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Nucleotide in Biological News

New nucleotide could revolutionize epigenetics

... to cytosine, creating a different but stable nucleotide called 5-methylcytosine. This modification in the ... in development. The discovery of a new nucleotide may make biologists rethink their approaches to ... result: x was 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a stable nucleotide previously observed only in the simplest of life ...

Covering the bases: Quantum effect may hold promise for low-cost DNA sequencing, sensor applications

... been used to determine the identities of the four nucleotide basesadenine, thymine, cytosine and guaninewhich ... the hydrogen bonds work to join up appropriate nucleotide pairs like jigsaw piecesadenine with thymine and ... sample. When this tip is fitted with a particular nucleotide and brought in contact with its complementary ...

Case Western Reserve finds mechanism underlying alt. splicing of premessenger RNA into messenger RNA

... instance, sometimes the resulting mRNA includes nucleotide sequences that should have been deleted. ... the weak upstream site was present, changes in nucleotide type and order near the downstream splicing site ... unexpected. That means that small changes in a nucleotide sequence near a splice point can lead to large ...

Researchers discover the structural alphabet of RNA

... combine all the possible interactions between a nucleotide and its neighbors. The researchers ... introduced a new first-order object to represent nucleotide relationships, the nucleotide cyclic motif (NCM). We reasoned that using NCMs ...

New tool isolates RNA within specific cells

... built its tool with the enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a nucleotide salvage enzyme that prepares nucleotides for incorporation into newly synthesized RNA. By altering the nucleotide analog 4-thiouracil, the UPRT enzyme caused RNA to become tagged with ...

New therapeutic strategy could target toxic protein in most patients with Huntington's disease

... to me that you could," he recalled. The key was something called a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP. A SNP is any place on the genetic code that varies ... as well. To prevent this error, Zamore and his colleagues changed one more nucleotide base on the siRNA. Now, the silencing RNA was different from the healthy ...

Scientists make strides toward defining genetic signature of Alzheimer's disease

... 498 control individuals. The analysis was powerful enough to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly more prevalent in individuals ... disease than they are in controls. A SNP is a variation of a single nucleotide of DNA. The researchers confirmed the known apolipoprotein E ...

If your first cigarette gave you a buzz and you now smoke, a gene may be to blame

... the more common form. This kind of genetic variation is called a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP. Smokers were also eight times as likely to report ... Laura Bierut, in which a whole-genome study found that the same single nucleotide polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene was associated with smokers' ...

Gene variation may elevate risk of liver tumor in patients with cirrhosis

... focused on a known variation in the EGF gene the presence of the nucleotide guanine (G) instead of the more common adenine (A) in a particular ... C virus, 59 also had HCC. Patients with at least one copy of the G nucleotide had a significantly higher risk of developing HCC than did A/A patients ...

New molecular clock from LLNL and CDC indicates smallpox evolved earlier than believed

... Li devised a way to concentrate point mutations in the viral DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. Four nucleotide bases, arranged in varying sequences, spell out the hereditary information ...

Ultraconserved elements in the genome: Are they indispensable?

... 731-base pair sequence, uc467, should normally have accumulated some 334 nucleotide changes in the more than 80 million years that mice, rats, and humans have ... is the assumption that these identical DNA sequences persist because nucleotide substitutions in them would render the organism less fit; thus evolution ...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

... is the first weed to be partially sequenced using this technology. The pyrosequencing machine emits a light signal that's captured every time a nucleotide is incorporated into a growing DNA strand. "The reason it's so fast is that it's done in parallel," said Tranel. "The plate has thousands of tiny ...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

... and his colleagues sequenced the hSDH5 gene in three individuals with PGL2 from a previously described Dutch lineage. They identified a single DNA nucleotide change which resulted in a mutation in the most conserved region of the protein. Of the 45 individuals within the affected lineage who inherited the ...

DNA template could explain evolutionary shifts

... studying reasons for genetic mutations or changes looked at molecular "typos" in this process, tiny changes in the As, Ts, Cs or Gs called single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). They changed the message of the gene. However, in the early 1990s, Lupski was one of the early champions of a newly discovered ...

Identification of genetic variants affecting age at menopause could help improve fertility treatment

... Health Study, the ARIC study, the HAPI Heart Study), Iceland (AGES-Reykjavik) and Italy (the InCHIANTI study). The scientists found 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four different places on chromosomes 19 and 20. SNPs are common genetic variants that influence how humans look, behave, ...

Immune genes adapt to parasites

... into risk factors for intestinal disorders. Parasite-driven selection leaves a footprint on our DNA in the form of mutations known as "single nucleotide polymorphisms" (SNPs). Making sure that genetic variation (in the form of multiple SNPs) is maintained within certain immune genes over time helps ...

Researchers gain genome-wide insights into patterns of the world's human population structures

... data and see significant variations. The UW researchers applied this method to a data set of almost 650,000 SNPs (pronounced "snips"). A single nucleotide polymorphism is a genetic variation in which the DNA code differs by only one "letter" in the same DNA sequence from two individuals of the same ...

How an enzyme tells stem cells which way to divide

... of a complex cascade of protein deactivation steps that many biologists have theorized, Prehoda said, aPKC strips phosphate off an energy-transfer nucleotide known as ATP and then attaches it to Miranda. This process forces Miranda away from aPKC and helps determine the fates of subsequent daughter cells. ...

Tiny differences in our genes help shed light on the big picture of human history

... correlation among segments of DNA containing very small genetic mutations that only involve a single letter of the genetic code (called "single nucleotide polymorphisms" or SNPs). Prior to this development, methods used to identify major population events relied on the frequency patterns of individual ...

DNA blueprint for healthier and more efficient cows

... said. The implications of the genome project for the beef and dairy industries are enormous. "The availability of very large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (DNA changes in the genetic blueprint) has allowed the development of gene chips that measure genetic variation in cattle populations ...

A genomic CluE for cloud computing

... long, the transfer may take forever and cost too much to make whole thing worthwhile," said Pop. A Different Kind of Puzzle DNA is made up of nucleotide bases that are abbreviated by the letters A, C, G, and T. Lined up in a double helix structure, they make up a code that is translated into the ...

Bovine genome provides clues to possible new developments

... used the complete sequence from a single Hereford cow and comparative genome sequences for six more breeds, looking for changes called single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs markers that can help researchers identify favorable traits. "The biggest thing that came out of the SNP project was the ...

Altered gene can increase risk of schizophrenia

... evidence for association, in this case between the altered gene and schizophrenia. The researchers evaluated 60 variants of the gene or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). "Our use of the PPLD was really helpful in sorting the evidence. It showed that of the 60 SNPs we were evaluating, three ...

Changes in gene may stunt lung development in children

... higher levels of SOD3 levels in these mice were four times higher at the final stage of lung development. They also found the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, variations in DNA sequences, in SOD3 that were linked to lung function in mice. The researchers went on to assess SOD3 ...

Genetic irregularities linked to higher risk of COPD among smokers

... genetic aberrations that might be linked to COPD. But after a series of statistical analyses, only two single letter changes in DNA - (called single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, or "snips") emerged as significant. Both were located near a nicotine receptor on chromosome 15 that has already been ...

Predicting risk of stroke from one's genetic blueprint

... confirmed cardioembolic stroke, and 423 controls who were followed and found not to have stroke, and looked for 1,313 genetic variants (called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) known to correlate with stroke. The SNPs that each patient had were then entered into the model -- known as a Bayesian network ...

Effectiveness of progesterone in reducing preterm births may be altered by genetic predisposition

... and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Network and the University of Utah, assessed whether women with genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human progesterone receptor gene were more or less likely to respond to 17P for the prevention of recurrent spontaneous ...

Scientists uncover new genetic variations linked to psoriasis

... the University of Utah and colleagues in Canada and Europe, focused on sites within the genome where a single unit of DNA is changed, called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The researchers scanned nearly 450,000 SNPs in each of the genomes of 1,409 psoriasis patients and compared the DNA variations to ...

DNA repair patterns may predict risk of pancreatic cancer

... As with any science, the key is replication, and the results of this study need to be confirmed by others." Li and colleagues analyzed nine single nucleotide polymorphisms of seven DNA repair genes among 734 patients with pancreatic cancer and 780 people without cancer. DNA repair is the guardian of the ...

NIST guides genetic genealogy labs toward improved accuracy

... father, brother, paternal uncle or paternal grandfather to take the test for them. Genetic genealogy works by studying the sequences of repeating nucleotide (the base components of DNA) patterns on the Y chromosome known as short tandem repeats (STRs). Each STR is considered a separate marker for ...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... be translated into proteins. RNAi has high specificity because the target RNA strand must have a genetic code that is complementary to the siRNA's nucleotide sequence. In nature, cells use RNAi to silence "junk DNA," noncoding regions of the DNA, and "selfish DNA" such as virus-derived ...

Study identifies genetic variants giving rise to differences in metabolism

... biochemical context may help determine the pathogenesis of common diseases and gene-environment interactions. The team identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes coding for well-characterized enzymes of the lipid metabolism. Individuals with different genotypes in these ...

St. Jude identifies genomic causes of a certain type of leukemia relapse

... initially diagnosed and after they had relapsed. The investigators used millions of genetic markerscharacteristic genetic variations called single nucleotide polymorphismsas guideposts to pinpoint genetic changes characteristic of relapsed cells. Using these genetic markers, the researchers analyzed all of ...

Research consortium to sequence turkey genome

... as a platform for development of future tools, such as high-throughput gene expression arrays and high-density genetic marker maps based on single nucleotide polymorphisms. Tim Harkins, marketing manager for genome sequencing at Roche Applied Science, commented: "We are pleased to see that the ...

Genetic risk factors may tailor prostate cancer screening approaches

... The investigators evaluated the clinical characteristics of men at high risk for prostate cancer; those who carry five genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been associated with prostate cancer in recent studies. These genetic changes have mostly been reported in ...

SNPs affect folate metabolism in study of Puerto-Rican adults

... DNA. In a study published in October's American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , senior author Jimmy Crott, PhD, and colleagues studied nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes involved in folate uptake and retention: folate hydrolase (FOLH1), folate polyglutamate synthase (FPGS), ...

Repairing DNA damage: Researchers discover critical process in cancer treatment

... controls DNA repair. "Our study is the first to identify a regulatory role for the ATR protein in a specific DNA repair system, which is called nucleotide excision repair or NER," says Elliot Drobetsky, senior author and associate professor of immunology and oncology at the Universit de Montral. ...

Washington University scientists first to sequence genome of cancer patient

... - points of single base changes in the DNA - in the patient's tumor genome compared with her normal genome. Of the nearly 2.7 million single nucleotide variants in the patient's tumor genome, almost 98 percent also were detected in DNA from the patient's skin sample, thus narrowing the number of ...

Study finds genetic variant plays role in cleft lip

... highly "conserved," meaning they have not changed much over evolution. However, one of the regulatory sections around IRF6 revealed a single nucleotide variant, so the team focused on the corresponding area in human DNA already identified by a previous UI graduate student. Next, through a ...

Reproducing early and often is the key to rapid evolution in plants

... Smith . For each branch on each limb of the "tree," the researchers calculated the rate of molecular evolution by determining the number of DNA nucleotide substitutions per site per million years. Their analyses highlight the difficulty in using molecular data to infer the timing of evolutionary ...
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