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Overlapping in Biological News

Stanford researchers developing 3-D camera with 12,616 lenses

... photo is captured by at least four of the chips mini-cameras, producing overlapping views, each from a slightly different perspective, just as the left eye of ... of them are sure to go bad, leaving dead spots, El Gamal said. But the overlapping views provided by the multi-aperture sensor provide backups when pixels ...

'Microfluidic palette' may paint clearer picture of biological processes

... three inlets of the system. For each dye, an independent gradient forms that remains constant as long as flow rate into the system does not change. overlapping the three gradients results in a blend of dye concentrations in which the combination of colors at one location is distinctly different from any ...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

... be diffracted from another copy of the protein in a different orientation. As the process is repeated, diffractions from different angles give the overlapping views needed for the computer to construct a 3-D image of the structure. It's a great idea, but as Spence notes, there are a few problems. "So as ...

Dogs, humans, put heads together to find cure for brain cancer

... of the 'One Medicine' concept - the idea that human and animal health relies on a common pool of medical and scientific knowledge and is supported by overlapping technologies and discoveries." ...

Ability to literally imagine oneself in another's shoes may be tied to empathy

... said. "Although future work is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between empathy, spatial abilities and their potentially overlapping neural underpinnings, this work provides initial evidence that empathy might be, in part, spatially represented." "We use spatial manipulations ...

The secret of a snake's slither

... study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences says that it's all in their design--specifically, their scales. overlapping belly scales provide friction with the ground that gives snakes a preferred direction of motion, like the motion of wheels or ice skates. Like wheels ...

'Disordered' amino acids may really be there to provide wiggle room for signaling protein

... came up with an innovative technique that allowed them to look at the protein from numerous angles with the NMR spectrometer, and subtract out the overlapping areas to form a more complete picture of the molecule. This picture enabled them to see what NHREF1 looks like in both its "on" and "off" ...

MIT: How you feel the world impacts how you see it

... to the illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. "Our discovery suggests that the sensory processing of visual and tactile motion use overlapping neural circuits," explained Christopher Moore of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT and senior author of the paper. "The way something ...

American carnivores evolved to avoid each other, new study suggests

... including cats, dogs, bears, weasels, skunks and raccoons. Commonly, 20 or more species can occupy the same region. "For the most part, these overlapping species all share the same prey base -- other animals -- which includes each other," said Jennifer Hunter, who conducted the study for her Ph.D. ...

Newly discovered gene plays vital role in cancer

... With antisense regulation, control is effected instead through the production of mutually stabilising or destructive RNA molecules by genes with overlapping sequences, which determines whether or not the RNA molecules form proteins. "At least 20 per cent of all genes can be regulated by antisense RNA, ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... combinations in the books, and counted the variety of each fixed-length "word" or feature. The features were not consecutive letter combinations, but overlapping sequences obtained by sliding a two-, three- or more-letter window along the text, advancing one letter at a time. In a test of free online books ...

Rewrite the textbooks: Transcription is bidirectional

... found that most regions of the yeast genome produce several transcripts starting at the same promoter. These transcripts are interleaved and overlapping on the DNA. In contrast to what was previously thought, the vast majority of promoters seem to initiate transcription in both directions. Not all ...

Escherichia coli bacteria transferring between humans and mountain gorillas

... published in Conservation Biology , examines the exchange of digestive system bacteria between humans, mountain gorillas and domestic animals with overlapping habitats. The findings show the presence of identical, clinically-resistant bacteria, in gorillas, which implies that antibiotic resistant ...

RNA emerges from DNA's shadow

... well as cross-pollination between multiple scientific disciplines. This has led to a major European push to bring the field together via a network of overlapping multidisciplinary projects, spearheaded by the European Science Foundation (ESF) with its EUROCORES Programme RNAQuality. The great potential of ...

Plants in the fourth dimension

... function. With mutant analyses, McClung and his coworkers have shown that the PRR genes do not act in isolation, but rather are integrated and overlapping in function. Double and triple mutants have effects that are not simply additive but are much larger than those of single mutants. This suggests ...

A Great Lakes mystery: The case of the disappearing species

... with the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. The spread of invasive zebra and quagga mussels - voracious filter feeders with an overlapping diet - largely coincides with Diporeia's decline and is widely believed to be at least partially responsible. But research cannot yet explain the ...

Carnegie Mellon develops computer model to study cell membrane dynamics

... each disk bent the membrane slightly. This local curvature spread around a disk like a little halo. When two disks approached one another, the overlapping halos led to an indirect interaction. Thus, while there was no explicit interaction between the disks, these objects indirectly attracted each other ...

UC San Diego researchers eliminate drug discovery bottleneck

... spectrometer. The UCSD Jacobs School computer scientists designed algorithms that literally pick up the pieces from here. The algorithms glue the overlapping pieces together until they have reassembled a series of possible original ring structures, explains Julio Ng, a graduate student in UCSDs ...

Visual technology enables brain to learn in new ways

... screens to display images. Tufts' uses just a single screen with close to 9 megapixels resolution (4,096 x 2,169 pixels) and two projectors (with overlapping fields of projection) to create high- resolution images and animation. By using a single screen and two projectors, Tufts is able to produce ...

Like sweets? You're more like a fruit fly than you think...

... environment and nutrition. Future work will be directed towards modeling how these two structurally different sweet receptors could have highly overlapping sweetener affinities. Such knowledge will increase understanding of how molecules bind to GPCRs, which are targets for many pharmaceutical drugs. ...

Research at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source reveals structure and behavior of collagen

... component of skin, teeth, ligaments, the heart, blood vessels, bones and cartilage. In these tissues, collagen molecules pack themselves into overlapping bundles called fibrils. These fibrils, which each contain billions of atoms, entwine themselves into collagen fibers that are visible to the naked ...

Down to earth remedies for chimps

... place and show a comparable physical and chemical profile, indicating similar content. On the basis of these observations, Krief commented, This overlapping use by humans and apes is interesting from both evolutionary and conservation perspectives - saving apes and their forests is also important for ...

Natural compound in broccoli could treat devastating genetic skin disorder

... Coulombe reasoned that such a situation breeds functional redundancy, meaning that the genetic loss of one keratin could be partially rescued by the overlapping functions of a keratin cousin. Could this partial redundancy serve as the basis for therapy in EBS and related conditions? Coulombe was guided ...

Luxembourg joins EMBL

... Mattaj, Director General of EMBL, "Luxembourg has substantially contributed to the progress of research in the life sciences in the past years. Its overlapping research interests and its complementary expertise make it a very valuable addition to EMBL." ...

Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

... because of common environmental influences shared by twins from the same family [Carmelli et al., 2002]. These results point to the possibility that overlapping sets of genes or common environmental influences cause variation in two distinct phenotypes. It might be, for example, that a higher level of ...

Human embryonic stem cells remain embryonic because of epigenetic factors

... two-thirds of human genes. Of the 17,469 nonredundant unique human genes that the scientists sequenced, 68% contained H3K4me3, and only 10% contained overlapping H3K27me3. More information about epigenetic modifications: In living cells, DNA is packaged along with histone proteins, which are chief ...

UC health news: molecular pathway may predict chemotherapy effectiveness

... of thinking of cancerone cancer gene to treat and youre doneis obviously not the best approach to treating this disease, he adds. These are complex, overlapping molecular pathways. Dissecting them and determining how to use that information to apply combinations of chemotherapeutic agents will allow for ...

Researchers rein in regulatory RNAs

... and translation. Various examples of such overlapping genes have been documented in all life forms ... have experimentally validated the existence of overlapping RNA molecules in vivo. With this in mind, Dr. ... been shown to alter the methylation status of the overlapping partner gene. SATs might also trigger ...

New Study from Affymetrix Laboratories Points to Changing View of How Genome Works

... of regions of the genome are transcribed into overlapping RNA sequences and those sequences are separated ... regions of the genome, creating a complex pool of overlapping transcription. While the team validated many ... several different transcripts with different, but overlapping sequences. Often, transcripts from one strand of ...

New findings challenge established views on human genome

... to a complex network in which genes, along with regulatory elements and other types of DNA sequences that do not code for proteins, interact in overlapping ways not yet fully understood. In a group paper published in the June 14 issue of Nature and in 28 companion papers published in the June issue of ...

Human genetic 'deserts' are teeming with significant life

... that mammalian transcriptomes [the set of all messenger RNA molecules produced in a population of cells] are made of a swarming mass of different overlapping transcripts, together with our findings that suggest we have only uncovered a portion of its complexity, has important implications for medicine, ...

Corals -- More complex than you?

... take at least 5years to reach sexual maturity (compared with the laboratory fruitfly whose generation lasts only 3-4 weeks), and which have long and overlapping generation times, may thus be a living ‘museum?of ancestral animal genes. However corals use all those genes to produce only 12-14 types of ...

Darwin's famous finches and Venter's marine microbes

... In the lab, the scientists shredded the collected genetic material in millions of random snippets and then determined their sequence. Based on overlapping sequences, computer programs can then assemble longer stretches and merge them into longer pieces of a genome. These so-called "scaffolds" are a ...

Scientists unveil piece of HIV protein that may be key to AIDS vaccine development

... That image gave researchers a glimpse of some sites on the virus that could be targets of drugs or vaccines, but it also revealed the extent of HIV's overlapping defenses. For example, scientists subsequently learned that CD4-gp120 contact causes gp120 to change shape, a viral feint known as conformational ...

Mosquito genes explain response to climate change

... identified regions on three chromosomes that respond to length of day, which scientists call photoperiodism. Two of the chromosomes also have overlapping gene expression that tells the species to go dormant, which they must do to survive. "This chromosomal map is drawing a lot of interest in ...

Scientists reveal structure of gateways to gene control

... consistent arrangement," Pugh said. The study also revealed that the nucleosomes at the transcription-promoter control centers occupy several overlapping positions on the DNA molecule, typically 10 base pairs apart, which exactly matches the periodic rotation of the DNA double helix. "It is striking ...

Scientists design simple dipstick test for cocaine, other drugs

... gold nanostructures," Lu said. "This provides critical control for the performance of the devices." The lateral flow device consists of four overlapping pads ?wicking, conjugation, membrane and absorption. The appropriate aptamer-linked nanoparticle aggregates are placed on the conjugation pad, ...

Scientists win grants to develop $1,000 genome sequencing technology

... of pieces, and Pevzner is developing the computational techniques needed to computationally reassemble the chromosomes by piecing together the overlapping ends of all the fragments after they have been sequenced. Bioengineering professor Michael Heller is a third member of the UCSD team. He is an ...

Novel molecular 'signature' marks DNA of embryonic stem cells

... chemical tags joined to its backbone. By examining the chromatin in mouse ES cells across the genome, the scientists discovered an unusual pair of overlapping molecular tags in the chromatin structure, which together comprise what they called a "bivalent domain," reflecting the dual nature of its design. ...
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