22nd Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Sept. 12-16, 2009, Turkey
... and neuromodulators. Disturbances in neurotransmitter
function are seen as the main cause of mental and ... specially tailored therapies to influence various neurotransmitter
systems. The discovery of specific receptors in ... drugs, which act on specific receptors within a neurotransmitter
system. The pharmacological progress achieved in ...
Streamlining brain signals for speed and efficacy
... the brain's chemical messengers. These neurotransmitter
molecules then travel across the space between ... and both the probability and the extent of neurotransmitter
release as well as the efficacy of the ... the sensory neuron was firing, the same amount of neurotransmitter
was released. And instead of vacillating, the ...
Overexcited neurons not good for cell health
... in a transcription factor that controls a neurotransmitter
in the nematode C. elegans causes an imbalance in ... neurons, one that caused the reduction of the neurotransmitter
GABA, which inhibits neuronal firing, and one that increases the action of a neurotransmitter
called acetylcholine, which stimulates neuronal ...
Biocapture surfaces produced for study of brain chemistry
... SAM. Finally, a small molecule, in this case the neurotransmitter
serotonin, is chemically linked to the tether ... or removed for characterization. "The tethered neurotransmitter
acts like a fishing pole," says Andrews. "When ... of investigations in biological systems. "Each neurotransmitter
can bind to a number of different receptors in ...
Genetic marker linked to problem behaviors in adults with developmental disabilities
... monoamine oxidize A or MAOA. MAOA is involved in the regulation of the neurotransmitter
serotonin, which is linked to appetite and mood, and the neurotransmitter
and hormone norepinephrine, which is linked to the fight-or-flight ...
Caltech scientists engineer supersensitive receptor, gain better understanding of dopamine system
... modifying a receptor found on the neurons that produce the neurotransmitter
dopamine has given California Institute of Technology (Caltech) ...
The receptor in question is found primarily on neurons that produce the neurotransmitter
dopamine. When the receptor is kicked into action by the presence of ...
Stabilizing force for good communication between neurons and muscle cells found
... receptors have to be concentrated at the right spot to receive the neurotransmitter
released," says Dr. Mei. If receptors are in the wrong place, the message ... juncture, communication is usually straightforward, with primarily one neurotransmitter
and one principal receptor. "Whenever you tell a muscle to move, it moves. ...
Penn biophysicists create new model for protein-cholesterol interactions in brain and muscle tissue
... of proteins to clarify the mysterious interaction between cholesterol and neurotransmitter
receptors. The results provide a new model of behavior for the nicotinic ... receptor, an ion channel found in both brain and muscle cells. The neurotransmitter
acetylcholine, released by upstream nerve cells, binds to portions of the ...
Obesity predisposition traced to the brain's reward system
... system is a system of neurons in the brain that secretes dopamine, a neurotransmitter
or chemical messenger, which mediates emotion and pleasure. The release of the neurotransmitter
dopamine in the mesolimbic system is traditionally associated with ...
N.Y. research team discovers how antidepressants and cocaine interact with brain cell targets
... of Nature Neuroscience , pinpoints where the drug molecules bind in the neurotransmitter
transporter -- their target in the human nervous system.
"These ... crystal structure of a bacterial transporter that is very similar to human neurotransmitter
transporters. They performed computer simulations to reveal the path of ...
Researchers uncover mechanism of action of antibiotic able to reduce neuronal cell death in brain
... Research Highlights:
Mechanism of action of compound found to induce neurotransmitter
activity in brain cells
The findings may lead researchers to develop ... have discovered how an antibiotic works to modulate the activity of a neurotransmitter
that regulates brain functions, which eventually could lead to therapies ...
Insulin's brain impact links drugs and diabetes
... as well as related medications for ADHD, block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter
dopamine by dopamine transporters (DATs) and increase the level of ... that there is likely a strong interplay between these important dopamine neurotransmitter
systems and insulin signaling mechanisms, which we know are altered in ...
Short stressful events may improve working memory
... cortex, a key region that controls learning and emotion.
Specifically, they demonstrated that acute stress increases transmission of the neurotransmitter
glutamate and improves working memory.
"Stress hormones have both protective and damaging effects on the body," said Zhen Yan, professor of ...
Promising new treatment for Alzheimer's suggested based on Hebrew University research
... be more protected from the devastating effects of the disease, since the mutated protein (the enzyme that is the product of the gene) breaks down the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine at a slower rate than in those who have the normal gene. The result is that the carriers maintain higher levels of this ...
Nematode courting caught on camera
... journal BMC Biology , Allyson Whittaker and Paul Sternberg from the California Institute of Technology investigated the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter
acetylcholine in regulating tail muscles to achieve an exploratory embrace.
The video shows an intimate moment between two nematodes of the ...
Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target
In 2000, the researchers showed the pair also are at excitatory synapses, communication points between neurons where the neurotransmitter
glutamate excites cells to action. Here, neuregulin-1 and ErbB4 suppress excitation.
These findings have implications for conditions such as ...
Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases
In many neurodegenerative diseases, a main factor that kills neurons is excessive levels of glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter
in many regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Diseases that occur as a result of high glutamate levels include hypoxicischemic brain injury ...
Penn researchers demonstrate a new model for drug discovery with a fluorescent anesthetic
... pharmacology, neurobiology and animal physiology."
According to the study, 1-AMA increases the transmission potential of the body's main neurotransmitter
inhibitor, GABA. The compound also gives an appropriate dissociation constant, Kd 0.1 mM, for binding to the general anesthetic site in horse spleen ...
Research uncovers promising target to treat chronic abdominal pain
... transporter 2, decreased what is called visceral pain, or pain from internal organs, in mice.
The protein acts on glutamate, an amino acid and neurotransmitter
that sends signals to the brain that produce pain. The researchers found that a high level of EAAT2 appears to force glutamate into cells, preventing ...
Researchers iron out new role for serotonin
... Vanderbilt University Medical Center investigators have found a surprising link between brain iron levels and serotonin, a neurotransmitter
involved in neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from autism to major depression.
Appearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Protein that regulates hormones critical to women's health found in pituitary
... showed conclusively that, like other members of the synaptotagmin family, Syt IV resides on vesicles. But unlike the others, Syt IV doesn't trigger neurotransmitter
or hormone release.
"It does not simply translate a calcium signal into a command for hormone release," says Jackson. "Unlike other ...
Genetic variation may lead to early cardiovascular disease
... of early-onset CAD and identified it as the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene. NPY is one of the most plentiful and important proteins in the body and is a neurotransmitter
related to the control of appetite and feeding behavior, among other functions.
The current research, led by Svati Shah and Elizabeth Hauser, ...
Rice University study finds possible clues to epilepsy, autism
... of the Drosophila, aka the fruit fly, Rice doctoral student Eric Howlett discovered an unanticipated connection between glutamate an amino acid and neurotransmitter
in much of the food we eat and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), an enzyme that, Howlett found, regulates the activity of neurons.
Howlett and ...
Ultrasound shown to exert remote control of brain circuits
... (LILFU) increased the activity of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels in a manner sufficient to trigger action potentials and the release of neurotransmitter
from synapses. Since these processes are fundamental to the transfer of information among neurons, the authors pose that this type of ultrasound ...
Swamping bad cells with good in ALS animal models helps sustain breathing
... (GRPs), address a well-known flaw in people with ALS and in its animal models. Both humans and models are stunted in their ability to clear away the neurotransmitter
glutamate. And excess glutamate - common in ALS - overstimulates the motor neurons that spark muscle movement, causing death. The event, called ...
Brain-nourishing molecule may predict schizophrenia relapse
... neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. He's shown the downstream signaling of BDNF, a key pathway in the regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter
GABA, is not working well in these animals. "Now we are going to see how we can rectify the problem," says Dr. Pillai who wants to keep BDNF levels ...
Astrocytes and synaptic plasticity
... to be unimportant in neuronal transmission, have recently been implicated in long-term modulation of neuronal synapses. For example, they release the neurotransmitter
glutamate into the synapse prompting LTP. By specifically mopping up pro-BDNF, astrocytes seem to have another means to assist in LTP. However, while ...
NIEHS invests $21.25 million to find environmental causes of Parkinson's disease
... Ph.D., Emory University, Atlanta
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposure, mitochondrial damage, and altered storage of the neurotransmitter
dopamine. Dr. Miller and his team will be looking at how environmental and genetic factors interact to alter these functions in dopamine neurons. ...
American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Sept. 10, 2008
... of symptoms. The article describes animal and human trials of several potential new drugs that focus on new disease targets, including the glutamate neurotransmitter
system, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and a signaling pathway mediated by cyclic nucleotides.
These substances appear to help relieve a ...
INCF organizes the first congress dedicated to the emerging field of neuroinformatics
... disciplines contributing to neuroinformatics.
Until recently, datasets revealing such details as gene expression, electrophysiological properties, neurotransmitter
activity and receptor distribution, have been far too vast for standard data processing approaches. In the new neuroinformatics field, ...
Researchers block damage to fetal brain following maternal alcohol consumption
... growing body of work
This study complements work by other researchers who have found success with supplements such as choline, a precursor for the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine. These supplements may work on the same mechanism that Dr. Cudd's lab has been researching.
Genes may make some people more prone to anxiety
... published by the American Psychological Association.
By showing that people who carry a common variation of a gene that regulates the neurotransmitter
dopamine have an exaggerated "startle" reflex when viewing unpleasant pictures, the researchers offer a biochemical explanation for why some people ...
Likely cause of postpartum blues and depression identified
... School of Medicine.
That controlled exchange between the blood of mother and fetus is courtesy of the placenta regulating levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter
commonly associated with depression. But platelets that enable blood clotting also secrete serotonin which prompts platelets to aggregate and the ...
Compound that helps rice grow reduces nerve, vascular damage from diabetes
... lipid helped protect the nerve membrane and increase activity of HTase and the good cholesterol. Germination also is known to increase levels of the neurotransmitter
GABA, which is believed to have many beneficial health effects such as lowering blood pressure, improving cognition and lowering blood glucose ....
Weill Cornell science briefs June/July 2008
But now, scientists believe that a drug called reboxetine may alleviate their symptoms. The compound works by boosting the level of the neurotransmitter
norepinephrine between nerve cells. But it also works by inhibiting the neurotransmitter's degradation within the nerve, where it is stored within ...
A baby's smile is a natural high
... of the brain associated with reward lit up during the scans.
The areas stimulated by the sight of their own babies were those associated with the neurotransmitter
dopamine. Specifically, the areas associated included the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra regions, the striatum, and frontal lobe regions ...
UCLA researchers clarify function of glucose transport molecule
... made during the determination of the glucose transporter structure was the possibility for structural similarities with a previously crystallized neurotransmitter
transporter molecule. Exploiting these similarities, along with computer modeling of structural dynamics, the researchers obtained the first ...
Treating chronic pain, migraine & muscle spasticity through inhibition of neurotransmitter glutamate
... bring together industry experts to discuss the opportunity of treating chronic pain, migraine and muscle spasticity through the inhibition of the neurotransmitter
The company's President and Chief Executive Officer, Neil Kurtz, M.D., will moderate a discussion following brief presentations by:
Study of marine snail leads to new insights into long-term memory
... memory, in the snail and in our brains, synaptic connections become stronger.
Scientists had thought that during learning in snails, the neurotransmitter
serotonin binds to receptors on the presynaptic axon and, through a complicated process, causes the growth of new presynaptic axons. In Current ...
UT Southwestern researchers create molecule that nudges nerve stem cells to mature
... nerve cells at a rate of thousands a day, Dr. Hsieh said.
Scientists know that when a mature nerve cell sends a chemical signal called a neurotransmitter
to a stem cell, the immature cell begins to mature, but they don't know what biochemical pathways or genes are involved, Dr. Hsieh said.
"The big ...