Cellulosic biofuel technology will generate low-cost green fuel, says major study
... a comparative analysis of more than a dozen mature
technology biomass refining scenarios, will make ... study of the performance and cost of mature
technologies for producing energy from biomass to ... these issues, the study has focussed on future, mature
technologies rather than today's technology."
Scripps scientists create first crystal structure of an intermediate particle in virus assembly
... we could load drugs, and then seal it in the mature
form to produce a potent delivery system," ... and had "solved" the structure of the virus's mature
outer coat. It is made up of 72 protein rings 12 ... pump it into the particles, they instantly form a mature
coat that engulfs the genes.
The study's first ...
Stowers Institute's Baumann Lab identifies key step in maturation pathway of telomerase
... form that must be processed into a shorter mature
form for telomerase to function.
"We ... ends of many RNAs must be processed to produce a mature
and functional form. Generally, this involves ... removal of nucleotides one at a time until the mature
end has been reached. Some RNAs are cleaved near ...
Astrocytes and synaptic plasticity
... form it is believed to promote LTD, and in its mature
form it prompts LTP. Neurons were thought to ... space. However, a recent study suggests that only mature
BDNF is secreted, pro-BDNF being processed ... they showed that that neurons indeed secrete both mature
and pro-BDNF, but that a large amount of the ...
UCR researchers propose minocycline as a promising drug for patients with Fragile X syndrome
... the synapses and dendritic spines take on a mature
mushroom shape, which make them more efficient. ... MMP levels in the mice, allowing the synapses to mature
and make more efficient contacts between neurons ... with other drugs, such as fenobam, can help mature
the synapses in Fragile X mice," Iryna Ethell ...
NYU scientists identify critical protein complex in formation of cell cilia
... of cilia, which are found on virtually all mature
human cells and are essential to normal cell ... normally promotes primary cilia formation in mature
cells. Dr. Tsang and his colleagues discovered ... to promote cilia formation on the surface of the mature
The team's findings may help to ...
Scientists may have solved an ecological riddle
... advantage over nitrogen-fixing species found in mature
forests at high latitudes, where modern-day ... to the lack of nitrogen-fixing trees in mature
forests at high latitudes.
The second that ... for the persistence of nitrogen-fixing plants in mature
lowland tropical forest and savannas.
St. Jude identifies the specific cell that causes eye cancer, disproving long-held theory
... the scientific principle that fully formed, mature
nerves cannot multiply like young, immature ... ingrained among scientists that differentiated mature
nerves are so elaborate that they cant divide, ... has shown that under certain conditions, a fully mature
and differentiated nerve can undergo cell ...
HIV is a 'double hit' to the brain
... on the surface of the virus not only kills some mature
brain cells, as earlier studies had shown, but it ... kinase or MAPK), leading to the death of certain mature
The researchers now find that gp120 ... same MAPK pathway earlier linked to the death of mature
neurons that lies at the root of the progenitor ...
Plastics chemical retards growth, function of adult reproductive cells
... annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction.
A healthy, mature
follicle, called an antral follicle, includes a single egg cell surrounded ... breast milk, the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and the antral fluid of mature
follicles. A national survey conducted by the federal Centers for Disease ...
Trio of signals converge to induce liver and pancreas cell development in the embryo
... have focused on individual molecular signals that induce these tissues to mature
from a common precursor cell population. In a new study, published this ... converging to direct pancreas and liver progenitor cells to mature
into their final state. They looked at how BMP, TGF-beta, and FGF ...
Hebrew University researchers neutralize tumor growth in embryonic stem cell therapy
... cells are theoretically capable of differentiation to all cells of the mature
human body (and are hence defined as "pluripotent"). This ability, along ... and in early stage embryos, but it is almost completely absent from mature
The survivin gene is especially highly expressed in ...
Stanford scientists turn adult skin cells into muscle and vice versa
... Baxter Laboratory in Genetic Pharmacology at Stanford. "We show here that mature
cells can be directly reprogrammed to generate those necessary cells, ... transforming the cell from one type to the other.
cells will likely complement the use of embryonic stem cells in ...
New insights into progressive hearing loss
... this process.
"No one has seen a disease-causing mutation in the mature
sequence of a microRNA," says Dr Moreno-Pelayo. "This is the first ... in the mouse gene. All three sit in a vital region of seven letters in the mature
sequence of miR96" says Dr Angeles Menca, the Spanish team member who ...
Device protects transplanted pancreatic cells from the immune system
... team of scientists showed that after transplantation, the precursor cells mature
into functional beta cells that are glucose-responsive and control blood ... into immunodeficient mice to study the viability and function of both mature
beta cells and precursor cells inside the device. Itkin-Ansari's team ...
New evidence explains poor infant immune response to certain vaccines, says MU researcher
... that the immune systems of newborns might require some time after birth to mature
to a point where the benefits of vaccines can be fully realized.
Habib ... the foreign microbes. When an antigen from a vaccine enters a body with a mature
immune system, Th-1 cells respond and, after destroying the invader, the ...
Danger lurks underground for oak seedlings
... the resource base of the hardwood industry.
"You see a lot of mature
oaks, but you don't see a lot of oaks in the understory beneath the canopy. If you don't see them there, you won't see mature
oaks in 20 to 30 years," Swihart said. "We are facing a period in our ...
A worm-and-mouse tale: B cells deserve more respect
... T cells can recognize the invader, a crucial step that allows T cells to mature
into useful cells which can then fight an infection efficiently.
In the ... The team also showed that B cells must be present in order for T cells to mature
and operate properly.
"It's long been dogma that B cells need the help ...
CSHL scientists find a new class of small RNAs and define its function
... synthesized in their "short" form. The CSHL team proposes a model in which mature
long RNAs are cleaved followed by a capping of the newly generated long ... of the MYC gene was reduced. PASRs thus seem to modulate the production of mature
The function of non-PASRs is unclear at the moment. ...
Hebrew University scientists reveal mechanism that triggers differentiation of embryo cells
... mechanism whereby embryonic cells stop being flexible and turn into more mature
cells that can develop into specific tissues has been discovered by ... mechanism whereby embryonic cells stop being flexible and turn into more mature
cells that can differentiate into specific tissues. Bergman is the Morley ...
Immune cells reveal fancy footwork
... Suzanne van Helden studied the adhesion and migration of both immature and mature
Dendritic cell as a general
A dendritic cell can ... point the cell undergoes modifications and loses its feet. In this way the mature
dendritic cell can wing its way to the T cells at full speed. Once ...
On the trail of a targeted therapy for blood cancers
... those that determine whether a blood cell will eventually develop into a mature
blood cell, will divide, or will undergo programmed cell death.
"How ... the result can be a lack of a sufficient number of certain types of mature
blood cells causing leukemia, anemia, or bone marrow failure."
MU scientists 'see' how HIV matures into an infection
... at the University of Missouri actually watched the HIV-1 protease mature
from an inactive form into an active infection. This process has never ... from an immature form when the virus is not infective into a mature
form when the virus gains infectivity."
Tang and his colleagues used a ...
September 2008 Biology of Reproduction highlights
... guide experimental analysis of the complex sequelae of events that lead to mature
gonadotropic function in animals.
Jiajun Feng, Mark A. Lawson, and Philippa Melamed.
A Proteomic Comparison of Immature and mature
Gonadotrophs in Mice Reveals Novel Differentially Expressed Nuclear ...
Fish cancer gene linked to pigment pattern that attracts mates
Swordtail fish usually live for 1.5 to 2 years in the wild and sexually mature
at 4.5 months. The ones with the skin cancer gene can develop melanomas at ... cost for males."
But during the few months when the male is sexually mature
and healthy, he also can produce a lot of offspring, he noted.
Patriotic new lilacs introduced
... to Dr. Pooler, "In the Washington, DC, area, 'Old Glory' reaches a mature
size of approximately 12 feet tall by 13 feet wide, and shows good ... flowers and open upright growth habit. In Washington, DC, its mature
size is 8.5 feet tall and 7 feet wide; however, it performs best in ...
UT Southwestern researchers create molecule that nudges nerve stem cells to mature
... In the hippocampus, which is involved with learning and memory, stem cells mature
into full-blown nerve cells at a rate of thousands a day, Dr. Hsieh said.
Scientists know that when a mature
nerve cell sends a chemical signal called a neurotransmitter to a stem ...
Dwarf cloud rat rediscovered after 112 years
... and Research Associate of the Philippine National Museum, in a patch of mature
mossy forest (also called cloud forest) high on Mt. Pulag, at about 2,350 ... that this species probably lives only high in the big canopy trees in mature
mossy forest, at elevations from about 2,200 to 2,700 meters, high in the ...
UCLA stem cell researchers create heart and blood cells from reprogrammed skin cells
... progenitor cells, immature heart cells that can give rise to mature
cardiac cells that perform different functions. The progenitor cells were ... progenitor cells were coaxed into becoming cardiomyoctyes, or mature
heart muscle cells that control heartbeat, endothelial cells, which form ...
Popular apple variety harbors unusual cell growth
... clumps of previously-unreported callus hairs growing in the flesh of mature
apples of Fuji and closely-related varieties, which may have storage ... apple varieties.
The presence of callus hairs filling the airspaces of mature
Fuji could account for the susceptibility of late-harvested apples to ...
Female katydids prefer mates 'cool' in winter and 'hot' in summer
... flexibility. At equal temperatures, summer males, or those that mature
during the summer, produce calls with a higher pulse rate than winter males, or those that mature
in late winter/early spring. The research team tested the katydids ...
Extract of broccoli sprouts may protect against bladder cancer
... urinary excretion.
Other cruciferous vegetables with ITCs include mature
broccoli, cabbage, kale, collard greens and others. Broccoli sprouts have approximately 30 times more ITCs than mature
broccoli, and the sprout extract used by the researchers contains ...
MIT reports new twist in microRNA biology
... each other. One of the two 'arms' of a hairpin is then processed into a mature
The surprising discovery is that for some microRNA genes, ... and both resulting microRNAs fold into hairpins that are processed into mature
microRNAs. In other words, both the tool and its mold appear to be ...
Where have all the lake eels gone? Queen's prof asks
... accumulation of toxic chemicals by the parent eels as they feed, grow, and mature
in polluted freshwater lakes and streams, says Dr. Hodson. Our task will ... Sea near Bermuda. They take years to reach freshwater streams where they mature
to a length of up to a metre before returning to their birth waters to ...
Bodily breakdown explained: How cell differentiation patterns suppress somatic evolution
... controlled by a well-known pattern of ongoing cell differentiation in the mature
tissues of animals, according to a new study published December 14 in PLoS ... proposed that a well-known pattern of ongoing cell differentiation in the mature
tissues of animals functions to suppress somatic evolution, which is ...
Ecologists discover city is 'uber-forest' for big owls
... about 40 nesting sites each year and tracking many sets of young as they mature
through attached radio transmitters. Using radio telemetry, the team has ... to young owls. The ecologists then track the movements of the owls as they mature
and note where they finally settle among the network of well-mapped ...
Human embryonic stem cells remain embryonic because of epigenetic factors
... the activity patterns of genes in both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and mature
human adult cells.
Determining how ES cell genes are modified by these ... immunity, and drug metabolism, are active in highly specialized, mature
Although epigenetic markers attach themselves to the ...
AIDS interferes with stem cells in the brain
... differentiate, adapt, and assimilate into existing neural circuits and mature
with guidance from neurotransmitters, the chemical substances that nerve ... kinase (MAPK), whose activity is known to disrupt the cell cycle. In mature
nerve cells, the Burnham team had previously shown that HIV/gp120 ...
Biologists rediscover endangered frog population
... the frogs were younger than is typical for breeding. Because of the frogs' young age, only a handful of the eggs were fertile. The one frog to mature
is thriving. The next breeding season is expected to be December 2009 to March 2010.
The goal of the breeding program is to return the mountain ...
Skin-like tissue developed from human embryonic stem cells
... to mimic their growth environment in the oral cavity. Within two weeks, tissues developed that were similar in structure to those constructed using mature
cells derived from newborn skin, which are the current gold standard for tissue fabrication.
"These engineered tissues are remarkably similar to ...