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Myelin in Biological News

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

... attack oligodendrocytes, ultimately damaging the myelin sheath to the point that the electrical signals ... recruit fresh, immature oligodendrocytes to the myelin sheath to repair the damage, for a time. This ... see if they could determine what was slowing down myelin repair. They lesioned a small region of white ...

One size does not fit all

... demonstrates that statin therapy in mice inhibits myelin repair or remyelination in the central nervous ... nervous system-accessible immune therapies on the myelin repair processes in patients with MS and other ... system (CNS), in which immune cells attack the myelin sheath (the protective insulation of nerve ...

Human ES cells progress slowly in myelin's direction

... which are responsible for making myelin in the central nervous system. myelin forms an insulating sheath that surrounds nerve ... precursor cells that may be used to repair lost myelin sheaths. These findings also raise awareness of ...

Claudin 11 stops the leaks in neuronal myelin sheaths

... protein called claudin 11 makes the neuronal myelin sheath a snug fit. The study will be published in ... Like the rubber coating on a copper wire, the myelin sheatha membrane extension of glial cells that ... junctions between successive spiral layers of the myelin sheath, but it was unknown whether it was ...

In the war against diseases, nerve cells need their armor

... Up until now, very little was known about myelin maintenance. This new information provides vital ... other progressive demyelinating diseases in which myelin is destroyed, causing irreversible damage and ... such a vital role in maintaining the structure of myelin in the adult nervous system," says Dr. Tim ...

Multiple sclerosis research charges ahead with new mouse model of disease

... (MS) is one of several diseases in which myelin the insulator for electrical signaling in the ... like the rubber insulation on an electrical cord, myelin surrounds long projections from the body of a ... the molecular factors and changes that lead to myelin breakdown. In a new study published in Disease ...

Resuscitation technique after brain injury may do more harm than good

... quickly and efficiently. Infants have much less myelin than adults; as myelin develops in children they become more coordinated. Areas of the brain with dense areas of myelin appear white, hence the term "white matter." ...

Turning back the clock for Schwann cells

... that might help researchers understand why myelin production falters in some diseases. Wrapped ... whether c-Jun is involved in illnesses where myelin dwindles, such as Charcot-Marie Tooth disease and ... sclerosis, in which immune attacks destroy myelin in the central nervous system. Unlike Schwann ...

Rutgers scientist's research reveals critical knowledge about the nervous system

... the nerves electrical signals. A fatty substance, myelin covers those axons both to protect them and to ... signals within the nervous system. Once that myelin is lost,the electrical signal breaks down and ... cells and tell them, You are going to become myelin cells and you are going to myelinate me, explains ...

Researchers design first model motor nerve system that's insulated and organized like the human body

... explained: "The nodes of Ranvier act like power station relays along the myelin sheath. They chemically boost signals, allowing them to get across breaks ... system to explore the origins of diabetic neuropathy. Once the causes of myelin degradation are identified, targets for new drug therapies can be tested ...

Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target

... MCG's Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics. Without erbin, the myelin production system falls apart. Eventually raw, over-exposed nerves can ... there but they can't do anything without the receptor." Impaired myelin formation and maintenance is implicated in a variety of neurological and ...

Genetic study shows direct link between vitamin D and MS susceptibility 'gene'

... which results from the loss of nerve fibres and their protective myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord, causing neurological damage. The ... these T cells, which then go on to attack the body, leading to a loss of myelin on the nerve fibres. "Our study implies that taking vitamin D ...

Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered

... into neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes have supportive functions in the environment of neurons, while oligodendrocytes form the myelin layer around axons in order to accelerate neuronal signal transmission. But how does a neural stem cell know" which way it is supposed to develop? On ...

American Chemical Society Weekly PressPac -- April 1, 2009

... medicines, making it easier for patients to take the medication over long periods of time. Most of the drugs ease the immune system damage to myelin or offer protection to already-damaged nerves. ARTICLE #5 EMBARGOED FOR 9 A.M., EASTERN TIME, April 6, 2009 "Hope in a pill" This story will ...

Researchers disprove 15-year-old theory about the nervous system

... study tried to understand that maturation process." The process of nerve cells maturation is called myelination. During myelination, a layer of myelin (electrically insulating material) wraps or forms around the axons (part of the nerve cell that conducts electrical impulses). Nerve impulses travel ...

Top biophysics award to Professor Ray Norton

... could assist in the treatment of multiple sclerosis one key characteristic of this disease being the errant immune system's destruction of the myelin sheath that protects nerve channels. In addition to honouring his pioneering research, the Bob Robertson Award acknowledges Professor Norton's ...

Multiple Sclerosis: new MRI contrast medium enables early diagnosis in animal model

... In Germany, ap-proximately 120,000 patients are afflicted. MS is characterized by multiple inflammatory le-sions in which nerve fibers lose their myelin sheath. These patches of demyelination cause neurological malfunctions that may regress upon remyelination. At later stages, MS may re-sult in a loss ...

Salk researchers reprogram adult stem cells in their natural environment

... such as multiple sclerosis." In patients with multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks oligodendrocytes, which leads to the thinning of the myelin layer affecting the neurons' ability to efficiently conduct electrical signals. Being able to direct neural stem cells to differentiate into ...

Promising new nanotechnology for spinal cord injury

... scar tissue, it also instructs the stem cells --which would normally form scar tissue -- to instead to produce a helpful new cell that makes myelin. myelin is a substance that sheaths the axons of the spinal cord to permit the rapid transmission of nerve impulses. The gel's scaffolding also supports ...

Brain's white matter -- More 'talkative' than once thought

... of OPCs, moreover, had something in common: no myelin insulation. Normally myelin speeds electrical impulses. Cells lacking the ... to 90 times slower than cells coated with myelin. myelin loss is well known to impair signaling and ...

Researchers discover gene crucial for nerve cell insulation

... has implications for understanding disorders of myelin production. These disorders can affect the ... causes progressive muscle weakening. The myelin sheath that surrounds a nerve cell is analogous ... insight into the origins of disorders affecting myelin production." The study appears in the online ...

Pregnancy hormone key to repairing nerve cell damage

... is directly responsible for the formation of new myelin in the brains and spinal cords of pregnant mice. ... lesions were injected with prolactin, their myelin was also repaired. The research was based on ... where the body's own immune system attacks the myelin surrounding nerves, leading to progressive loss ...

Imaging study links key genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease to myelin breakdown

... and add to a growing body of evidence that myelin breakdown is a key contributor to the onset of ... testing coupled with non-invasive evaluation of myelin breakdown through magnetic resonance imaging ... the first time, compelling genetic evidence that myelin breakdown underlies both the advanced age and the ...

Cell therapy slows progression of an inherited neurological disease; Improves motor skills in mice

... an enzyme and causes loss of the white matter or myelin protecting nerve fibers. Without myelin, nerves ... in Milan, Italy, transplanted cells that produce myelin into the brains of newborn MLD mice. The ... cells also helped lead to production of healthy myelin and improved motor coordination. "There is ...

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls

... team identified a gene called neuregulin as the myelin signal. This signal directs Schwann cells, the ... architects, to build elaborate sheaths of myelin around the axons of nerve cells. Axons are the ... send messages to other cells. The construction of myelin sheath has been called one of the most beautiful ...

Molecular Partners Required For Appropriate Neuronal Gene Repression

... that the tremors were associated with the loss of myelin sheaths on nerve cells, very similar to the myelin loss associated with MS and other neurological ... in regions of the nervous system where myelin had been destroyed. "These investigations ...

OHSU researchers discover potential mechanism to repair brain damage linked to Multiple Sclerosis

... that the tremors were associated with the loss of myelin sheaths on nerve cells, very similar to the myelin loss associated with MS and other neurological ... in regions of the nervous system where myelin had been destroyed. "These investigations ...

Researchers find molecule that inhibits regrowth of spinal nerve cells

... cells, the researchers found that a component of myelin ?a substance that normally insulates and ... blocks the ability of nerve cells to grow through myelin that is released when the spinal cord is damaged. While other myelin components also block nerve growth, a component ...

Combination therapy leads to partial recovery from spinal cord injury in rats

... producing a nerve-insulating substance called myelin can lead to functional improvements in animals ... Previous studies have shown that the loss of myelin around nerve fibers contributes to the impaired ... now it has not been clear whether promoting new myelin growth in the spinal cord can reverse this ...

Stem cell treatment improves mobility after spinal cord injury

... conduction in the central nervous system. When myelin is stripped away through disease or injury, ... In the rats treated seven days after the injury, myelin tissue formed as the oligodendrocyte cells ... in the chronic injury sites, they could not form myelin because the space surrounding neuron cells had ...

New component of the 'brakes' on nerve regeneration found

... growth of the cablelike axons of injured neurons. myelin is the fatty sheath that encases neurons and acts ... response to the "braking" molecules produced by myelin and encouraged neuron growth. "Given the ... than one TNF receptor member may be involved in myelin inhibition adds a new level of complexity to ...

Inhibiting blood to save the brain

... that coats nerve fibers. Past studies showed that the destruction of the myelin sheath is associated with the accumulation of fibrinogen deposits in the ... relapses. It also prevented further microglia activation and damage to myelin in the diseased mice, allowing them to survive with improved motor ...

Selectively blocking inflammatory signals may protect mice from MS

... 15 percent. High interferon levels were also associated with loss of myelin sheaths around nerve connections and unprotected axons in the brain. ... groups are already studying the use of stem cells to repair damaged myelin sheaths, but in the long term those stem cells would be vulnerable to ...

Dendritic cells offer new therapeutic target for drugs to treat MS and other autoimmune disease

... to mimic multiple sclerosis, a disease that causes T-cells to destroy the myelin protein sheath around nerves in the central nervous system. The drug had a ... of them to die. In the mouse model, investigators found that more of the myelin sheath was preserved in mice treated with CEP-701 than those not treated. ...

Investigating 'brain shrinkage' in alcoholics

... of genes that control the manufacture of structural proteins of the myelin was reduced in the alcoholic cases. In addition, the content of these ... was reduced. These changes likely alter the structure and function of the myelin sheath and ultimately the conduction of nerve impulses." - It is ...

Epstein-Barr virus might kick-start multiple sclerosis

... at the right population of T cells." The next step will be to determine how these over-reactive immune cells trigger the destruction of the myelin sheathing that insulates nerve cells. "The broadened response of the T cells could lead them to recognize and attack cells they aren't supposed to, ...

'Smart' genetic therapy helps the body to heal itself

... This disease involves a single gene on the X chromosome (the ALD gene) and is the most common inherited single-gene disease involving damage to the myelin sheath, which insulates nerve cells in the brain. Using a mouse model of the disease, Dr Pujol and colleagues found that a protein called ALDR ...

Stem cells found in adult skin can be transplanted and function in mouse models of disease

... Schwann cells can myelinate axons in culture, in the injured peripheral nerve, and even in the central nervous systems of mice that don't have myelin in their brains. While the research occurred in mouse models, some of their data indicate that human SKPs can do the same thing. "Previous work ...

Discovery of T-cell 'traffic control' boosts new drug promise

... FTY720, significantly reduced the destructive autoimmune process in patients with MS, a debilitating disease in which the body's T cells attack the myelin coating of nerve cells and disrupt their function. Neither Goetzl nor Rosen is involved in the on-going clinical trials of the new drugs and neither ...
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