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Organelles in Biological News

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

... called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that ... active cellulose synthase complexes disappear and organelles accumulate just under the plasma membrane. These organelles contain cellulose synthase and are tethered to ...

Self-digestion as a means of survival

... - known as autophagy - takes place in special organelles called autophagosomes. It is a strategy that ... for getting rid of misfolded proteins, damaged organelles or disease-causing bacteria. If this process ... autophagosomes know exactly which proteins and organelles they should degrade. "Although autophagy has ...

Biologists at UC San Diego identify key protein in cell's 'self-eating' function

... cells dispose of bacteria, viruses, damaged organelles and other non-essential components through this ... of oxidative chemical reactions. Different organelles within the cell are degraded by lysosomes when the organelles are damaged or not necessary, said Jean-Claude ...

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

... fills the cell and is crowded with very large molecules. It surrounds the organelles -- tiny organs like mitochondria and the nucleus. Unlike organelles, the ... is interesting as a major player in cell function. Creating a cell with organelles would be a monumental task, but creating one that exhibits molecular ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

... M.D., professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic. Molecules, vesicles and organelles within a cell are constantly carried via a network of crisscrossing ... says Dr. Farrer. "The insides of neurons are very dynamic. Molecules and organelles are constantly being moved to where they are needed, so it makes sense ...

Researchers at IRB Barcelona produce more data on key genes in diabetes

... subjects show functional alterations in mitochondria. These intracellular organelles are responsible for transforming glucose into energy that the cell will ... is that mitochondrial fusion is crucial for the correct function of these organelles and when the gene that regulates this fusion is decreased, the function of ...

Nanotubes could help study retrovirus transmission between human cells

... recently as trafficking routes is because of labeling studies that marked organelles and proteins. This allowed a focused look at what these nanostructures might be used for." It became clear, says Sasaki, that the organelles were being transported with "specific directionality" on the backs of ...

Spradling receives Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize for new genetic techniques

... eggs. In both flies and mice, cytoplasmic filaments are reorganized and organelles are transported from cell to cell as part of this process. The reason ... unproven, but Spradling believes they help remove damaged molecules and organelles from the future oocytes, and transfer them to partner cells that will ...

Nixing immaturity in red blood cells

... a protein called Nix, the cells would not effectively rid themselves of organelles called mitochondria and consequently become short-lived, leading to ... in red blood cells, said Wang. When other cells get old or stressed, their organelles may become damaged and need to be cleared by autophagy for quality ....

Biologists find unusual plant gene: abstinence by mutual consent

... is responsible for producing a protein called peroxin that targets small organelles inside the cell called peroxisomes. Within the cell, peroxisomes are small organelles whose main functions are metabolizing fatty acids, protecting the cell ...

MIT creates 3-D images of living cell

... cell reveals the cell nucleus, the nucleolus and a number of smaller organelles in the cytoplasm. The researchers are currently in the process of better characterizing these organelles by combining the technique with fluorescence microscopy and other ...

Spontaneous assembly

... and also reproducible for succeeding generations of cells. Eukaryotic cells feature distinct subcellular structures, such as membrane-bound organelles and protein transport systems, whose complex organization is readily apparent. However, there is also complex spatial organization to be found within ...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

... mitochondria play as a calcium buffer. One of the mitochondria's functions is to help control the concentration of calcium in the cell, which the organelles can rapidly absorb and store. This capacity is important, particularly in instances when calcium levels in the cell spike during a stroke, a ...

New data on the breakdown of the KRas protein

... the KRas protein is actively transported from the cell membrane, where most of its known activity takes place, to the lysosomes. The lysosomes are organelles responsible for breaking down proteins; this breakdown pathway was unknown in the case of KRas. Thanks to videomicroscopy techniques using a confocal ...

Weizmann Institute scientists show extra copies of a gene carry extra risk

... discover LIS1's tie to lissencephaly, in 1993. Their latest study shows that it works by helping to determine polarity in the cell how the various organelles are arranged inside the cell as well as where it connects to neighboring cells. Neurons alter their polarity several times during development, ...

Fluorescent proteins illuminating biomedical research

... employed the FTs to demonstrate for the first time how a protein called LAMP-2A, which scavenges cellular debris, is transported to intracellular organelles called lysosomes, where the debris is digested. Understanding this process, which maintains the health of cells and organs, may lead to treatments ...

Novel technique for fluorescence tomography of tumors in living animals

... since beyond a penetration depth of a few hundred micrometers the photons are massively scattered due to interactions with cell membranes and organelles which results in blurred images. In the latest issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Prof. Ntziachristos and his ...

Solar-powered sea-slugs live like plants, prof says

... of Sciences " with an image of a green slug gracing the cover. Manhart says plants can be compared to solar-powered machinestheir cells contain tiny organelles called plastids that trap sunlight and convert it into energy by a process known as photosynthesis. Animals, on the other hand, depend on plants or ...

New research helps explain genetics of Parkinson's disease

... the neuronal cell death associated with Parkinson's disease. The relocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, the team showed, sends these defunct organelles to autophagosomes for degradation. Parkin may thus prevent the damaged mitochondria from triggering cell death. Because neurons are not readily ...

New research center at Brandeis to combine materials science and biology

... carry out important genetic processes. In a top-down approach, the researchers will explore functioning cellular components, such as cilia, the organelles that miraculously move in synchronization to perform their jobs, such as keeping the lungs clear of pollutants. The researchers will essentially ...

Hebrew University develops novel approach for treating mitochondrial disorders

... manufactured with the addition of a delivery component and is administered to patients on a regular basis. Mitochondria are special little organelles within the cells (organelles are small, unique structures within the cells that perform specialized tasks). The mitochondria play a critical role - ...

Leading scientist named new chair of Cell Biology at Yale

... of molecules inside the cell in tiny spherical sacs known as vesicles, which fuse with membranes to deliver their molecular cargo to intracellular organelles or to the extracellular space. This latter process, known as exocytosis, is basic to life and occurs in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans; in ...

New chemical tool kit manipulates mitochondria, reveals insights into drug toxicity

... the first clinical explanation for these and other physiological mysteries. The answers, it turns out, all boil down to mitochondria, those tiny organelles floating around in cellular cytoplasm, often described as the cells battery packs. A research team led by Harvard Medical School assistant ...

WUSTL researchers spearhead key genome initiative

... department in the Washington University School of Medicine. Dutcher's interest in the moss gene comes from her desire to understand cilia, tiny organelles that project from the surface of most human cells. She hopes that the Physcomitrella genome will be used to understand human health as well as to ...

Legionnaire's bacterial proteins work together to survive

... part of the immune system and eat cellular debris and toxins. Macrophages kill bacteria by transporting them in storage bubbles known as vacuoles to organelles that have enzymes to then break down the intruders. What makes this pathogen special is that it can control transport of the vacuole formed after ...

Sidestepping cancer's chaperone

... trials. Notably, they found a very abundant pool of Hsp90 (and its related molecule TRAP-1) in the mitochondria of tumor cells. Mitochondria are organelles that produce a cells energy, but also play a key role in cell death. Indeed, many current drugs and treatments work by damaging the mitochondria. ...

Study involving more than 100 scientists provides new insights on green algae

... they do yet; we hope to learn what they do," she said. The scientists identified many new proteins that are likely associated with cilia thin organelles that allow a cell to sense its environment and tell where it is and they differentiated proteins that are critical for movement from those ...

Studying component parts of living cells with carbon nanotube cellular probes

... As nanopipes they can be used to transport liquids to or from cells and inject solutions or drugs directly into individual cells and individual organelles within the cells. In addition, because of the small diameters of the carbon nanotubes induce little damage to cells upon penetration. By making these ...

UVA researchers explain cell response to skin-damaging UV rays

... sign that your skin is damaged. But what is not so well known is exactly how UV rays specifically interact with your DNA and the complex organelles and proteins found inside every cell of your body. Researchers at the University of Virginia Health System have published a new study that helps ...

Scientists eye secrets of retinal regeneration

... of cell biology in ophthalmology and professor of cell and developmental biology at Weill Cornell Medical College. "Rod cells contain tiny organelles called the 'outer segment,' which contain about 1,000 flattened discs containing rhodopsin -- a visual pigment that absorbs light," Dr. Sung ....

Story ideas from the Journal of Lipid Research

... various components cannot work properly anymore and, instead, they activate new proteins to cope with the situation. One of the most challenged organelles in obese fat cells is a maze-like compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that makes proteins and lipid droplets and senses the amount of ...

UF scientists reveal how dietary restriction cleans cells

... Dunn. That is, instead of starving yourself you can find another way of enhancing autophagy that will allow the enhanced removal of various damaged organelles that accumulate in aged cells. Ulf Brunk, M.D., Ph.D., a professor emeritus of experimental pathology at Linkping University in Sweden, said the ...

A catalogue of proteins

... the entire inventory of active proteins in cell organelles at a particular moment. Their work sheds ... have been looking at the structures and organelles in cells using microscopic methods, and then ... Their proteins have stayed "true" to their cell organelles over the course of evolution. Their localisation ...

Protein found to shield pancreatic cancer cells from self-destruction

... the cells die via damage to their nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved. Autophagy kills by degrading those other organelles while sparing the nucleus. Mehta's lab reported in a Cancer Research ...

UGA scientists unravel 'molecular inch-worm' structure of walking-pneumonia bacterium

... demonstrating that, contrary to previous thinking, multiple new terminal organelles often form before cell division is observed. From the standpoint of ... demonstrates the feasibility of using fluorescent proteins to study how organelles in these incredibly tiny bacteria grow and what their functions are. From ...

Targeted virus compels cancer cells to eat themselves

... part of themselves when nutrients are scarce or to destroy some of their organelles to recycle their components. A double membrane forms around the material ... show specific damage to the cell nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved, Kondo explains. Cells killed by autophagy have little damage ...

Sleeping sickness parasite shows how cells divide their insides

... often the focus. Equally important is the way a cell prepares its internal organelles for distribution. Warren studies the Golgi complex, a membrane compartment ... between the growing Golgi, the Centrin proteins and other cellular organelles was shown in experiments using RNAi, and visualizing the process was ...

Motor transport in bio-nano systems

... center to the periphery and vice versa, some shuttle between different organelles or cellular compartments. An extreme case is provided by the long-ranged transport of vesicles and organelles along the axons between our nerve cells, which can be as long as half a ...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

... studies to find that RISC also interacts with another complex that includes molecules required to build functional ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular organelles responsible for translating messenger RNA into protein. Closer investigation showed that the new complex also included a component called eIF6. This ...
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