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Nucleus in Biological News

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona researchers first to clone mice in Spain

... their chromosomes and substituted them for the nucleus of an adult somatic cell. The cloning of mice is ... enzyme histone deacetylase, located at the cell nucleus where the DNA is found. Research carried out ... favour the reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus transferred to the oocyte cytoplasm. Its use in ...

Protein that triggers plant cell division revealed by researchers

... division--that is, they observed BASL in both the nucleus and in a small region out near the periphery in ... made BASL, but the protein was found in both the nucleus and a small region at the periphery. This proved ... how BASL moves from where it is made to the nucleus or out to the periphery of the cell, and what it ...

The egg makes sure that sperm don't get too old

... Stem cell therapy involves replacing the cell nucleus in unfertilised egg with a nucleus from a somatic cell that has come from a patient ... these cells would depend on the age of the cell nucleus that was transferred. Our results suggest that ...

CSHL researchers pinpoint structure-building role for 2 non-coding RNAs

... Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Most of the DNA in the nucleus of each of our cells is converted into RNA, but ... counterparts in simple organisms like yeast, the nucleus in mammalian cells has an extraordinarily ... the DNA-protein complex known as chromatin, the nucleus is organized with compartments such as the ...

How eating fruit and vegetables can improve cancer patients' response to chemotherapy

... tumor suppressor p53, a protein, in the cell nucleus a necessary step for killing the cell that ... in their cytoplasm and nucleus. When DNA in the nucleus is damaged, p53 moves to the nucleus where it activates genes that stop cell growth ...

New insights into the regulation of PTEN tumor suppression function

... define a pathway that maintains PTEN in the nucleus and offer a novel target for enhancing this ... cell, it has to be properly localized within the nucleus in order to maintain its full tumor suppressive ... either of which can force PTEN from the nucleus and prevent its ability to act as a tumor ...

RNA emerges from DNA's shadow

... important structural component both in the cell nucleus and in the ribosomes. Furthermore, errors in ... structure both of the membrane-bound cell nucleus and the genome coiled within it. Genes are transcribed within the nucleus and the resulting RNA molecules then emerge ...

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience

... had increased gray matter in hippocampus and nucleus accumbens compared to controls. As in young ... caspase inhibitors unilaterally into HVC, a song nucleus of white-crowned sparrows, using an osmotic pump ... and neuron number were greater in the infused nucleus than in the ...

Stem cell nuclei are soft 'hard drives,' Penn study finds

... interact to stabilize the inner lining of the nucleus of most tissue cells. Lamins A and C stiffen ... organisms. The fluid-like character of the nucleus is shown to be set largely by the DNA and the ... form chromatin. The extent of deformation of the nucleus is further modulated by the lamina. ...

New, more direct pathways from outside the cell-to-cell nuclei discovered

... from the extracellular environment to the nucleus in the one-celled protozoan Tetrahymena ... arrival of the phagosomes and their loads at the nucleus was marked by the illumination of the nucleus by the beads. Similarly, the researchers also ...

Reprogramming human cells without inserting genes

... expressing proteins, the team found those proteins migrated back into the nucleus of the skin cells, precisely as would occur in induced pluripotent stem ... WPI and lead author on the paper. "Having these proteins localize to the nucleus is the first step of reprogramming these cells." Even more surprising, ...

Pushmi-pullyu of B-cell development discovered

... them silent. One is the fact that the two meters of DNA inside a tiny cell nucleus is wrapped around millions of tiny spools, linked together like a string ... the arrangement of DNA on the tiny histone spools inside the cell nucleus and the methylation of the B-cell gene. "We knew that the two complexes ...

The battle for CRTC2: How obesity increases the risk for diabetes

... by a transcriptional switch called CRTC2, which normally sits outside the nucleus waiting for the signal that allows it to slip inside and do its work. Once ... Ph.D., mimicked the conditions of ER stress in mice, CRTC2 moved to the nucleus but failed to activate gluconeogenesis. Instead, it switched on genes ...

Sugarcoating fruit fly development

... they report that the addition of this sugar tag to proteins in the nucleus of a cell is vital for normal development in fruit flies. Over 25 years ago scientists discovered that many proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm have a small sugar molecule, called GlcNAc, attached to ....

Nanoneedle is small in size, but huge in applications

... the targeted delivery of one or more molecules into the cytoplasm or the nucleus of living cells. In addition to ferrying tiny amounts of cargo, the ... can quantitatively examine biological processes occurring within a cell's nucleus or cytoplasm," said Yang Xiang, a professor of molecular and integrative ...

Regulation of cell proliferation by the OGF-OGFr axis is dependent on nuclear localization signals

... translation of OGFr required approximately 5 hours, and transit into the nucleus took 8 hours; OGFr remained in the nucleus for up to 8 days. Transport through the nuclear pore and repression of ...

Singapore scientists synthesize gold to shed light on cells' inner workings

... The gold nanoclusters' sub-nanometer size makes it easy to target the nucleus inside the cell for sub-cellular biolabeling and bioimaging. Tracking the cell nucleus can help scientists monitor the fundamental life processes of healthy DNA ...

CSHL researchers explain process by which cells 'hide' potentially dangerous DNA segments

... end to end. A genome of this size can squeeze into a cell's tiny nucleus because it is compressed into highly condensed chromatin fibers by proteins called histones. All chromatin in the cell nucleus represents a massive condensation of the genetic material. But a portion ...

New therapeutic strategy could target toxic protein in most patients with Huntington's disease

... nucleotides dictates which protein is encoded by a given gene. DNA in the nucleus is transcribed as messenger RNA, which leaves the nucleus and begins making proteins based on the order of these four bases. A ...

DNA repair mechanisms relocate in response to stress

... DNA damage. One DNA repair enzyme they studied, Ntg1, moves to the nucleus or the mitochondria depending on where DNA damage is concentrated, the authors found. In contrast, a related enzyme, Ntg2, stays in the nucleus under all conditions. Cells appear to direct Ntg1's relocation by ...

Scientists deconstruct cell division

... cell into two daughter cells. In mitosis, the chromosomes condense and the nucleus breaks down. Fibrous structures called spindles form, which then move the ... In 2006, Zheng and colleagues discovered that a protein found in the nucleus during the interphase of the cell division cycle, called lamin-B, is a ...

Scattered light rapidly detects tumor response to chemotherapy

... As cells undergo this process, bodies within the cell, such as the nucleus or mitochondria, go through structural changes. Using the new approach, ... place in the mitochondria, while the changes in the structure of the nucleus were responsible for the later ones." Ostrander said that this ...

CSHL scientists discover new way in which ubiquitin modifies transcriptional machinery

... Spring Harbor, N.Y. During gene transcription the process inside the nucleus of cells by which DNA, the genetic material, is copied into RNA molecules ... events. These events culminate in a version of the RNA copy exiting the nucleus and serving as the template for the production of new proteins. ...

In just 5 years, gene discovery to clinical trial of potential treatment

... who conducted the basic research on the protein structures in the cell nucleus that were subsequently found to be abnormal in HGPS. Also on the panel ... unstable and abnormal. The resulting gross disfigurement of the cell's nucleus is described as "blebbed," or lobular in shape. (Recent research ...

Streamlining brain signals for speed and efficacy

... directing eye muscles to relax or contract; and so-called vestibular nucleus neurons in the brainstem that link the two. While the brevity of this ... of contact between nerve cellsthat connect the sensory onto the vestibular nucleus neurons would be linear. However, transmission at most synapses is ...

EuroDYNA takes lid off the genome

... the detailed structure of how the DNA double helix is folded in the nucleus of higher organisms. Although the double helix structure was discovered by ... in 1953, the way it folds and stretches such that it fits in the cell nucleus is only now becoming clear, as is its relevance both for cell replication ...

UF researchers develop improved gene therapy agent

... trillions of AAV particles for the corrective gene to take root in a cells nucleus and begin working. Based on our studies and those of others, its ... the study and a member of the UF Genetics Institute. It doesnt get to the nucleus very efficiently. The reason for that is obvious. AAV is seen by the body ...

BBVA Foundation international study on attitudes to stem cell research

... research. The technique in question involves the implanting of the nucleus of an adult human cell into the egg of an animal from which the nucleus has been previously extracted. The BBVA Foundation survey also ...

New technique yields more detailed picture of chromatin structure

... a century that proteins, such as histones, aid in packing DNA into the nucleus of a cell. Human cells contain 2 to 3 meters of DNA, which must be kinked ... against green fluorescent protein (GFP) was then microinjected into the nucleus of a living cell, which added a metallic signal that could be boosted with ...

New route for heredity bypasses DNA

... sexual reproduction. When two of these ciliate cells mate, the somatic nucleus gets destroyed, and must somehow be reconstituted in their offspring in order for them to survive. The germline nucleus contains abundant DNA, yet 95 percent of it is thrown away during ...

Enzyme alerts cell's powerful army to repair DNA damage

... II does one essential job: It copies instructions from genes in the nucleus that get carried to production units in the rest of the cell to support ... cell nuclei, they found that p53 proteins then accumulated in the cell nucleus one aspect of the stress response even when no DNA damage occurred. ...

Study reveals a reprogrammed role for the androgen receptor

... growth is by producing their own androgen, scientists have discovered. Another way involves the androgen receptor itself the "keyhole" in the cell nucleus that androgen molecules fit into but the actual mechanism by which it operates hasn't been known. To find that mechanism, Brown's team, ...

Chasing tiny vehicles

... move randomly, often downright erratically inside the cell, until a so-called motor protein binds them and quickly transports them towards the cell nucleus the ultimate target for the gene. The research team is now in a position to characterize and describe in great detail the individual steps along ...

Study by NTU professors provides important insight into apoptosis or programmed cell death

... nucleus, is reduced greatly during the early stages of apoptosis. Under normal circumstances, there is a high distribution of RanGTP in the nucleus and a low concentration of RanGTP in the cytoplasm (the body enveloping the cell's nucleus). It is this gradient of RanGTP that exist across the ...

2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center scientists receive Presidential Early Career Award

... also was appointed a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Early Career Scientist. Malik studies genetic conflict. He sees battles raging within a cell's nucleus as genes jockey for evolutionary dominance. These clashes can have a long-term impact on organisms, as they sometimes alter the function of essential ...

Trio of signals converge to induce liver and pancreas cell development in the embryo

... proteins that attach to chromosomes, marking part of the genome to be turned on or off. But first the two meters of tightly coiled DNA inside the nucleus of every cell must be loosened a bit. The regulatory proteins help with this, exposing a small domain near the target gene. They then act as a ...

Targeting helpers of heat shock proteins could help treat cancer, cardiovascular disease

... For example, it's known that Hsp90 helps properly assemble steroid receptors in the liquid portion of a cell but receptors have to get to the cell nucleus to be functional. "We know who folds them up, but our big question is: Who takes them over there? It could be that chaperones and helpers both are ...

New piece found in the puzzle of epigenetics

... They showed that the enzyme TFIIH kinase is involved in epigenetic regulation. The scientists were interested in the fine regulation of the cell nucleus enzyme RNA polymerase II. This transcribes the genetic information of the genetic substance DNA into messenger RNA - mRNA for short which in turn is ...

New tool isolates RNA within specific cells

... and disease." The new non-toxic, non-invasive method makes it possible to "listen in" to the messages -- in fact, messenger RNA -- that the nucleus is sending each cell, without perturbing the cell, Doe said. "It is much like eavesdropping on a phone conversation, rather than pulling the person ...

New findings in taste and smell

... from the olfactory placode Odor discrimination in mouse models of schizophrenia Taste responsive multipolar and elongated neurons in hamster nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) project differentially to targets in the brainstem: an in-vivo intracellular recording, labeling, and tracing study ...
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(Date:4/24/2014)... they often inject harmful proteins into the host ... However, in some plants, bacteria attack once they,ve ... Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have ... bacteriaknown mostly for attacking tomatoesto invade its host. ... that work with food-producing plants to enhance resistance ...
(Date:4/24/2014)... Rochelle, NY, April 24, 2014GEN Publishing recently introduced ... digital publication focusing on the application of OMICs ... as next-gen sequencing, are beginning to transform medical ... research over the past decade-and-a-half. , "GEN,s editors ... of pharmacogenomics, genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, etc. etc. for ...
(Date:4/24/2014)... New Rochelle, NY, April 24, 2014D-ribose is a ... nutritional supplement, and as a starting compound for ... of Escherichia coli to increase the ... step toward achieving more efficient industrial-scale production of ... in Industrial Biotechnology , a peer-reviewed journal ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Plants send out signals attracting harmful bacteria, MU study finds 2
(Date:4/24/2014)... Dartmouth has been awarded one of 30 grants from ... Lead Academic Participating Site in its new National ... a select groups of investigators charged with distributing resources ... The NCTN grant system reflects recommendations from a ... to achieve four goals:, Faster design, launch, ...
(Date:4/24/2014)... 2009 the influenza pH1N1 virus caused the first flu ... in May 2009 and killed more than 50 people ... Finns mainly during flu epidemics (winter/spring seasons). , ... serious complicated illnesses. World Health Organization has recommended Tamiflu ... The disadvantage of this drug is that it targets ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... from healthy, unrelated donors was safe and effective ... by Clostridium difficile , according to a ... Diseases and available online. Known as fecal ... given via a colonoscope or a nasogastric tube. ... promising treatment more readily available to patients. , ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... SPOKANE, Wash.Researchers at Washington State University Spokane have ... are about to nod off behind the wheel. ... steering wheel movementswhich are more variable in drowsy ... to currently available video-based driver drowsiness detection systems. ... detect when a car is drifting out of ...
(Date:4/23/2014)... Fairfax, Va., April 23, 2014 The American Society ... guideline, "The Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy for ... the use of adjuvant radiation therapy in the ... is published in the May-June 2014 issue of ... clinical practice journal of ASTRO. The full-length guideline ...
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