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Neurons in Biological News

UT San Antonio researcher wins $917,000 from NIH to study memory

... hippocampus makes six to nine thousand new neurons in the dentate gyrus, the portion of the brain ... or autobiographical, memory. But how do those neurons store information? And, more importantly, how do ... We believe the continual generation of new neurons in both rats and humans serve as a temporal ...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

... to the construction of a working synapse, locking neurons together like "molecular Velcro," a study lead by ... images that are the first to show two neurons coming together using neuroligin to construct a ... To view the process, the researchers cultured neurons taken from newly born rats and flourescently ...

Huntington's disease deciphered

... enzyme, called JNK3, which is expressed only in neurons and, further, to show what effect activation of ... that is affected is the nervous system. Why are neurons being affected? Brady, Gerardo Morfini, ... cells. In addition to the challenge of distance, neurons are very complex cells with many specialized ...

Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits

... across the hippocampus, timing the firing of neurons like a sort of central pacemaker. A new study ... memories of experiences. In the rat, hippocampal neurons also function as "place cells," only firing when ... environment. They watched howand whenthe rat's neurons fired relative to the rat's position and to the ...

Capturing the birth of a synapse

... identified the locking mechanism that allows some neurons to form synapses to pass along essential ... captured with fluorescent imaging of excitatory neurons harvested from rat pups shortly after birth and ... neuroligin proteins on the membranes of receptor neurons as "molecular Velcro." The research team of ...

Investigating the development of mechanosensitivity

... By measuring electrical impulses in the sensory neurons of mice, the neurobiologists and pain researchers ... At the same time they were able to show that neurons develop their sensitivity to touch and pain ... ganglia between the intervertebral discs. The neurons receive the stimulus and convert it into ...

Cell's split personality is a major discovery into neurological diseases

... play an active and major role in the death of neurons in the eye. The findings, published this week in ... diseases, a main factor that kills neurons is excessive levels of glutamate, the most ... binds to and activates the glutamate receptors on neurons triggering massive calcium entry and cell death. ...

Lithium may help radiation target cancer, spare healthy tissue

... lithium treatment protects cultured hippocampal neurons from radiation-induced cell death and improves ... DNA repair in lithium-treated mouse hippocampal neurons exposed to radiation. They found that lithium ... suggest that lithium protects healthy hippocampal neurons by promoting NHEJ-mediated DNA repair but that ...

Brain protein central to both Parkinson's, drug addiction identified

... by scientists focused more on cells known as neurons that send electrical signals. Astrocytes' role in ... or genetically removed oct3 in mice, the dopamine neurons in the brains did not die despite the presence of ... oct3 was present in the usual amounts, dopamine neurons died as expected. ...

MIT: Making waves in the brain

... idea was not possible." To determine which neurons are responsible for driving the oscillations, the ... channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), which can sensitize neurons to light. "By combining several genetic tricks, ... at low frequencies, or when a different class of neurons was activated. The authors further showed ...

New findings in taste and smell

... Threshold Differentiation and migration of neurons derived from the olfactory placode Odor ... Taste responsive multipolar and elongated neurons in hamster nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) ... nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory sensory neurons mediate axon targeting and glomerular formation ...

Translating the conversation between the brain and blood vessels

... laboratory will: Test the hypothesis that neurons that inhibit sympathetic activity lose their ability to do so. This may allow the neurons that stimulate sympathetic activity to get the ... to hypertension. Study how the brain stem neurons that regulate breathing ...

Jefferson researcher awarded Landenberger Foundation grant for ALS research

... cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from ... body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and ...

Alzheimer cell death in Zebrafish: Demise of neurons observed live for the first time

... characteristic symptoms such as the death of neurons the first directly observable instance in a ... can still not be defeated. Moreover, the death of neurons can only be truly confirmed after the death of ... dying cells, you can even directly watch the neurons as they die. That way, it should also be possible ...

Phasic firing of dopamine neurons is key to brain's prediction of rewards

... to study the firing patterns of midbrain dopamine neurons in mice during reward-based learning. "Our ... the bursting activity of midbrain dopamine neurons and behavior. The research has significant ... the improvement of health, because the dopamine neurons we are studying are the ...

The secret to chimp strength

... neurons, Walker proposes. And having more motor neurons means more muscle control. Our surplus motor neurons allow us to engage smaller portions of our ... his hypothesis that humans have more motor neurons would be fairly straightforward. However, he ...

ORNL, St. Jude track neurons to predict and prevent disease

... of tracking changes in the shape and position of neurons over time. One of Gleason's group members, ... has written software to track the movement of neurons by homing in on each cell's centrosomea key ... focused on automatically detecting when and how neurons branch or grow. Branching patterns and branch ...

Brain building: Study shows brain growth tied to cell division in mouse embryos

... brain development. In the cerebral cortex, neurons are born from a pool of progenitor cells, and the ... mouse embryos had large numbers of early-born neurons and few remaining progenitor cells. This hinted that Vangl2-lacking neurons were differentiating prematurelya suspicion ...

Tiny but toxic: MBL researchers discover a mechanism of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease

... his colleagues found that these particles inhibit neurons from communicating with each other and with other ... are associated not with the death of the neurons that is a very late event but with the loss of ... are sufficient to cause the 'dying back' of neurons that is characteristic of these diseases." The ...

UCLA stem cells scientists make electrically active motor neurons from iPS cells

... disorders. Additionally, the motor neurons derived from the iPS cells appeared to be similar ... information by electrochemical signaling. Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord ... the feasibility of using iPS-derived motor neurons and their progenitors to replace damaged or dead ...

Researchers generate functional neurons from somatic cells

... were able to generate functionally mature motor neurons from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which ... other cell types. A potential new source of motor neurons that does not require human eggs or embryos could ... of the electrical activity of iPS-derived neurons and further suggest the feasibility of using ...

Case Western Reserve researchers develop 'wireless' activation of brain circuits

... as tiny solar cells, the scientists can excite neurons in single cells or groups of cells with infrared ... are many different things you'd want to stimulate neurons for-injury, severed or damaged nerve to restore ... The researchers' paper, "Wireless Activation of neurons in Brain Slices Using Nanostructured ...

Rett Syndrome Research Trust advisor makes significant discovery

... growth of neighboring neurons. Remarkably, these neurons can recover when exposed to normal glia in ... in the brain. Glia support and interact with neurons in innumerable ways, from providing the ... the entire neighborhood of neurons, including neurons with wildtype (normal) MECP2. Conversely, ...

Neural mapping paints a haphazard picture of odor receptors

... odors. The crazy-quilt map of odor-processing neurons on the front lines of the olfactory system is ... and even across the two species, bundles of neurons from a given type of odor receptor -- known as ... is necessary because the connections between neurons occupy most of the volume available to the brain, ...

What happens when we sleep

... (neurons), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons and orexin (Orx) neurons, which occupy the same ... The MNI study is the first to discover that MCH neurons are activated during sleep and could thus be ... of the LH. Previous studies have shown that Orx neurons are essential for maintenance of the awake state. ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

... "Understanding why distinct neurons are selectively vulnerable to neurodegeneration ... railroad system. Because, for the most part, neurons do not regenerate or divide as do other cells in ... who died from the disease had substantial loss of neurons in the midbrain area known as the substantia ...

Patient-derived induced stem cells retain disease traits

... MADISON When neurons started dying in Clive Svendsen's lab dishes, he ... are affected in SMA. Initially, the motor neurons thrived in both samples. But after about a ... started happening," Svendsen says, and the motor neurons from the patient-derived cells began to ....

How mirror neurons allow us to learn and socialize by going through the motions in the head

... and possibly other higher animals have mirror neurons that fire in the same pattern whether performing or just observing a task. These mirror neurons clearly play an important role in learning motor ... goes wrong. This emerging field of mirror neurons in social cognition was discussed at a recent ...

Shared survival mechanism explains why 'good' nerve cells last and 'bad' cancer cells flourish

... CHAPEL HILL Cancer cells and nervous system neurons may not look or act alike, but both use ... Nature Cell Biology is the first to describe how neurons (nerve cells) and cancer cells achieve the common ... systems and proliferate uncontrollably." Both neurons and cancer cells do have something in common: ...

Rice University study finds possible clues to epilepsy, autism

... saw was that the overexpression of PI3K in motor neurons had a dramatic effect. "I noticed under the scope ... onto metabotropic glutamate receptors on the same neurons that released it in the first place. This leads ... Discovering the negative feedback loop that keeps neurons stable was key, said Stern, but not the end of ...

Sniffing out a better chemical sensor

... the air enter the nostrils and bind with sensory neurons in the nose that convert the chemical ... In humans, there are about 350 types of sensory neurons and many copies of each type; dogs and mice have several hundreds more types of sensory neurons than that. Odor recognition proceeds in a ...

Ultrasound shown to exert remote control of brain circuits

... as nerve and/or muscle, but detailed studies in neurons at the cellular level have been lacking." "We ... can stimulate the electrical activity of neurons by optically monitoring the activity of neuronal ... could produce an increase in the activity of neurons while higher power levels produced very little ...

How we see objects in depth: The brain's code for 3-D structure

... something like a structural drawing. Individual neurons are tuned to respond to surface fragment ... an upward-facing concavity near the top. Multiple neurons with different tuning sensitivities could combine ... recorded electrical responses of individual neurons in higher-level visual regions of the brain. A ...

Deprived of a sense of smell, worms live longer

... . "We've learned that the drugs inhibit neurons in the worm's head that sense chemicals in their surroundings the neurons are like the worm's nose," says Kornfeld, ... mutations inhibit the activity of some sensory neurons in the worm, and that helped the researchers ...

Parkinson's Disease Foundation announces award of $150,000

... type of cell in the body, including dopamine neurons the very cells that are damaged in the brains of ... and her colleagues will insert the dopamine neurons produced by Dr. Zhang's team into the brains of ... were originally taken will replace the dopamine neurons missing and damaged by Parkinson's disease. Dr. ...

Streamlining brain signals for speed and efficacy

... in a linear fashion no matter how fast the neurons are firing. "Most of what we know about signal transmission between neurons comes from studying special cortical or ... such as balance and breathing, are controlled by neurons in the brain stem, which, as we discovered, work ...

Swamping bad cells with good in ALS animal models helps sustain breathing

... the most benefit. Forty-seven percent more motor neurons survived there than in untreated model animals. ... team. "We intentionally targeted the motor neurons in this region," he says, "since we knew that, as ... - common in ALS - overstimulates the motor neurons that spark muscle movement, causing death. The ...

Caltech scientists engineer supersensitive receptor, gain better understanding of dopamine system

... modifying a receptor found on the neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine has ... The receptor in question is found primarily on neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. When ... its biochemical lock--the receptor prompts the neurons on which it sits to begin pumping out dopamine. ...

Astrocytes and synaptic plasticity

... neurons' ability to communicate with one another. neurons that have undergone LTP display a stronger ... response to the same level of a stimulus, whereas neurons that have gone through LTD display a weaker ... LTD, and in its mature form it prompts LTP. neurons were thought to secrete pro-BDNF, which then ...

UCR researchers propose minocycline as a promising drug for patients with Fragile X syndrome

... test minocycline in patients with Fragile X. neurons in the brain communicate with each other at ... mature and make more efficient contacts between neurons in the brain. The outcome: corrected brain ... X research, they have helped us to understand why neurons are malformed in this disorder, and more ...
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