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Nucleic in Biological News

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

... usually filled with macromolecules of proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. A mixture of a small ... that additional molecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, prefer one over the other and will become ... potassium and magnesium can have on protein and nucleic acid structures and function." These polymer ...

Scientists make chemical cousin of DNA for use as new nanotechnology building block

... nanostructures composed entirely of glycerol nucleic acid (GNA)a synthetic analog of DNA. ... blocks used to make molecules like proteins and nucleic acids that do not exist in nature. When it came ... new material in hand, which Chaput dubs unnatural nucleic acid nanostructures, the group hopes to explore ...

Iowa State chemist synthesizes carbohydrates, launches startup company

... studies of DNA. The ability to synthesize custom strands of proteins and nucleic acid for lab research has advanced and accelerated DNA studies. ... "These are the types of experiments biologists now take for granted with nucleic acids and proteins." Pohl said there's enough demand for custom-order ...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... genome sequences using a reduced, two-letter alphabet - R for the purine nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, and Y for the pyrimidine nucleic acids, thymine and cytosine - to reduce the complexity of calculation. ...

A simple fusion to jump-start evolution

... length. RNA, the single-stranded precursor to DNA, normally expands one nucleic base at a time, growing sequentially like a linked chain. The problem is ... be so slow the RNA could never get more than a few pieces long (for as nucleic bases attach to one end, they can also drop off the other). Ernesto Di ...

Do 68 molecules hold the key to understanding disease?

... are used to construct these four fundamental components of cells: the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), proteins, glycans and lipids. His work, which ... that are used to make proteins and the eight nucleosides that compose the nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. "These 68 building blocks provide the structural ...

Stanford researchers make first direct observation of 3-D molecule folding in real time

... of a strand of DNA. It reads a pattern in the building blocks of DNA, nucleic acids whose names are abbreviated A, C, G and T, and it makes RNA with a ... Block's team studied grabbed onto a molecule called adenine, the nucleic acid dubbed "A." Whenever the riboswitch gripped a free-floating adenine, ...

CU-Boulder technology used to identify unexpected bacteria in cystic fibrosis patients

... therapies. Instead of standard culturing techniques, researchers used nucleic acid gene sequencing to rapidly detect, identify and classify pathogens ... Pace said the molecular method involves isolating and amplifying bacterial nucleic acid samples from the lung fluids, then sequencing them to census ...

The key to unlocking the secret of highly specific DNAzyme catalysis

... With only four nucleotides as building blocks, versus 20 in proteins, nucleic acid enzymes may need to recruit cofactors (helper molecules) to perform some functions. Metal ions are a natural choice, and indeed most nucleic acid enzymes require metal ions for function under physiological ...

How did chemical constituents essential to life arise on primitive Earth?

... paper, and Katayoun Najafian, his former student from Iran. DNA is the nucleic acid blueprint of life that is passed on from generation to generation. ... trigger similar investigations of the abiotic formation of the remaining nucleic acid bases as well as other biologically relevant molecules. ...

Bits of 'junk' RNA aid master tumor-suppressor gene

... miRNAs, there is optimism that it may be possible to deliver modified nucleic acids that might mimic the effect of the miRNAs, he says. If modified nucleic acids were to prove effective in more laboratory studies, he adds, they ...

Parasites ready to jump

... DNA sequences present in high copy numbers inside the cell, even if they have not integrated into the genome. Small molecules of RNA (a class of nucleic acid closely related to the genetic material DNA) play the central role. "Transposons are genomic parasites, so to speak", says Frstemann. "If they ...

K-State researcher, collaborators study virulence of pandemic H1N1 virus

... if H1N1 were to spread to swine populations. Richt said they are developing diagnostic tools for the direct detection of the virus by finding nucleic acids or other parts of the virus in a sample, as well as tools for indirect detection. The latter approach is done by creating diagnostics that ...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

... pulses is the ability to solve the structure of the complicated molecules from which our bodies are made. All living things are made of proteins and nucleic acids, but relatively few of the atomic structures of the thousands, perhaps millions, of varieties of proteins are known. The Linac Coherent ...

Baylor researchers unravel mystery of DNA conformation

... from Baylor College of Medicine ( www.bcm.edu ) and the University of Houston ( www.uh.edu ) note in a report that appears online in the journal nucleic Acids Research , DNA is not a stiff or static. It is dynamic with high energy. It exists naturally in a slightly underwound state and its status ...

Spontaneous assembly

... Shroff, Gavin Crooks, Ned Wingreen and Eric Betzig. Key to a cell's survival is the manner in which its critical components proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, etc. - are arranged. For cells to thrive, the organization of these components must be optimized for their respective activities and also ...

A tiny frozen microbe may hold clues to extraterrestrial life

... are the best analogues of possible extraterrestrial habitats", said Dr Loveland-Curtze, "The exceptionally low temperatures can preserve cells and nucleic acids for even millions of years. H. glaciei is one of just a handful of officially described ultra-small species and the only one so far from the ...

Molecules that orchestrate the processes of life

... journey into the sub-microscopic world of molecular machines. Readers are introduced to the types of molecules within the cell, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides. Then, in a series of full-color illustrations, which show a portion of a living cell magnified 1,000,000 times, ...

Open access advocate Philip E. Bourne to receive 2009 Benjamin Franklin Award

... As associate director, Bourne helped the PDB the single worldwide, open-access repository for three-dimensional structures of large molecules and nucleic acids reach more than 170,000 unique users per month, with more than 57,000 molecule structures archived to date. The RCSB PDB is jointly managed ...

Basic guides to PCR, labeling neurons featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols

... From molecular biology researchers to law enforcement forensics laboratories, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the commonly used method for nucleic acid amplification. But PCR is often difficult to optimize, and failure to do so can lead to undefined and unwanted products, or a complete lack of ...

New data suggest 'jumping genes' play a significant role in gene regulatory networks

... exons and structural RNA genes stand out because of their distinctive pattern of base substitutions and "indels"--the insertions and deletions of nucleic acid bases that can change the message in a genome. According to Haussler, however, most of the DNA under negative selection in vertebrate genomes ...

Researchers 'unzip' molecules to measure interactions keeping DNA packed in cells

... Hall and John Lis, the Barbara McClintock Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics. DNA the molecules that contain genetic information are nucleic acids often illustrated as long, thin strands of double helices. DNA fits inside cell nuclei by being wound like thread around proteins called ...

'Fishy' clue helps establish how proteins evolve

... code was deciphered four decades ago, scientists believed that there were no more than 20 amino acid "letters" that universally meshed with the nucleic acid part of the protein code. But, like many alphabets, the language of proteins has letters with modifications like accent marks that modify ...

Jefferson scientists discover a key protein regulator of inflammation and cell death

... enable scientists to design novel therapeutics that modulate its activity," Dr. Alnemri said. "Such therapeutics may be useful for the treatment of nucleic aciddependent pathogenic and autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus," Dr. Alnemri said. ...

Human genomics in China

... "culture revolution" in the 1960-1970s. Fortunately, in this difficult period, with the cooperation of Chinese biologists and chemists, protein and nucleic acid chemistry gained a rapid development. The chemical synthesis and 3D structure determination of bovine insulin and the chemical synthesis of ...

TGen, Scottsdale Healthcare, Mayo Clinic study new drug to stimulate immune system of cancer victims

... The innate arm senses infectious agents as they infect the body by recognizing structures they have in common, such as lipids, proteins, sugars, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). This is an initial rapid response, which is not precise but potent. -- The adaptive arm of the immune system is instructed by ...

Protein folding researcher David Baker to receive Sackler Prize in Biophysics

... University of California, San Francisco. The field for this year's prize was the physics of structure formation and self-assembly of proteins and nucleic acids. The award will be presented to the three scientists Dec. 15 at Israel's Tel Aviv University. The prize was established by arts and sciences ...

Complex systems and Mars missions help understand how life began

... Complex systems chemistry uses computer models to simulate combinations of reactions, involving membrane forming reactions, self-replicating nucleic acids and metabolic energy-producing reactions. Then it examines how these systems develop in time and space. Breaking the symmetry One promising ...

European researchers harness unique properties of boron to develop new drugs and diagnostics

... be soluble in water. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions also affect how a molecule makes contact and communication with target proteins and nucleic acids. The fact that novel boron compounds will be unfamiliar to life has potential advantages for antibiotic drugs, since pathogens will be less ...

Innovations in Pediatric Medicine CME conference brings together national pediatrics experts

... of Metabolism Dr. Piero Rinaldo, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn. 8:45 9:15 a.m. Prenatal Pediatrics: How Analysis of Fetal nucleic Acids in Maternal Blood Provides Novel Opportunities to Improve Newborn Care Dr. Diana W. Bianchi, Tufts University School of Medicine and the ...

Landmark study opens door to new cancer, aging treatments

... Institute in 2006 and established his first laboratory. "I've always been interested in understanding, on a molecular level, the function of protein nucleic acid assemblies and using that information in the treatment of human disease," he says. "Telomerase, because of its important role in cancer and ...

NHGRI seeks DNA sequencing technologies fit for routine laboratory and medical use

... Florida $1.1 million (3 years) Near-Term Development of Reagents and Enzymes for Genome Sequencing This laboratory will apply innovative nucleic acid analogs and enzymes that accept them to stepwise diminish the cost of whole genome sequencing. These technologies, supported by bioinformatic ...

Scientists learn how food affects the brain

... the formation of free radicals. Moderate caloric restriction could protect the brain by reducing oxidative damage to cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, Gmez-Pinilla said. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative damage. Blueberries have been shown to have a strong antioxidant ...

Biosensor for measuring stress in cells

... oxygen molecules, including the notorious free radicals that are formed as a by-product of cellular respiration and attack cellular proteins, nucleic and fatty acids. Today, reactive oxygen molecules are no longer regarded by and large as culprits, since it has turned out that they are also ...

DNA fingerprinting simplified

... electrophoresis is a common forensic technique often used in genetic or DNA fingerprinting. The procedure is achieved by moving negatively charged nucleic acid molecules through a gelatinous substance known as agarose by using an electric field. Andrew, in collaboration with his father and other ...

Protein data bank archives 50,000th molecule structure

... petition circulated at a scientific meeting, the PDB is the single worldwide repository for the three-dimensional structures of large molecules and nucleic acids. This freely available online library allows biological researchers and students to study, store and share molecular information on a global ...

Biosensing nanodevice to revolutionize health screenings

... is novel because, unlike DNA, proteins can not be amplified artificially to improve the chances of detection. Rapid and sensitive biosensing of nucleic acids and proteins is vital for the identification of pathogenic agents of biomedical and bioterrorist importance, notes Frasch, who is also with the ...

Science and technology take center stage this election year

... FedEx. Albert Eschenmoser receives the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry for his lifetime of research into the structures of a cell's nucleic acids, leading to the understanding of why RNA and DNA have the structure they do. Beginning Tuesday, April 15th, students and adults, visitors and ...

Nanorings

... The programmable aggregation of molecular building blocks into structures with higher order plays a key role in the construction of nanomaterials. nucleic acids are interesting building block candidates, being easy to synthesize and exhibiting unique molecular recognition characteristics. The difficulty ...

Herpes virus link to complications in pregnancy

... associated with pregnancy-induced hypertensive disease (pre-eclampsia) and also with pre-term birth. The research discovered the presence of viral nucleic acid in heel-prick blood samples from 1326 newborn babies, taken over a 10-year period. More than 400 of these babies were diagnosed with cerebral ...
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