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Nerves in Biological News

Researchers design first model motor nerve system that's insulated and organized like the human body

... Florida (UCF) report on the first lab-grown motor nerves that are insulated and organized just like they ... model nodes of Ranvier formation on motor nerves in a defined serum-free culture system. ... travel through myelinated and unmyelinated nerves to reveal ...

Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target

... system falls apart. Eventually raw, over-exposed nerves can die. "Receptors for neuregulin 1 just get ... with breast and prostate cancers. For nerves to communicate with each other or another cell ... legs to walk need a lot of insulation. Sensory nerves such as those on the fingertips that prompt ...

Signals from stroking have direct route to brain

... nerve fibres in the skin are called CT nerves (C-tactile) and they travel directly to the areas ... "As the nerve signals that were sent in the CT nerves became more frequent, the subjects reported the ... as being increasingly pleasant. Of the skin nerves that we studied, it was only the ...

Motor nerve targeting to limb muscles is controlled by ephrin proteins

... Dr. Kania, "we study a simple system in which nerves extend from the spinal cord to the limb to ... muscle)." Previously, the researchers found that nerves connecting to extensor muscles were guided ... the team of scientists now discovered that nerves connecting to the antagonist muscle group, the ...

Prostate cancer spurs new nerves

... perhaps other cancers promotes the growth of new nerves and the branching axons that carry their ... other ailments. They calculated the density of nerves in human prostate tissues, including those with ... and enable scientists to see the growth of nerves and axons in three-dimensions, a computerized ...

Diabetes researcher gets $5M boost

... progress of diabetic neuropathy by looking at the nerves in the cornea, at the front of the eye. ... and leg. Professor Efron has found that the nerves affected by neuropathy are an exact match to nerves found in front of the eye, and this study will ...

The pepperoni pizza hypothesis

... is caused by the wiring of pelvic organ nerves. nerves from this region -- the bladder, colon and ... People with interstitial cystitis have bladder nerves that are constantly transmitting pain signals to ... by pepperoni pizza or another type of food, colon nerves also send a pain signal to the same area on the ...

NJIT biomedical engineer receives NSF Career Development Award

... embryo into early adulthood. By studying how nerves grow through the stretching technique, he hopes ... an organism's development. As animals grow, nerves that initially span a very short distance ... per day at peak growth. Naturally, the nerves are forced to rapidly expand as well." He added ...

Engineer develops detergent to promote peripheral nerve healing

... received AVANCE grafts, all involving peripheral nerves which transmit sensory information between the ... but it also has been used to treat cavernous nerves after the removal of the prostate. The AVANCE ... has treated wounded soldiers and can treat the nerves in hands, arms, legs and the face. Traditional ...

Mutation may cause inherited neuropathy

... Peripheral neuropathy results from damage to the nerves and nerve processes that are located outside the ... in the feet and legs. In CMT, both the sensory nerves that carry signals from receptors in the extremities to the brain and spinal cord, as well as motor nerves that relay signals from the brain and spinal cord ...

Thinking makes it so: Science extends reach of prosthetic arms

... University College Dublin, Ireland. Redirects nerves Kuiken first got the idea for TMR when he was ... the 1980s. In his first patient, Kuiken took four nerves that had gone to the amputated arm and redirected ... from the electrical signals produced by the nerves and chest muscles and harness it to provide a ...

St. Jude identifies the specific cell that causes eye cancer, disproving long-held theory

... that retinoblastoma can arise from fully matured nerves in the retina called horizontal interneurons. ... scientific principle that fully formed, mature nerves cannot multiply like young, immature cells, Dyer ... Alzheimers disease can occur when differentiated nerves in the brain try to multiply, and in the process, ...

Spun-sugar fibers spawn sweet technique for nerve repair

... of tiny synthetic tubes that might serve as conduits to regenerate nerves severed in accidents or blood vessels damaged by disease. The sugar ... The researchers are initially concentrating on the peripheral nerves found in the limbs and throughout the body because nerve regeneration is ...

UC Davis team refines cancer treatments to reduce potential nerve damage

... about inadvertent exposures during head and neck cancer treatments to nerves responsible for upper body mobility. To reduce the possibility of ... alternate brachial plexus pathways. For some people, for instance, these nerves begin at a slightly lower or higher point in the neck. "Not all ...

Rice University study finds possible clues to epilepsy, autism

... and other neurological disorders. While studying the peripheral nerves of the Drosophila, aka the fruit fly, Rice doctoral student Eric Howlett ... motor neurons had a dramatic effect. "I noticed under the scope that these nerves were really big, and electrophysiologically, they were really slow. That ...

Male cyclists risk sexual problems if they don’t choose the right bike

... he explains. "It makes contact just behind the scrotum where the nerves and blood vessels enter the back of the scrotum and penis. "This area ... saddle can impair the blood supply to this area and put pressure on the nerves in the penis" says Mr Nargund. "This can also affect the man's ability to ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- July 2, 2008

... the effects of healthful plant nutrients called polyphenols in protecting nerves from damage, it would be "unwise" to assume that the same protective ... foods. They found abundant evidence that polyphenols do, indeed, protect nerves from the kind of damage that occurs in AD and other chronic brain ...

Too hot to handle! Scientists identify heat sensing regulator

... by TRPV1 in single nerve cells with or without Pirt. They exposed some nerves to noxious heat-108 degrees Fahrenheit-and some nerves to capsaicin and compared currents generated in each cell. Cells ...

Surgery without stitches

... about early test results. Surgilux is well suited to repairing damaged nerves because the gold standard -- sutures inevitably cause damage to nerves and there is always some permanent loss of function. Our test results ...

Rutgers scientist's research reveals critical knowledge about the nervous system

... communication links involved in myelination, the process of protecting a nerves axon, and it may become possible to reverse the breakdown of the nervous ... them in myelin. Axons are the long fibrous part of neurons that carry the nerves electrical signals. A fatty substance, myelin covers those axons both to ...

Neuropathic pain: The sea provides a new hope of relief

... cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, that surround the nerve cells. These activated cells release compounds called cytokines that can excite nerves carrying pain sensation (nociceptive pathways) and cause the person to experience mildly uncomfortable stimuli as very painful (hyperalgesia), or ...

Scripps Research scientists observe human neurodegenerative disorder in fruit flies

... most common inherited neurological disorders in the United States today. When people have this disease, some lose the protective covering on their nerves called myelin. This causes a host of problems that usually emerge in early adulthood, including loss of muscle mass, pain and sensitivity, foot ...

Peripheral nerve repair with fat precursor cells led to wider nerves and less muscle atrophy

... functional recovery, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh (USA) used biodegradable nerve guides to transplant APCs into the injured peripheral nerves of laboratory rats. "Adipose tissues, shown to be multipotent, have also been shown to be an abundant source of post-natal precursor cells that ...

Canadian synchrotron conference sheds light on new biomedical research

... Highlights include: Presentations by CLS users on using the synchrotron to study esophageal tumours, prion diseases such as BSE, watch nerves regenerate and treat tuberculosis Applications of synchrotron techniques to agricultural research, developing bioproducts and bioremediation ...

Brain-computer interface, developed at Brown, begins new clinical trial

... capabilities on a computer screen, controlling a prosthetic limb or a robotic arm, controlling functional electrical stimulation (FES) of nerves disconnected from the brain due to paralysis, and further expanding the neuroscience underlying the field of intracortical neurotechnology. The ...

Gene activity reveals dynamic stroma microenvironment in prostate cancer

... prostate gland react to prostate cancer, changes in the expression of genes occur that induce the formation of new structures such as blood vessels, nerves and parts of nerves, said researchers at Baylor College of Medicine in a report that appears in the current issue of the journal Clinical Cancer ...

Simple drug treatment may prevent nicotine-induced SIDS: Study

... level," says Colin Nurse, academic advisor on the study and a professor in the department of Biology. "We speculated that chemicals released from nerves might interact with adrenal cells and cause them to lose oxygen sensitivity. It turns out that nicotine mimics the effects of one of these chemicals, ...

Researcher garners major award from NIH for further exploration into the mechanisms of obesity

... sends information to the furnace or air conditioner to regulate temperature inside a house. Using viruses to trace communications in the nerves of Siberian hamsters, they found that the brain uses part of the nervous system used to regulate body functions, called the sympathetic nervous ...

Yale team identifies key to potential new treatment for allergy-induced asthma

... channel protein is a sensor for chemical irritants such as cigarette smoke and certain chemicals that also trigger asthma. TRPA1 is found in airway nerves that mediate pain and irritation and trigger coughing and sneezing. The researchers found that mice with no TRPA1 showed fewer signs of asthma. ...

Brain music

... is recorded and played back -- to an emergency responder, or a firefighter -- it may sharpen their reflexes during a crisis, and calm their nerves afterward. Over the past decade, the influence of music on cognitive development, learning, and emotional well-being has emerged as a hot field of ...

Risk of vibration-induced vascular injuries linked to vibration frequency differences

... little is known: the mechanisms of injury and the differences in response to frequency of vibration. The researchers used rats, since the tissues, nerves and arteries of rat-tails are similar to those in human fingers and the tails are known to respond to vibration in a way similar to that seen in ...

Male impotence drugs may deserve a second look in women

... numerous caverns enable it to be flaccid when not engorged with blood. Physical stimulation of the area causes the tissue, endothelial cells and nerves to release nitric oxide, a powerful dilator of blood vessels. The system works pretty much the same way in the vagina and clitoris. "If you have ...

Human ES cells progress slowly in myelin's direction

... transmission of nerve impulses. Its loss or damage has serious consequences, as is seen in the condition of multiple sclerosis, because without it nerves lose the ability to transmit impulses to each other and to function properly. Unlike human embryonic stem (ES) cells, it's relatively easy to ...

Bad mix of bacterial remnants and genetics leads to arthritis

... (arthritis caused by bacteria), uveitis (inflammation in the middle layer of the eye), skin rash and cranial neuropathy (a disorder affecting nerves that control sight, eye movement, hearing, and taste). "Now that we know that bacterial products can activate this NOD2 pathway and that this ...

ORNL, Southern Cal set sights on preventing blindness

... Blindness in millions of people with diseases that starve eye tissue and nerves of oxygen might be averted with a procedure being developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Southern California ...

Novel electric signals in plants

... proton pumps. "This is the reason why the "system potential" we measured cannot at all be compared to the classic action potential as present in nerves of animals and also in plants", says Hubert Felle from Gieen University. Action potentials follow all-or-none characteristics: they are activated if ...

Case Western Reserve researchers develop 'wireless' activation of brain circuits

... Traditionally, stimulating nerves or brain tissue involves cumbersome wiring and a sharp metal electrode. But a team of researchers at Case Western Reserve University is going ...

A revolutionary new model for Alzheimer's disease

... from the Buck Institute and the CNRS (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique) show that APP binds to netrin-1, a protein that helps to guide nerves and their connections in the brain, as well as helping nerve cells to survive. When netrin-1 was given to mice that have a gene for Alzheimer's ...

Childhood chicken pox could affect oral health years later

... all new cases of herpes zoster occur in individuals over the age of 60. "Herpes zoster manifests as painful blisters that erupt along the sensory nerves usually on one side of the body or face," according to co-author of the study, M.A. Pogrel, DDS, MD. "It can be a debilitating disease that can lead ...

Nicotine activates more than just the brain's pleasure pathways

... taste pathways activated by nicotine, and how these pathways are integrated in sensory areas of the brain." The peripheral nervous system refers to nerves that are outside of the brain and spinal cord. Using genetic engineering and measurements of nervous system activity in mice, the researchers ...
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