called nitric oxide synthase, so that it makes more of the blood vessel dilator. But add more O-GlcNAc to the mix and it seems to beat phosphorylation to the punch so there is the opposite result. The longer O-GlcNAc levels were high, the worse the resulting problem, says Victor Lima, a graduate ...

New hope for treatment of neurodegenerative disorder

... and can be achieved by either inhibiting an enzyme (calcineurin) or by activating an enzyme (Akt). "Our findings point to increased phosphorylation of mutant Huntington through calcineurin inhibition as the likely mechanism by which RCAN1-1L may be protective against the mutant Huntington," Ermak ...

Tips from the American Journal of Pathology

... at an early stage of neurofibrillary degeneration and that the prolonged activation of the [unfolded protein response] is involved in both tau phosphorylation and neurodegeration in [Alzheimer's Disease] pathogenesis. Future studies will address the therapeutic opportunities of this pathway for the ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Jan. 7, 2009

... process activates proteins so that they can work normally. The results suggest that these abnormal proteins might be the clue for anomalies in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in development of central nervous system in early infancy that are involved in ASD. MTS ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE ...

Crossed (evolutionary) signals?

... code caries the markers of three types of molecules that cells use to achieve phospho-tyrosine signaling proteins. Animals depend on tyrosine phosphorylation to conduct a number of important communications between their cells, including immune system responses, hormone system stimulation and other crucial ...

UF researchers develop improved gene therapy agent

... except for one thing phenylalanine lacks the part that attracts phosphate. We didnt change anything except the amino acid that does not allow phosphorylation to occur, he said. It was very simple. You can buy a kit from a company and can mutate any amino acid you want. Tyrosine is found at seven spots ...

72 new members chosen by Academy

... Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Toulouse, France (France) COHEN, PHILIP; Royal Society Research Professor and director of MRC Protein phosphorylation Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom (United Kingdom) COWLING, RICHARD M.; professor, department of botany, Nelson Mandela ...

Researchers discover critical detail of cellular defense against genetic mistakes

... Maquat and colleagues propose the following new model for NMD: When a nonsense stop codon is detected, UPF1 together with the enzyme that directs its phosphorylation interacts with the EJC. The same step makes possible the attachment of phosphate groups to UPF1. Once phosphorylated, UPF1 interacts directly with ...

Kids with autism may have gene that causes muscle weakness

... A total of 24 of the children, or 65 percent, had defects in the process by which cells produce and synthesize energy in the muscles, or oxidative phosphorylation defects in the skeletal muscles. Most children with autism spectrum disorders do not have recognizable abnormalities when you look at genetic ...

Media highlights in the January issues of Biophysical Journal

... for living cells. Biochemists have discovered a high number of proteins that contribute to this intricate regulation mostly by monitoring their phosphorylation status. Likewise numerous biophysical studies have explored the mechanics of single motor proteins of the myosin, dynein and kinesin families ...

Biophysical Society announces winners of 2008 Student Travel Awards

... Aggregation of Amyloid Proteins. Sarah B. Scruggs, University of Illinois at Chicago, Ablation of Ventricular Regulatory Light Chain Serine-15 phosphorylation in Mice Leads to Cardiac Dysfunction in Vivo and Affects Neighboring Myofilament Protein Phosphorylation. Peter A. Sims, Harvard University, ...

Evolution with a restricted number of genes

... gene-specific maturation of RNAs is still largely enigmatic. The groups of Dirk Eick and Shona Murphy have now shown a differential requirement for phosphorylation of the amino acid serine at position 7 of CTD in the processing and maturation of specific gene products. These results provide the groundwork for ...

'Memory molecule' stores memories in neocortex

... thought. This new finding that inhibiting PKMzeta causes the rapid loss of neocortical memories learned even weeks before means that persistent phosphorylation by PKMzeta in the neocortex is necessary to store these long-term memories and has potential clinical significance, for example, in the field of ...

Mutation improves memory, may lead to memory-enhancing pill

... that mice lacking the enzyme that performs the phosphorylation reaction have a superior ability to remember new ... results led us to suspect that decreasing the phosphorylation of eIF2a enhanced memory storage,?Costa-Mattioli ... with a small molecule that increases eIF2a's phosphorylation led to poorer performance on the memory tests. ...

Speeding 'fingertip' discovery -- 20 years of protein info in 1 place

... team then added its list of these so-called phosphorylation events to lists compiled by others and created a ... reactions in our cells?protein factories, and phosphorylation gone awry has been implicated in several ... gently and keeping chemical modifications like phosphorylation intact. Previous spectrometry methods were “just ...

One signal elicits thousands of answers

... lead of Matthias Mann, the scientists found 6,600 phosphorylation sites - 90 percent of which were unknown - in ... and observed their temporal dynamics. All these phosphorylation sites are now listed in the newly created Phosida ... Growth Factor" is known for causing the phosphorylation of a multitude of enzymes and proteins along a ...

What controls stickiness of 'smart' chromosomal glue

... had found that Rec8 cleavage was promoted by phosphorylation -- the addition of chemical phosphate groups -- ... regulatory player, or it could be that it was the phosphorylation of cohesins that was central." To find out, ... affected meiosis. Those experiments showed that phosphorylation is, indeed, important for governing the step-wise ...

Aspirin discovery may improve cancer treatments

... research showed that treating human cells with salicylates results in the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2Ą, thus inhibiting protein ... The research showed that salicylates caused an early increase in the phosphorylation of eIF2Ą in normal mouse cells, but not in cells deficient in PERK. ...

Keeping the body in sync -- The stability of cellular clocks

... the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research. “We found that the phosphorylation and transcription rates of a specific gene are key determinants of the ... genes. The current results shed light on how a genetically-linked phosphorylation event gone wrong could lead to inaccurate timing of our body clockworks. ...

Picking apart how neurons learn

... Mice lacking a small part of the AMPA receptor - the part where phosphorylation is thought to occur - do not undergo LTD. This result confirms that phosphorylation is an essential step toward LTD. With these three different mouse ...

A 'dimmer switch' for genes

... "One thing we didn't get was why Ets-1 worked differently before and after phosphorylation [the addition of phosphate]," says Pufall, "because as far as we could ... within a protein corresponds to the ability of a protein to do its work." phosphorylation was found to decrease the internal motion of Ets-1, reducing its activity. ...

Scientists at Galileo Pharmaceuticals confirm inflammatory response linked to glucose levels

... into small globs. All proteins that happen to be an enzyme involved in phosphorylation have one thing in common. They have a pocket that is almost always in the ... that we can find small molecules that can more specifically affect the phosphorylation of tau by CDK5," said Kosik. In terms of future directions, Kosik said, ...

Scientists discover that three molecules may be developed into new Alzheimer's drugs

... into small globs. All proteins that happen to be an enzyme involved in phosphorylation have one thing in common. They have a pocket that is almost always in the ... that we can find small molecules that can more specifically affect the phosphorylation of tau by CDK5," said Kosik. In terms of future directions, Kosik said, ...

Researchers shed light on mechanism of action used by anti-cancer drug

... is converted from an adaptive to a pro-death response. The team observed that exposure of cells to sorafenib resulted in the pronounced phosphorylation of a protein known as eIF2á, a process that serves as a critical brake on protein translation in cells subjected to ER stress. Interestingly, they ...

Salk scientists hammer out a pathway that promotes muscle cell survival in mice

... activated and the mice lacked proper muscle function. In order to determine how CREB acts to regulate HDAC, Berdeaux and colleagues looked for phosphorylation sites in the HDAC protein. They discovered that one of many proteins turned on and off by the CREB switch, a little-known enzyme called ...

New mechanism for nutrient uptake discovered

... a phosphate molecule is introduced to another molecule, changing the latter, and preparing it for a chemical reaction. They have found a site for phosphorylation and are looking at this possibility further. A leading expert in transporters, Professor Dale Sanders, head of the biology department at the ...
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