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Microorganism in Biological News

Evolutionary process more detailed than previously believed, study shows

... a comprehensive understanding of the way a microorganism adapts to its environment as it fights to ... products they produce, Kao said. For example, a microorganism might be genetically enhanced to produce butanol ... be apparent if only the current generation of the microorganism is examined, she said. ...

Proteins strangle cell during division

... financed by NWO, has discovered a new mechanism for cell division in a microorganism found in extremely hot and acidic conditions. The results of the research ... mechanism for cell division was discovered in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. The organism is a ...

New cell division mechanism discovered

... A novel cell division mechanism has been discovered in a microorganism that thrives in hot acid. The finding may also result in insights into key ... division machinery. The discovery was made in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a microorganism belonging to the third domain of life, the Archaea, which originally was ...

Earlier global warming produced a whole new form of life

... unearthed crystalline magnetic fossils of a previously unknown species of microorganism that lived at the boundary of the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, some 55 ... due to increased weathering. The additional iron is required for the microorganism to produce the giant magnetofossils. It is clear that a similar abrupt ...

Can microorganisms be a solution to the world's energy problems?

... the complete genome reveals all the possible biological reactions that a microorganism can carry out. In the past, complete genomes were only obtained for those ... bacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the first bioenergy-relevant microorganism to be sequenced; its genome was released in 1995. This photosynthetic ...

Researchers develop flow sensors based on hair structures of blind cavefish

... their ability to withstand deformation due to impact. It also helps the hairs better withstand the marine environment by resisting corrosion and microorganism growth. Before the research team began synthesizing the gel-like material in the laboratory, they used optical microscopy and confocal ...

Transport behavior of E. coli varies depending on manure source

... water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to several studies looking at the transport behavior of this important microorganism in groundwater environments. Commonly only a single strain of E. coli is used in these studies, yet research has shown that a significant amount of ...

Breaking the barrier: Discovery of anti-resistance factors and novel ocean drugs

... marine environmental issues have led to discoveries of new chemicals as a source for pharmaceuticals. These chemicals function as antibiotics for microorganism providing survival advantages and may be usable in human health care. Research by scientists from NOAA's National Ocean Service, The Medical ...

UD research study to shed light on emerging seaborne pathogen

... A new research study at the University of Delaware seeks to determine why Vibrio parahaemolyticus , a microorganism that lives in seawater and is related to the bacterium that causes cholera, is expanding its range and virulence. V. parahaemolyticus is a ...

Mysterious microbe plays important role in ocean ecology

... An unusual microorganism discovered in the open ocean may force scientists to rethink their understanding of how carbon and nitrogen cycle through ocean ecosystems. A ...

Mysterious microbe may play important role in ocean ecology

... SANTA CRUZ, CA--An unusual microorganism discovered in the open ocean may force scientists to rethink their understanding of how carbon and nitrogen cycle through ocean ecosystems. A ...

Obscure fungus produces diesel fuel components

... production to simple things like octane and heptane," which are two components of diesel fuel, Strobel said. "As is the usual case in biology, if one microorganism can do nifty biochemical tricks, so can others." "Dr. Strobel's research on a microbial route from biomass to hydrocarbon-based fuels is ...

Extreme nature helps scientists design nano materials

... was assessed for its suitability for use as a viral nanobuilding block. SIRV2 is a virus that infects Sulfolobus islandicus, a single-celled microorganism that grows optimally at 80C and at pH 3, and it was also able to withstand other harsh environments created in the laboratory. This shows that the ...

Wielding microbe against microbe, beetle defends its food source

... has grown even more curious. Writing in the Oct. 3 issue of Science , a team of researchers reports that the pine beetle harnesses a second microorganism a bacterium known as an actinomycete to protect its fungus from the mite's competing one. What's more, the bacterium does so by wielding an ...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

... complexes are much more stable at room temperature than human proteins would be. For example, the extremophile Pyrococcus furiosus is an archaeal microorganism that grows happily at the temperature of boiling water; at room temperature, P. furiosus 's proteins and their complexes are so stable they might as ...

Project focuses on production of hydrogen from bacteria and sunlight

... laboratory researchers have used a cyanobacterial system to generate a small amount of hydrogen using only solar energy. To optimize the system, the microorganism must be retooled to put most of the energy it gathers from sunlight into compounds useful for biohydrogen production. The ASU researchers, who ...

New decontamination system kills anthrax rapidly without lingering effects

... kill spores in cracks and crevices. X-ray irradiation is used commercially to sterilize medical products and food by disrupting the ability of a microorganism to reproduce. UV-C also prevents replication, but both types of radiation can penetrate the outer structure of an anthrax spore to destroy the ...

To keep mouths safe, don't just wear a mouthguard; keep it clean

... of bacteria, yeasts and molds that can possibly lead to life and/or health-threatening infectious/inflammatory diseases. Everything that a microorganism needs to survive, including food and water, can be found in a mouthguard, says Thomas Glass, DDS, PhD, lead author of the study. While mouthguards ...

'Hellish' hot springs yield greenhouse gas-eating bug

... a paper published today in the prestigious science journal Nature, U of C biology professor Peter Dunfield and colleagues describe the methane-eating microorganism they found in the geothermal field known as Hells Gate, near the city of Rotorua in New Zealand. It is the hardiest methanotrophic bacterium yet ...

UCSD bioengineering grad student wins leadership award

... him the 2007 Woolley Leadership Award. In particular, Feist tinkers with the metabolisms of strains of E. coli. He is studying how the genomes of microorganism can be systematically modified in order to make them highly efficient factories for the production of all sorts of useful things, including amino ...

Genome sequencing reveals key to viable ethanol production

... identified how genes responsible for biomass breakdown are turned on in a microorganism that produces valuable ethanol from materials like grass and cornstalks. ... in just one step. Wu investigated C. thermocellum, which is a microorganism that has that ability to turn biomass into ethanol in one step, but is not ...

Bacteria control how infectious they become, study finds

... which controls nearly all of a bacterium's gene expression. Without it, a microorganism will die. “We think that NusG regulates nearly every gene in every ... defenses. “E. coli seems to prevent RfaH from acting unless the microorganism absolutely needs it,?Artsimovitch said. That's because bacteria like E. ...

Odd energy mechanism in bacteria analyzed

... at Oregon State University have successfully cultured in a laboratory a microorganism with a gene for an alternate form of photochemistry - an advance that may ultimately help shed light on the ecology of the world's oceans. The microorganism is SAR11, the smallest free living cell known and probably the most ...

A new plant-bacterial symbiotic mechanism promising for crop applications

... of the Nod factor, a compound elaborated by the bacterium which enables the plant to recognize it, by molecular recognition, thereby allowing the microorganism to penetrate inside the plant by the root hairs. The finding raises the question as to what signalling pathway Bradyrhizodium might use to gain ...

Scientists to track impact of Asian dust and pollution on clouds, weather, climate change

... circuitry in a living, intact mammal, the researchers said. The light-producing gene inserted into the mice is taken from the water-dwelling microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which, as a plant, needs sunlight for photosynthesis. Tiny hairlike structures along the outside of the algae propel it ...

Common algae helps illustrate mammalian brain electrical circuitry

... circuitry in a living, intact mammal, the researchers said. The light-producing gene inserted into the mice is taken from the water-dwelling microorganism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which, as a plant, needs sunlight for photosynthesis. Tiny hairlike structures along the outside of the algae propel it ...

Key found to kill cystic fibrosis superbug

... in the May issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, and highlighted in Nature Reviews/Microbiology. B. cenocepacia is a multi-drug resistant microorganism that lives in damp or wet places and causes rot in plants such as onions. While it rarely causes infection in healthy people, it can be fatal for ...

Creating new life forms that may help eradicate cancer affecting women

... Central to this startling discovery is the microbe Listeria monocytogenes, a common bacterium found in milk, cheese and other dairy products. This microorganism apparently aids in fighting cancer by activating the body's own killer (cytotoxic T) cells to elicit a stronger than normal immune response to the ...

'GreeneChip' -- New diagnostic tool that rapidly and accurately identifies multiple pathogens

... laboratory and clinical settings. The GreeneChip system and its application in an outbreak investigation when other methods failed to implicate a microorganism in a fatal hemorrhagic fever case is described in the January 2007 issue of the CDC’s Emerging Infectious Diseases (online December 6 at ...

SARS: No evidence that any of the treatments worked

... Diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of death among children in developing countries. A major study in six countries has found that one microorganism that causes diarrhoea, Shigella, appears to be more common in the poorest communities of Asia than previously thought. Antibiotic-resistant strains ...

UGA scientists unravel 'molecular inch-worm' structure of walking-pneumonia bacterium

... structure, called a "terminal organelle," performs several tasks for this pervasive bacterium and even acts as a "molecular inch-worm," helping the microorganism move. "Mycoplasmas are among the simplest known prokaryotes--only a fraction the size of other health-related bacteria such as E. coli," said ...

DOE JGI finishes 100th microbial genome

... also lives in the rumen of cattle where cellulose and other polysaccharides are digested. "We are delighted that the DOE JGI's 100th genome is a microorganism that one of our UMBI faculty members has been studying to evaluate its potential for bioremediation and as an alternative energy source," said Dr. ...

New potential drug target in tuberculosis

... Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest threats to public health. Every year two million people die of the disease, which is caused by the microorganism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Roughly one third of the world's population is infected and more and more bacterial strains have developed resistance to ...

Earth Rx: A microbial biotechnology prescription for global environmental health

... in the 1940s and 1950s, when microbial cultures were initially sorted by size and shape. Before the modern DNA-based techniques, the function of a microorganism was assigned by selective culturing on agar plates or a nutrient-rich broth and selecting on the basis of metabolic function, which turned out ...

Warming trend may contribute to malaria's rise

... worldwide and has been on the rise in some highland regions and desert fringes. Because the life cycle of the mosquito that transmits malaria and the microorganism that causes the disease are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature, some scientists have speculated that rising average temperatures may be ...

MIT chemist discovers secret behind nature's medicines

... Medical School, Drennan's collaborator and co-author of the study published in the March 16 issue of Nature. Looking at the SyrB2 enzyme that the microorganism Pseudomonas syringae uses to produce the antifungal agent syringomycin, he discovered it had a single iron atom in the protein's active site, the ...

How E. coli bacterium generates simplicity from complexity

... exhibits only six distinct functional states. "This study gives a systems biology view of how a phenotype, or a 'network state' advantageous to a microorganism is comprised of a tiny subset of a much larger universe of possibilities as provided for in the genome," said Palsson. "On a high level we can say ...

Researchers Discover That Microbes Can Produce Miniature Electrical Wires

... Nature , an international science journal. Researchers found that the conductive structures, known as “microbial nanowires,?are produced by a novel microorganism known as Geobacter . The nanowires are incredibly fine, only 3-5 nanometers in width (20,000 times finer than a human hair), but quite durable and ...

Natural Killers Could Lead to New Hepatitis Treatments

... the cell would stop in the vicinity of that signal and provide cytokine signals that would attract other inflammatory cells that destroy the invading microorganism and may also facilitate repair of the damage.?/p> In other experiments, the researchers explored the role of the CXCR6 receptor in the NKT cell's ...
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